Presentation on theme: "Ethnic Minorities and CDD Designing CDD programs so that they benefit ethnic minority populations."— Presentation transcript:
Ethnic Minorities and CDD Designing CDD programs so that they benefit ethnic minority populations
Objective of Study Gain a better understanding of what design features World Bank projects have used in order to ensure that ethnic minority populations are empowered and able to benefit from programs using a demand-driven approach. Provide practical advice to TTLs interested in designing their projects so that they serve ethnic minorities.
Link to Other Research A similar analysis is underway of demand-driven programs that serve Disabled People and War- affected Populations (Ex-combatants and internally displaced people and refugees returning to their place of origin) Each of these three groups have special needs and are at risk of being marginalized in a demand- driven environment unless special features are incorporated into the CDD design that ensures their inclusion.
Dates of 2 Other BBLs CDD and Disabled People – May 18 CDD and War-affected Populations – June 1
Methodology Used Search of World Bank Project Database for projects that target ethnic minorities and include one or more CDD components. Desk review of PADs of 10 relelvant project and ICRs and Evaluations, when available. Write-up on key findings on cross-cutting themes
Cross-cutting Themes Vulnerabilities of Targeted Group Types of Interventions Targeting Strategies Used Division of Labor (Central Government, Local Government, NGOs, Associations, and CBOs) Empowerment
Projects Serving Indigenous Groups The World Bank database captures projects that serve beneficiaries that fit the Banks definition of indigenous as outlined below. The World Bank defined the term Indigenous Peoples in 1982 as tribal groups who lived in isolation and were at risk of acculturation. In 1987 the definition of was revised to groups with socio-cultural systems, modes of production, and forms of ecological adaptation, different from those of the dominant group.
Overview of Projects Serving Indigenous since 1984 Total of 116 projects Geographic Breakdown: –Latin America 70% –Asia – 24% –Africa – 4% –Europe – 1% –Middle East – 1%
Overview of Projects Serving Indigenous (…contd) Sector Breakdown –Natural Resource Management – 28% –Education – 14% –Rural Development 11% –Social Funds 7% –Other Social Protection – 4%
Growth in # Projects Serving Indigenous Populations
Projects serving Other Ethnic Groups The Banks Database is less successful in capturing ethnic groups that do not fit into the indigenous definition. For this reason, only one project serving non-indigenous ethnic groups was included in the sample – the Bulgarian Social Fund, which serves the ethnic Turk and Roma peoples was included.
Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Served Geographically concentrated Remote rural communities far from municipal capitals Poverty Rates well above average, for example: –Ecuador: 86% indigenous <poverty line vs. 56% for overall populations –Bulgaria: Roma ten times more likely to be poor than the ethnic Bulgarians.
Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Served Higher rates of illiteracy, particularly among women Lower school enrollment High percent of low birth-weight children Lack of secure access to arable land and water resources
Types of Interventions – Community Level Socio-economic infrastructure Social assistance projects Productive activities (agriculture, micro- enterprise, etc.) Capacity-building for community-level associations (needs assessment, project identification, planning, implementation and management.)
Types of Interventions – Regional and Municipal Levels Rural road and water projects serving multiple municipalities or districts (e.g. Vietnam) Strategic planning for ethnic group spread geographically across several municipalities and departments (Honduras and Ecuador) Capacity building for local government to be more responsive to demand from minority communities (Chattisgarh, India)
Types of Interventions – National Level Changing the constitution and making laws protecting indigenous rights to ancestral resources such as land, water, and cultural heritage sites (Ecuador, Philippines, Peru). Legal assistance to indigenous to establish title to land. Empowerment of ethnic group through capacity building of ethnic association (Ecuador, Peru, and early Honduras).
Targeting Strategies Used Geographic targeting when ethnic group is geographically concentrated. (Mexico) Best when census data is broken down by ethnic group. Allocate funds accordingly. Poverty targeting is effective in serving ethnic groups since they tend to experience high levels of poverty and extreme poverty. Ideal if poverty data is broken down by ethnic group. (Bulgaria) If no data will need to use proxies for poverty.
Targeting Strategies Used – Proxy Indicators Prioritize small communities (Mexico – communities with less than 5,000) Prioritize remote communities (Vietnam and Maharasthtra – India) Prioritize communities lacking basic socio- economic infrastructure by limiting sub-project menu. Prioritize communities using indicators such as literacy rates, school enrollment rates, and average distance to potable water supply.
Targeting Strategies Used Working through indigenous associations to identify beneficiary communities (Honduras) Using tailored local language promotional campaign targeting minority communities (Chhattisgarh, India, the Philippines, Vietnam)
Targeting Strategies Used Capacity-building for minority communities to enhance their competitiveness in accessing municipal funding. (Honduras, Philippines) Independent Verification and Grievance Mechanisms (Mexico – Federal verification; Vietnam – Special panel reviews commune plans; Philippines – grievance mechanism)
Division of Labor – Community- based Organizations (CBOs) Needs assessment, project identification and prioritization. Sub-project planning. Sub-project implementation (procurement, financial management, supervision) In-kind and cash contributions. Operation and maintenance of sub-project.
Links with Local Government By-pass local government (Ecuador and Peru and Honduras – Early phase) Prepare ethnic communities to compete for local government funds (Honduras – New Phase; Nicaragua) Special rules for ethnic communities in competing for local government funding (e.g. India – clusters of 30 – 50 tribal households may compete for funds separate from village they belong to.) Minimal changes to local planning process to accommodate ethnic minority communities (Vietnam)
Role of Central Government Minimal for cases where project targets a specific state or region (India and Philippines) Oversight role to ensure that funds are distributed to ethnic minority communities with rewards for compliance (Mexico) Establish constitutional protection for ethnic minorities (Ecuador, Philippines, Peru) Create national level government institution to orient, coordinate, and articulate policies and multi-sector actions for the development of indigenous minorities (CODENPE and CODAE in Ecuador; SETAI in Peru).
Role of Central Government Create a national-level Consultative or Advisory Committee for project, which often includes representatives of the main ethnic associations (e.g. Multi-sectoral Commission for Indigenous Affairs (CAI) in Peru; Committee of Ethnic Minorities and Mountainous Areas in Vietnam).
Role of NGOs Most common role – supplier of training and technical assistance to ethnic communities and, in some cases, to ethnic associations and municipalities. NGOs as intermediaries between government and community organizations (Nicaragua) NGOs as facilitators or stewards of the rules of the game – they disseminate the rules of the game (India) NGOs assist with monitoring and evaluation (Vietnam)
Role of Minority Associations Participate in project Advisory Committee (Majority of Projects) Assist with targeting and project promotion (Honduras) Contracted to assist communities to conduct participatory needs assessment and planning process. Serve as intermediaries between the program and the communities. Project builds capacity of ethnic association (Ecuador, Peru, and early phase Honduras)
Role of Minority Associations – (…continued) Monitor project implementation at the community level (Peru and Honduras) Develop strategic plans for ethnic group (Honduras)
How do these projects Empower Ethnic Minority Communities? Secures their access to key resources – land and water. Gives them access to community assets – schools, health posts, water points – that will improve their future prospects. Gives them access to income generating opportunities. Builds their capacity to compete for municipal level funding. In a minority of cases, builds the capacity of an ethnic association (politically sensitive issue)
Recommendations Bank database should capture all projects that attempt to address special needs of ethnic minorities, not just those that fit the definition of indigenous. Targeting strategies should ideally be simple, passive, and low-cost. If geographic and poverty data are available and broken down by ethnic group, use it for targeting purposes. If not, add a few more features, such as – tailored promotional strategy; use poverty proxies.
Recommendations – (…continued) Avoid targeting long-term – ultimate goal should to be assist ethnic minority communities to compete on a level playing field for available resources. Long- term targeting may result in marginalization. Build bridges to local government, ultimately, they will control the funds as decentralization trend proceeds. Involve ethnic associations in project design and oversight. Recognize that building the capacity of ethnic associations could have political overtones.