Presentation on theme: "Maryland College and Career Readiness Conference Summer 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Maryland College and Career Readiness Conference Summer 2014
Ask questions and define solutions Develop and use models Plan and carry out investigations Analyze and interpret data Use math and computational thinking Construct explanations and design solutions Engage in argument from evidence Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
Identify the role of explanation and argument in building science literacy in the classroom. Identify the progressions of explanation and argument K-12. Identify the challenges and scaffolding to support student construction of explanations and arguments in the classroom. Review student work to identify levels of student response in constructing explanations and arguments.
In science, the production of knowledge is dependent on a process of reasoning from evidence that requires a scientist to justify a claim about the world. (explanation) In response, other scientists attempt to identify the claim’s weaknesses and limitations to obtain the best possible explanation. (argument)
What do you think will be the hardest about incorporating explanation into your instruction? A.Finding places in the curriculum where it would make sense to include it. B.Developing questions that focus students on using evidence to construct explanations. C.Supporting students in classroom discussion. D.Supporting students in writing explanations or constructing solutions.
Asking students to demonstrate their own understanding of the implications of a scientific ideas by developing their own explanations of phenomena, whether based on observations they have made or models and designs they have developed, engages them in an essential part of the process by which conceptual change can occur. NGSS Appendix F
Writing Task Explain how change to the biological component of the Everglades ecosystem by the Burmese Python affected the populations of native animals. Use evidence from the text to support your answer.
What components you would expect to see in a student response in the writing task for explanation?
“An explanation includes a claim that relates how a variable(s) relates to another variable or set of variables. A claim is often made in response to a question and in the process of answering the question, scientists often design investigations to generate data.” Explanations rely on evidence and provide the “how” or “why” phenomena occur (reasoning). NGSS Appendix F
Claim A conclusion that answers the question about a phenomena or a solution to a problem. A statement of what you understand or a conclusion that you have reached from an investigation(s) or text(s) you have read.
Evidence Scientific data that supports the student’s claim. Must be appropriate and sufficient Can come from an investigation or other source that may include Observations Information found in texts Archived data Information from an expert
Scientific Reasoning Justification that links the claim and evidence. Shows why the data counts as evidence to support the claim, using appropriate scientific principles.
Compare the writing standard for explanation in MCC-R Standards for Literacy in Science/Technical Subjects to the Practice of Explanation in NGSS. What are the implication for explanation in the science classroom when considering MCC_R Standards and NGSS?
Elementary 4: Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. Middle: Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s 4.6 billion-year-old-history. High: Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. NGSS Core Ideas – Performance Expectations
….one challenge across all the science investigations was students’ ability to make sense of data and construct scientific explanations in which they justified their claims. Students were engaged in the investigations, but is was the meaning-making piece after the investigations that was challenging. Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science, McNeill and Krajcik
Using evidence to support their ideas relies on their own opinions has difficulty using sufficient evidence Explaining why the evidence supports their ideas (justification/reasoning) has difficulty articulating this link and/or using scientific principles Considering multiple explanations or solutions has difficulty revising explanations and solutions based on evidence or scientific knowledge.
Scaffold the Process Explicitly define the elements of the C-E-R Framework Provide an organizer Connect to everyday examples Provide opportunities for oral discourse of claim, evidence and reasoning before writing Use teacher questioning or feedback during oral presentation Model and critique examples Engage students in peer critique Provide students with feedback
Writing Task: Explain how change to the biological component of the Everglades ecosystem by the Burmese Python affected populations. Use evidence from the text to support your answer. Practices: Construct explanations
As students use models to analyze and interpret data, organizers can be used to compile information to be used for explanation.
Discuss the predator-prey relationship below with your group.
Supports understanding of scientific content Supports 21 st Century skills Requires evidence to support claims Involves logical reasoning Models key practices of scientists and engineer s Supports the understanding of the Nature of Science Taking Science to School Supporting Grades 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanation.
What do you think will be the most challenging about incorporating argumentation into your instruction? A.Students use evidence to support argument. B.Students providing alternative explanations. C.Students being respectful of other students’ ideas. D.Supporting student development of writing arguments.
An argument is the process of defending those explanations by carefully ruling out other alternative explanations and building the case that the data collected is sufficient and appropriate to serve as evidence.
In science, the production of knowledge is dependent on a process of reasoning from evidence that requires a scientist to justify a claim about the world. In response, other scientists attempt to identify the claim’s weakness and limitations to obtain the best possible explanation.
Scientists engage in argument to defend claims using evidence and reasoning defend models using evidence critique the claims of other scientists.
Explanation Make sense of how or why a phenomenon occurred. Explain why the biodiversity decreased. Explain the design process used to test a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on biodiversity. Argument Defend or support knowledge claims through evidence and reasoning Argue for your explanation for why the biodiversity decreased. Argue for your experimental design to study the patterns in biodiversity.
Evaluate examples of student work using the Argument Framework. Identify the elements of the argument. Claims Evidence Counterclaims Rebuttal
Middle School Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the motion energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object. (MS-PS3-5) High School Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth (HS-ESS2-7
Construct a scientific argument showing how data support a claim. Identify possible weaknesses in scientific arguments, appropriate to the students’ level of knowledge, and discuss them using reasoning and evidence. Identify flaws in their own arguments and modify and improve them in response to criticism. Recognize the major features of scientific arguments. Read media reports of science or technology in a critical manner so as to identify their strengths and weaknesses.
Using evidence to support ideas Relies on own opinion Difficulty using sufficient or appropriate evidence Explaining why their evidence supports their ideas (Reasoning) Can have difficulty articulating link between evidence and claim Can have difficulty articulating link between ideas, evidence and scientific principles Considering alternative claims Can focus on one idea Ownership of own idea Taking into consideration viewpoints of others
Build a strong foundation for explanation first (Claim, Evidence, Reasoning) Make the Argument Framework explicit Provide examples and models Include debate or oral discourse (thinking made visible) before independent writing. Provide various scaffolds Provide opportunities to critique arguments of others Provide feedback (teacher and peer critique) for rewrite
Supports student’s understanding of disciplinary core ideas of science and cross cutting themes. Using evidence to construct and critique explanations/ arguments is a 21 st century skill that can be used across disciplines and outside of the school setting. Promotes literacy development. Helps students build an understanding of the nature of science. Allows students to critically examine claims made in the media.
Write 3 – 5 “power words” to summarize your understanding of Explanation Argument
Identified the role of explanation and argument in building science literacy in the classroom. Discussed the progressions of explanation and arguments K-12. Identified the challenges and scaffolding to support student construction of explanations and arguments in the classroom. Reviewed student work to identify levels of student response in constructing explanations and arguments.