Presentation on theme: "1 Rhyme Scheme, Rhythm, and Meter Relax, your ears already know what youre about to learn!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Rhyme Scheme, Rhythm, and Meter Relax, your ears already know what youre about to learn!
2 Rhyme Scheme Students often have trouble with rhyme scheme because of the word scheme. Outside of literature, one meaning of scheme is a plan for cheating or getting something illegally.rhyme Example: The gangs scheme for breaking into the museum included disguises, a getaway car, and Krispy Kreme doughnuts to distract the guard. Scheme, though, has another definition: a system of things or an arrangement. Example: The scheme for the irrigation system included pop-up sprinklers, drip lines, and misters. Its the second definition that applies to rhyme scheme. When you think of rhyme scheme, think rhyme arrangement.
3 Understanding Rhyme Scheme Sonnet 65 by William Shakespeare* 1. Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea, 2. But sad mortality o'er-sways their power, 3. How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea, 4. Whose action is no stronger than a flower? 5. O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out 6. Against the wreckful siege of battering days, 7. When rocks impregnable are not so stout, 8. Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays? 9. O fearful meditation! where, alack, 10. Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid? 11. Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back? 12. Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? 13. O, none, unless this miracle have might, 14. That in black ink my love may still shine bright. Finding the rhyme scheme is easy. Read the poem to the right. Notice the coloring of the words at the ends of the lines. All the words at the ends of the lines that have the same sound are shaded the same color. Now, if you were taking a test and asked to show the rhyme scheme of this sonnet, youd have to get out crayons or highlighters to show rhyme scheme this way. Thats not practical. There is an easier way to show rhyme scheme using the alphabet.
4 Showing Rhyme Scheme Sonnet 65 by William Shakespeare 1. Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea, 2. But sad mortality o'er-sways their power, 3. How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea, 4. Whose action is no stronger than a flower? 5. O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out 6. Against the wreckful siege of battering days, 7. When rocks impregnable are not so stout, 8. Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays? 9. O fearful meditation! where, alack, 10. Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid? 11. Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back? 12. Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? 13. O, none, unless this miracle have might, 14. That in black ink my love may still shine bright. Use the alphabet to show rhyme scheme, instead of using colors. Give every rhyme the same letter. 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. C 8. D 9. E 10. F 11. E 12. F 13. G 14. G If you were given the question, What is the rhyme scheme of this poem and is it regular or irregular? youre answer would look like this: The rhyme scheme of this poem is ABABCDCDEFEFGG. It is a regular rhyme scheme because the first and third line of each quatrain rhyme, as do the second and fourth. The final couplet also rhymes.quatrain couplet You might be saying to yourself, OK, I get rhyme scheme, but what good does it do me? The answer, dear friend, is on the next slide.
5 Whats the Point of Rhyme Scheme? Sonnet 65 by William Shakespeare Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea, But sad mortality o'er-sways their power, How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea, Whose action is no stronger than a flower? O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out Against the wreckful siege of battering days, When rocks impregnable are not so stout, Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays? O fearful meditation! where, alack, Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid? Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back? Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? O, none, unless this miracle have might, That in black ink my love may still shine bright. Think of rhyme scheme as a secret code that will help you unlock the poets meaning. 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. C 8. D 9. E 10. F 11. E 12. F 13. G 14. G Shakespearean sonnets all follow the same form: Each has 14 lines. There are 3 quatrains that express related ideas. There is the ending couplet that sums up the authors point or makes a conclusion. The rhyme scheme is almost always the same. The first quatrain (4 lines) points out that hard objects and even the sea are changed over time. The second quatrain gives more examples, such as sweet summer air, rocks, and steel, that decay over time. In the third quatrain he wonders how beauty can hide from Time. In the couplet, he hopes that this black ink this sonnetwill preserve his partners beauty.
6 Rhythm Part 1 Rhythm is the musical quality of language produced by repetition, especially in poetry (also called verse). Many literary elements create rhythm, including alliteration, assonance, consonance, meter, repetition, and rhyme.repetitionalliterationassonance consonance Meter is a generally regular pattern of stressed ( / ) and unstressed ( ) syllables in poetry or verse. Just as we can measure distance in meters, we can measure the beats in a poem in meter. Lets say that youre good at music and that Im not. I want you to create some music for me with a certain beat. This is the beat that I want: lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB It would get irritating after a while to have to keep saying lub-DUB every time I wanted to ask you to use this rhythm. Theres got to be an easier way. There is! Just go to the next slide.
7 In the beat below, notice that there are five different measures or units to it. lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB Each unit or measure is made of two separate beats. That means that the whole line has 10 total beats (5 x 2 = 10). The first beat is softer than the second beat. I can use markings to show the softer and harder (unaccented and accented) beats. lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB lub-DUB Sometimes, though, Im going to want you to reverse the beat: DUB-lub DUB-lub DUB-lub DUB-lub DUB-lub Still, having to do all those markings would take time. Too bad there isnt an easier way to talk about beats. There is! I could name them. I could name them anything I want. I could name lub-DUB Fred, and DUB-lub Barney. However, if everyone didnt use the same names to represent the same beats, it would get confusing. Well, these beats do have names, as you will see on the next slide. Rhythm Part
8 Iamb is the name of the meter lub-DUB as in the word convince. Notice that each syllable must be marked. Trochee is the name of the meter DUB-lub as in the word borrow. Other types of meter have their own names, too: Anapest is the name of the meter lub-lub-DUB as in the world contradict. Dactyl is the name of the meter DUB-lub-lub as in the word accurate. Spondee is the name of the meter DUB-DUB as in the word seaweed. There are lots of other names for different meters, but thats enough for now. If a poem mostly has iambs, it is called iambic. Have you learned that Shakespeare wrote most of his plays and poems in iambic pentameter? The next slide will tell you what that term means. Rhythm Part 3
9 Iamb is the name of the meter lub-DUB as in the word convince. Notice that each syllable must be marked. Pentameter begins with the prefix pent, which refers to the number 5 (e.g., pentagram and pentagon). The root word meter refers to measurement. Something in iambic pentameter has five measures of lub-DUB. Example: But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? Read the above line aloud and put more stress on the syllables with the accent marks. Rhythm Part 4
10 How does understanding meter help you understand a poem? If the meter is very simple, like that in a childrens book, that will help you know that the message or theme of the poem is probably humorous. A complicated meter might indicate a more complicated theme. Just as a poet might change the rhyme scheme for a specific purpose, a change in meter might indicate that the poet is trying to change the topic or make some other type of transition. Shakespeare usually had his noble characters (e.g., kings, queens, generals, etc.) speak in iambic pentameter, but his lower characters (e.g., servants and peasants) would speak in regular language. If youre wondering why Shakespeare chose to write in iambs, maybe its because the iamb is the rhythm of the heart beat! Rhythm Part 5
Meter Two Syllable Poetic Rhythm Examples Iambic (x / ) Trochaic (/ x) Spondaic (/ /) Three Syllable Poetic Rhythm Examples Anapestic (x x /) Dactylic (/ x x) Poetic Meter Poetic Meter is determined by the number of feet in a line of poetry or the number of occurrences of a given Poetic Rhythm in a line. There are generally between 1 and 8 feet in a line of poetry. Monometer 1 Foot per Line Dimeter 2 Feet per Line Trimeter 3 Feet per Line Tetrameter 4 Feet per Line Pentameter 5 Feet per Line Hexameter 6 Feet per Line Heptameter 7 Feet per Line Octameter 8 Feet per Line 11
12 Definitions. Alliteration Alliteration = the repeating of the same or very similar consonant sounds usually at the beginnings of words that are close together Examples: Betty Botta bought some butter. But, said she, this butters bitter. Allusion Allusion = a reference to a person, place, event, or thing from history, literature, sports, religion, mythology, politics, etc. to make a point Example: I had a terrible game today. I shot like Shaq. This is an allusion because if the listener knows who Shaq is and how poorly he shoots free throws, then the listener will know just how bad the speaker is. Assonance Assonance = the repeating of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds in words that are close together Example: An abbot on an ambling pad…. Consonance Consonance = the repeating of final consonants after different vowel sounds in words that are close together Examples: East and west dug the dog… Couplet Couplet = two adjacent lines of poetry that rhyme Quatrain Quatrain = a group of four lines unified by rhyme scheme Repetition Repetition = the repeating of any words, phrases, or sounds Rhyme End Rhyme = the repeating of similar vowel sounds at the ends of lines Example: I dont think I will ever see A sight as lovely as a tree. Internal Rhyme = the repeating of similar vowel sounds within lines Examples:The cat in the hat sure got fat off mice and rice.
Rhyme Scheme/ Meter From "Intimations of Immortality," by William Wordsworth There WAS..|..a TIME..|..when MEAD..|..ow, GROVE,..|..and STREAM, The EARTH,..|..and EV..|..ry COM..|..mon SIGHT, To ME..|..did SEEM ApPAR..|..elled IN..|..cel EST..|..ial LIGHT, The GLOR..|..y AND..|..the FRESH..|..ness OF..|..a DREAM It IS..|..not NOW..|..as IT..|..hath BEEN..|..of YORE; Turn WHERE..|..so E'ER..|..I MAY, By NIGHT..|..or DAY, The THINGS..|..which I..|..have SEEN..|..I NOW..|..can SEE..|..no MORE 13
Answer: Mixed Meter w/ Iambic Feet From "The Tyger," by William Blake TY ger..|..TY ger..|..BURN ning..|..BRIGHT IN the..|..FOR..ests..|..OF the..|..NIGHT 14
Answer:Trochaic Tetrameter 15 Romeo Juliet Act 2 Scene 2 But, soft! what light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who is already sick and pale with grief, That thou her maid art far more fair than she: Be not her maid, since she is envious; Her vestal livery is but sick and green And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.
Answer: Iambic Pentameter 16 The Phoenix and the Turtle Reason, in itself confounded, Saw division grow together, To themselves yet either neither, Simple were so well compounded.
Answer: Trochaic Tetrameter 17 The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. `'Tis some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door - Only this, and nothing more.'