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Parade through the Plants

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Presentation on theme: "Parade through the Plants"— Presentation transcript:

1 Parade through the Plants
Chapter 29 and 30

2 What is a plant? Multicelled Eukaryotic Autotrophic
Cell wall made of cellulose Additional Characteristics Cuticle Stomata Secondary products (poisons, lignin, sporopollenin) Starch storage

3 The Four Phyla Bryophyta – mosses nonvascular Pterophyta – ferns Vascular Seedless Gymnosperm – conifers “Naked” seeds – not enclosed in an ovary Angiosperm – flowering plants Seeds contained in fruits – a mature ovary Gametophyte generation becomes reduced Sperm goes from flagellated to pollen Vascular plants Origin of the seed Emergence of flowering plants Plant kingdom in monophyletic (derived from a common ancestor)


5 Why are Charophyceans thought to be ancestors of land plants?
1. Homologous Chloroplasts 2. Biochemical similarity 3. Similarity in the mechanisms of mitosis and meiosis 4. Similarity in sperm structure 5. Genetic relationship (rRNA) *** Modern Charophytes are not the ancestors of plants. Evidence shows that the modern Charophytes and plants both evolved from a common ancestor that would be classified as a Charophyte.

6 Adaptations of land plants (aka “embryophytes)
Deal with drying out, UV light and reproduction without water Lignin Sporopollenin Reduced gametophyte Gametangia Apical meristem Seeds Pollen grain Vascular tissue (xylem/phloem)


8 Antheridia Archegonia
One generation is a Gametophyte (n) – multicelled individual made of haploid cells -- produces gametangia by mitosis…gametes within the gametangia are protected by a jacket of “sterile” cells (protects gametes and embryos). Antheridia – male gametangia…produces sperm Archegonia – female gametangia…produces egg One generation is a Sporophyte (2n) – multicelled individual made of diploid cells -- produce haploid “spores” via meiosis -- spores divide via mitosis to produce gametophyte Sterile cells Sterile cells Sperm Egg Antheridia Archegonia

9 Bryophytes Nonvascular Gametophyte is the dominant stage of life cycle
Need water to reproduce Lack lignin-fortified tissue

10 Gametophyte generation is dominant generation
sporophyte is smaller and short lived. Depends on the gametophyte for water and nutrients Diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores via meiosis in a structure called a sporangium

11 Adaptations of Pteridophytes (ferns) not seen in Bryophytes
1. Subterranean root system (Bryophytes had rhizoids) 2. Stems 3. Leaves 4. Vascular Tissue a. Xylem – water, minerals up (dead cells) b. Phloem – sugars, amino acids throughout (living cells) 5. Lignin a. function in mechanical support b. Xylem also has lignified cells Dominant phase of the fern life cycle is the sporophyte phase.

12 How is the reduced gametophyte an adaptation for seed plants?
Spores are retained within the sporangia (not released) Gameotphyte develops within the wall of the spore Exposed to sun’s UV rays (mutations) – diploid can handle mutations more easily than haploids. Sporophyte embryo is dependent on tissues of the maternal gametophyte Why not completely eliminate the gametophyte generation? Cooksonia – oldest fossilized vascular plant preserved down to the tissue – sporophyte was dominant stage and it was branched.

13 What is the significance of the seed
What is the significance of the seed? The seed replaced the spore as the main means of dispersing offspring Multicelled Sporophyte embryo packaged with food and protective coat (can withstand more harsh environments) Can disperse offspring more widely All seed plants are heterosporous Megasporangium is a solid fleshy structure called the nucellus Integuments envelop megasporangium Megaspores Female gametophyte develops within the wall of the megaspore nourished by nucellus. This contains the egg. Ovule

14 What is the advantage of pollen?
Pollen grain = Male gametophyte (became vehicles for sperm cells in seed plants) Microspores develop into pollen grains which mature to be male gametophytes (protected by sporopollenin If it lands close to the ovule, it elongates a tube that discharges one or more sperm into the female gametophyte within the ovule. Mode of travel different than water

15 Four Phyla of Gymnosperms
Phylum Cycadophyta (thrived with the dinosaurs) Phylum Ginkgophyta (Ginko biloba is the only surviving species) Phylum Gnetophyta Phylum Coniferophyta – most common


17 Adaptive value of the flower to plants:
Pollination more specific (rely more on insects and other animals to transfer pollen, not just wind) Fruits (mature ovaries) protect dormant seeds and aid in their dispersal. Role of Ovaries and Ovules – the wall of the ovary thickens when an egg (ovule) is fertilized. This is the “fruit.” The seeds are fertilized ovules. Examples: pea pods, apples, oranges Features that aid in seed dispersal parachutes or propellers (wind) hollow inside (coconut) so it floats Burrs to cling to fur (animal dispersal) Edible (animal disperal)

18 Moss

19 A Fern

20 Gymnosperm

21 Angiosperm

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