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Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Gender Based Violence Developing Gender Statistics

2 Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of violence, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.

3 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Marital rape Battering Sexual abuse of female children Dowry-related violence A broad range of acts occurring in the family:

4 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe My husband slaps me, has sex with me against my will and I have to conform. Before being interviewed I didn't really think about this. I thought this is only natural. This is the way a husband behaves. Woman interviewed in Bangladesh during the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic V iolence Against Women

5 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe So I take a blanket and I spend the night with my children out in the cold because he is hitting me too much. I have to take the kids to stop him hitting them too. I would go out in the fields and sleep there all night. I have done that more than ten times… Woman interviewed in Peru during the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic V iolence Against Women

6 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Rape Sexual Abuse Sexual Harrassment Trafficking in Women Forced Prostitution

7 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Physical, sexual and psychological violence condoned by the state.

8 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Violence Against Women a significant cost to the resources of the wider society a violation of womens human rights a cause and consequence of gender inequality a major cause of womens ill health a detriment to their well-being often a crime

9 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Need for Policies Economic well being Family Health Crime Education

10 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Source: Report on violence and abuses against women inside and outside the household year 2006, ISTAT Percentage of women who suffered physical and sexual violence, Italy 2006 FACTS - ITALY 2006: 6,743,000 women have suffered physical or sexual violence In the last 12 months 1,150,000 women have experienced violence This one out of 20 women. The highest prevalence rates are among the youngest. 3,5% of women experienced sexual violence and 2.7% experienced physical violence 74,000 women suffered rape or attempted rape only in the last 12 months. Women' s Safety Survey, Istat 2006

11 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Malawi South Africa Zambia Colombia Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Canada USA Australia Cambodia China India Philippines Republic of Korea Samoa Albania Azerbaijan Finland France Georgia Germany Italy Lithuania Egypt Norway Republic of Moldova Romania Sweden Switzerland Ukraine UK Haiti Mexico Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Puerto-Rico Uruguay Countries with national-level data available for last 15 years on physical assaults on women by a male partner - 37 countries Source: "In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women", Report of the Secretary-General, 2006

12 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Police Statistics Types of crimes (VAW), information on victims and offenders and their relationship Only reported crimes Only physical and sexual Homicide Statistics Information on victims and offenders and their relationship Only physical and sexual Court statistics Cases of VAW processed, conviction, Only reported crimes Only physical and sexual How can VAW be measured? - Traditional official sources

13 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Statistics based on reported cases heavily underestimate the level of violence. Only about one in three women assaulted by partners report an assault to police.* * 2004 Canadian General Survey on Victimisation

14 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe If I protest Ill be marked in the society and then my daughter wouldnt be able to get married… If I voice my protest the community will blame me for not bearing it in silence. This helplessness is a torture in itself. Woman, 43 years old, interviewed in Bangladesh during the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence Against Women.

15 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Surveys are a better tool to collect information on violence against women. Allow women to ask about their experiences on violence without the need to officially report it

16 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

17 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

18 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Good Questionnaire Design Carefully choose wording and the number of questions Ask about experiences with violence in behavioural terms Provide opportunities for disclosure Avoid single questions Image:

19 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Good Questionnaire Design During the past five years, has your partner: 1. threatened you with his/her fist or anything else that could have hurt you? 2. thrown anything at you that could have hurt you? 3. pushed, grabbed or shoved you in a way that could have hurt you? 4. slapped you? 5. kicked, bitten, or hit you with his/her fist? 6. hit you with something that could have hurt you? 7. beaten you? 8. choked you? 9. used or threatened to use a gun or knife on you? 10. forced you into any unwanted sexual activity by threatening you, holding you down, or hurting you in some way? Source: Measuring VAW: Statistical Trends 2006, Statistics Canada

20 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

21 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Partner violence against women according to different definitions derived from behavioural actions in Spain, 2002 TOTAL13.1 Physical violence2 Sexual violence3.9 Psychological violence: control3 Psychological violence: yelling7.6 Source: G. Meil, Elaboration of the Microdata Provided by the Instituto de la Mujer, Survey of Domestic Violence against Women, Madrid, 2002

22 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Source: Health, Well-Being and Personal Safety of Women in Germany, A Representative Study of Violence against Women in Germany, Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Germany, 2004 Perpetrators of physical violence against women, Germany, 2004 Partners, former partners, lovers 50.2 Acquaintances from work, training or school 15.8 Casual acquaintances 10.8 Unknown persons 19.5 Professional caregivers, professional helpers, others 3.4 Friends, acquaintances, neighbours 11.8 Family members 30.1

23 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Impacts and consequences of spousal assaults on women, Canada, 2004 Refers to violence over the previous five years. Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey on Victimization 2004 Impacts and consequences of spousal assaults on women, Canada, 2004

24 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe I suffered a long time and swallowed my pain. That is why I am constantly visiting doctors and using medicines. No one should have to do this. Woman interviewed in Serbia & Montenegro during the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence Against Women

25 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe I dont feel well and I just cry. There are times that I want to be dead. I even thought of killing myself or poisoning myself and my kids, because I think if I have suffered that much, how much would my kids suffer if I am no longer there… Woman interviewed in Peru during the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence Against Women

26 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

27 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

28 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Ad-Hoc modules for ongoing surveys: A full instrument has to be added to the on-going survey and not only a limited number of questions The safety of women is not to be compromised The on-going survey should deal with similar topics Percentages of all women and currently married women (age 15-49) reporting violence (Source: Demographic and Health surveys, Kishor, 2004) Kenya Zambia -4253Peru Nicaragua India Haiti Egypt Dom. Rep Colombia Cambodia Past yearEver Spousal violence By anyone everCountry

29 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Increased Attention and Commitment to tackle Gender Violence Standard indicators to measure violence against women Encourage national statistical offices to have a more active role in collecting and disseminating statistics in this area.

30 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

31 Developing Gender Statistics Gender Based Violence © 2007 The World Bank Group, UNECE, All Rights reserved United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Edited by: United Nations Economic Commission for Europe - Statistics Division World Bank Institute - Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Division Concept & Production: World Bank Institute - Multimedia Center Photo Credits: Dr. Henrica A.F.M. Jansen UNIFEM DAW UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UNAIDS UNFPA RAWA IndiaCLEN


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