Presentation on theme: "Conditional sentences We use conditional sentences to describe how an action or situation affects its result. Second Conditional First Conditional Third."— Presentation transcript:
Conditional sentences We use conditional sentences to describe how an action or situation affects its result. Second Conditional First Conditional Third Conditional 3 Types of Conditionals
Conditional sentences contain an if-clause and a main clause. If I have enough money, conditional clause Examples : I will go to US. main clause I will go to U.S. main clause if I have enough money. conditional clause
Conditional clause, main clause. a.If you help me with the dishes (if + pres), I will help you with your homework. (will + inf) b. If ice is heated, it melts. (Pres. tense). c.If you see Mr. Tung tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative). 1. If + Present Tense will +inf / present tense / imperative
We do not normally use will or would in the conditional clause, only in the main clause. 2. If + Past Tense 3. If + Past Perfect Tense would + infinitive would have + past participle e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you. e.g. If I won the lottery, I would have bought a new house.
Uses of the conditional First conditional a. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible. b. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time. e.g. If the cinema is full, we will go to a restaurant. e.g. If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home and watch TV.
Second conditional a.Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations. b. Time: for present unreal events, we put the verb in the condition clause one step back — into the past: e.g. If I were you, I would tell my father. If I became president, I would change the medical care policy. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable) Compare: If I become president, I will change the medical care policy. (Said by a presidential candidate)
Third conditional a. Nature: unreal b. Time: for past unreal events — things that didn't happen, but we can imagine — we put the verb in the condition clause a further step back — into the past perfect e.g. If I had studied hard for the exam, I would have passed it easily. (But in fact, you did’t study hard.)
For the second conditional, were replaces was If I were a rich man,I would stop working as a clerk. If I were to lose my job, I wouldn't be able to pay for my dream car.
Instead of if not, we can use unless. “ if ” + negative action = “unless” + positive action The meaning of both sentences is the same, but the action after ‘unless’ (close) is the opposite of the action after ‘if’ (don’t close). Compare: Your bird will fly away if you don’t close the window. Your bird will fly away unless you close the window.
Let us take a quiz to see how well you understand the grammar form. Reviewing the online grammar notes at the following URL, under the “ Conditional Verb Form” on the homepage of the Guide to Grammar and Writing. will help you understand the different uses of conditional sentences that, ultimately, will help you to use it.Guide to Grammar and Writing. http://webster.commnet.edu/HP/pages/darling/grammar/conditional.htm