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World Bank Seminar Series: Global Issues Facing Humanity Diseases without borders PART I.

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Presentation on theme: "World Bank Seminar Series: Global Issues Facing Humanity Diseases without borders PART I."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Bank Seminar Series: Global Issues Facing Humanity Diseases without borders PART I

2 Slide 1: Presentation Summary Profile of Major Communicable Diseases Profile of Major Communicable Diseases Factors Driving the Spread of Communicable Diseases Factors Driving the Spread of Communicable Diseases What makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? What makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue?

3 Slide 2: Profile of Communicable Diseases Steady Progress during the 20 th Century in controlling communicable diseases Immunization Immunization Eradication of smallpox, containment of polio Eradication of smallpox, containment of polio Widespread use of drugs including antibiotics Widespread use of drugs including antibiotics Impressive advances in medicine Impressive advances in medicine

4 Slide 3: Yet infectious diseases remain a leading cause of death worldwide Annually, more than 10 million deaths worldwide are caused by communicable diseases Annually, more than 10 million deaths worldwide are caused by communicable diseases More than half of all deaths due to communicable diseases are attributed to HIV/AIDS,TB and malaria More than half of all deaths due to communicable diseases are attributed to HIV/AIDS,TB and malaria

5 Slide 4: Magnitude of the Problem HIV has infected more than 60 million people worldwide, more than 20 million of whom have died HIV has infected more than 60 million people worldwide, more than 20 million of whom have died TB causes 8.8 million new infections each year and is responsible for an annual mortality of 1.7 million TB causes 8.8 million new infections each year and is responsible for an annual mortality of 1.7 million HIV-TB co-infection: about a third of HIV positive people also suffer from TB HIV-TB co-infection: about a third of HIV positive people also suffer from TB Malaria endemic areas cover a third of the worlds population and the estimated annual mortality is 1.2 million Malaria endemic areas cover a third of the worlds population and the estimated annual mortality is 1.2 million

6 Slide 5: Emerging Infectious Diseases Zoonotics (diseases caused by infectious agents that can be transmitted between animals and humans) Zoonotics (diseases caused by infectious agents that can be transmitted between animals and humans) Characteristics include mutation during transmission, leading to highly contagious (superspreader) or deadly forms Characteristics include mutation during transmission, leading to highly contagious (superspreader) or deadly forms Examples - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Avian Flu, Ebola, Lyme Disease Examples - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Avian Flu, Ebola, Lyme Disease

7 Slide 6: Factors driving the spread of communicable diseases Changes in human demographics and behavior Changes in human demographics and behavior Economic development Economic development Dramatic increase in volume of international travel and commerce – people, animals, food, commodities Dramatic increase in volume of international travel and commerce – people, animals, food, commodities Microbial adaptation and change Microbial adaptation and change Breakdown of public health capacity at all levels Breakdown of public health capacity at all levels (Source: Institute of Medicine)

8 Slide 7: What Makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? First, the sheer global magnitude of the problem - a substantial threat to people everywhere - an obstacle to a nations social and economic development - worst affected include the poorest households further impoverish the already poor – loss of productivity, treatment costs The poor have a greater share of the burden of disease and have less access to affordable and quality care

9 Slide 8: What Makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? Slide 8: What Makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? Second, diseases do not recognize international boundaries or sovereign states Second, diseases do not recognize international boundaries or sovereign states Diseases can emerge anywhere on the globe and spread quickly to other regions Diseases can emerge anywhere on the globe and spread quickly to other regions Examples: West Nile virus, SARS, Avian Flu Examples: West Nile virus, SARS, Avian Flu

10 Slide 9: Transmission Routes of SARS virus during the 2003 outbreak

11 Slide 10: Avian Flu- Bird Migratory Pattern

12 Slide 11: What makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? Third, globalization has resulted in a close link between international economics and public health. Local outbreaks have global implications because of disruption of travel and trade Local outbreaks have global implications because of disruption of travel and trade - Examples, outbreak of plague in India - Examples, outbreak of plague in India - Impact of SARS on East Asian economies - Impact of SARS on East Asian economies

13 Slide 12: What makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? Fourth, communicable diseases affect other global issues discussed in this seminar series: Climate change Climate change Malnutrition Malnutrition Biodiversity Biodiversity Access to safe water Access to safe water Migration Migration

14 Slide 13: What makes Communicable Diseases a Global Issue? Finally, global action is needed to: Identify, control and prevent diseases Identify, control and prevent diseases Obtain ade quate and predictable funding for the above Obtain ade quate and predictable funding for the above promote awareness and changes in behavior and promote awareness and changes in behavior and accrue global benefits from R&D accrue global benefits from R&D

15 World Bank Seminar Series: Global Issues Facing Humanity Diseases without borders PART II

16 Slide 14: Presentation Summary International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders Key Elements of a Global Disease Response Plan Key Elements of a Global Disease Response Plan The Role of the World Bank The Role of the World Bank Conclusion Conclusion

17 Slide 15: International Cooperation Against Diseases Without Borders International Sanitary Regulations (1851) following cholera epidemic in Europe International Sanitary Regulations (1851) following cholera epidemic in Europe WHO International Sanitary Regulations (1951) WHO International Sanitary Regulations (1951) WHO International Health Regulations (1969) WHO International Health Regulations (1969) Revised WHO International Health Regulations (2005) Revised WHO International Health Regulations (2005)

18 Slide 16: International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders Various forms of Voluntary cooperation amound international agencies Roll Back Malaria Roll Back Malaria Stop TB Campaign Stop TB Campaign UN Millennium Development Goals UN Millennium Development Goals

19 Slide 17: International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders Slide 17: International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders Millennium Development Goal # 6 Millennium Development Goal # 6 Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

20 Slide 18: International Cooperation Against Diseases without Borders An estimated 70 other Global Health Initiatives An estimated 70 other Global Health Initiatives Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization (GAVI) Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization (GAVI) Multi Country AIDS Program for Africa (MAPS) Multi Country AIDS Program for Africa (MAPS) US Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief US Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief

21 Slide 19: Key Elements of a Global Disease Response Plan WHO and the Center for Diseases Control (CDC) plans for global diseases outbreaks Outbreak Management Outbreak Management Disease Surveillance Disease Surveillance National and Local Public Health Services National and Local Public Health Services Health Workforce Health Workforce Research and Development Research and Development International Legal and Regulatory Framework International Legal and Regulatory Framework Disease Prevention and Control Disease Prevention and Control

22 Slide 20: The Role of the World Bank The Banks first Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) strategy in 1997, currently under revision. The Banks first Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) strategy in 1997, currently under revision. Typical activities include: Typical activities include: Health policy reform Health policy reform Strengthening of primary health care systems Strengthening of primary health care systems Health workforce development Health workforce development Strengthening surveillance systems Strengthening surveillance systems Pharmaceutical procurement and planning Pharmaceutical procurement and planning

23 Slide 21: The Role of the World Bank The World Bank is one of the largest financiers of disease control programs About $150 million since 2000 in the fight against malaria About $150 million since 2000 in the fight against malaria $560 million for TB prevention and control in current portfolio in 30 countries $560 million for TB prevention and control in current portfolio in 30 countries $2.5 billion committed for 106 projects for HIV/AIDS projects or components for HIV prevention in health, education, transport projects $2.5 billion committed for 106 projects for HIV/AIDS projects or components for HIV prevention in health, education, transport projects

24 Strong Partnerships now central to Bank work Commitment to MDGs Commitment to MDGs Partnership for Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Partnership for Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health Safe Injection Global Network Safe Injection Global Network Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition Slide 22:The Role of the World Bank

25 Slide 23: Role of the World Bank Different instruments available to finance initiatives Investment loans Investment loans Adjustment (policy reform) loans Adjustment (policy reform) loans Grants for pilot or research activities Grants for pilot or research activities Poverty Reduction Strategy Credits Poverty Reduction Strategy Credits Avian Flu Fund Avian Flu Fund

26 Slide 24: The Role of the World Bank Investments in health through other sectors or cross-cutting themes Infrastructure projects Infrastructure projects Slum upgrading Slum upgrading Electrification Electrification Governance Governance Human rights Human rights

27 Slide 25: The Role of the World Bank Bank evaluations of its health projects/portfolio Bank support has been successful in: - Expanding health care coverage - Training health personnel - Supplying basic inputs - Influencing health policy The Bank has been less successful in: - Sustained, systemic service quality improvement - Institutional change

28 Slide 26: Conclusion High risk that a major pandemic will occur sometime during the 21 st century High risk that a major pandemic will occur sometime during the 21 st century Factors that contribute to spread of diseases will continue to be at work Factors that contribute to spread of diseases will continue to be at work If we truly want to end the threat of infectious diseases, we must..inject into global gatherings the urgency of working together to defeat infectious diseases;.. Continue to invest in vaccine research and development.. Work to ensure that drugs, vaccines and tests are available during an emergency.. Pool our greatest resources – our imagination and intellect – to fight this collective fight If we truly want to end the threat of infectious diseases, we must..inject into global gatherings the urgency of working together to defeat infectious diseases;.. Continue to invest in vaccine research and development.. Work to ensure that drugs, vaccines and tests are available during an emergency.. Pool our greatest resources – our imagination and intellect – to fight this collective fight - James Hughes, Director, CDC - James Hughes, Director, CDC


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