Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING POVERTY IMPACTS & INCOME- GENERATION FROM SOLAR SYSTEMS IN UGANDA: VILLAGE BANKS, SOLAR COMPANIES, & A DELIBERATE GENDER STRATEGY By May Sengendo."— Presentation transcript:
IMPROVING POVERTY IMPACTS & INCOME- GENERATION FROM SOLAR SYSTEMS IN UGANDA: VILLAGE BANKS, SOLAR COMPANIES, & A DELIBERATE GENDER STRATEGY By May Sengendo East African Energy Technology Development Network (EAETDN) A case study for the Gender and Energy Session at the World Bank Energy Week 2006 7 th March 2006
GENDER & ENERGY NEXUS IN UGANDA Existence of energy, gender & poverty reduction policy framework –National Gender Policy, Poverty Eradication Action Plan & Energy policy available –division of labour & roles between women & men in household & industrial related activities as key priority areas –Address differences in access to resources (such as energy services) for production and adding value to marketing of goods. Availability of gender & energy statistics to facilitate policy/project planning Census: population of 52 % women(2002); -Energy balance for 2003: supply pattern made up of mostly biomass (92.9%); electricity (1.1%); with national grid electrification rate of 4.1 %.
GENDER & ENERGY NEXUS & PROJECT SITE –Demand side: residential consuming 71.9% of which 39.7% is electricity; commercial 13.6, with 14.4 electricity; industrial 9.8% with 45.9 electricity; transport 4.6% with 0.0% electricity. –As realized from 5,376,088 households (link with census data can provide idea about how many are female / male headed households who makes decisions?) - Participatory Poverty Assessments show location specific data where energy poverty is a problem, with disproportionate effect on women - thus included as a key issue for current rural electrification plan.
PROBLEM WITH ENERGY POLICY PLANNING Linking needs of household (females & males)& institutional level (energy service providers & public regulatory actors) to reveal gender & energy concerns within energy policy planning: -If affordability & accessibility of energy services to poor women &men is the problem, can energy financing be an effective strategy? - How can financial institutions, solar companies & government regulatory system take into consideration differences in tasks done by energy users, their needs & access to energy services for income generation?
THE PHOTOVOLTAIC PROJECT Uganda Photovoltaic Pilot project for Rural Electrification (UPPPRE) dealt with energy-poverty thru formulating strategies to address absence of sufficient choices & ways of accessing: -affordable, safe, environmentally suitable & reliable energy services in ways that enable sustainable economic devt. Replication was done in Bufumira island of lake Victoria, funded by UNDP/GEF/SGP
PROJECT GOAL: UPPPRE Implemented between 1998 & 2001, financing from GEF, UNDP & Government of Uganda. To demonstrate & establish financial & institutional mechanisms for providing solar PV based electrical services on commercial basis to household, business & communities in rural & peri urban areas of Uganda; For areas projected not to have access to grid-based electricity in the foreseeable future; where energy users could have ability & willingness to pay the unsubsidized cost of the solar PV systems. To provide electricity to at least 2,000 households & four (4) communities in those areas that were not yet served by the grid.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES: WAS GENDER INCLUDED? i.Energy demand i.Energy demand: increase use of PV technologies to provide electricity in rural areas through private sector energy service providers; ii.Effective supply: develop strategies to overcome the policy, technical, financial, social & institutional constraints to the expansion of markets for PV systems on a demand-driven, full cost-recovery basis; iii.Capacity for energy service providers & of the public sector to promote, monitor & provide the policy framework for the expanded use of PV systems iii.Capacity for energy service providers: Strengthen capacity of private sector (solar companies) to design, install, service on a commercial basis; & of the public sector to promote, monitor & provide the policy framework for the expanded use of PV systems;
GENDER INCLUDED IN ENERGY USERS WITHIN PROJECT OBJECTIVES: NOT ENOUGH IvSubscribe to global efforts to combat the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere & contribute to the curbing of greenhouse gas emissions from the use of kerosene & diesel generators; VDevelop mechanisms to market different sizes of PV systems to different social-economic categories of households (energy end-users), and custom-designed systems for economically productive applications which generate employment. Gender mainstreaming in project activities emphasized in replication of the project in Lake Victoria Islands *** Gender mainstreaming in project activities emphasized in replication of the project in Lake Victoria Islands
A DELIBERATE GENDER STRATEGY DEVELOPED Formulated gender planning guidelines at project & institutional level for participation, decision making, resource access Gender focused rules formulated for financial institutions (micro- finance & village banks/co-operatives) to ensure targeting of women & marginalised groups (poor men, disabled etc) when dealing with enabling access to credit & skills training in installation & maintenance work.Gender focused rules formulated for financial institutions (micro- finance & village banks/co-operatives) to ensure targeting of women & marginalised groups (poor men, disabled etc) when dealing with enabling access to credit & skills training in installation & maintenance work. Formulated & used gender responsive monitoring indicators to consider differential impacts on women & men in implementation process & while examining project outcomes Designed gender sensitive communication & awareness information materials on value of womens & mens labour force participation in income earning activities (due to having access to energy services through solar PV). Case studies on benefits for womens entry into income earning activities at home & other enterprises; changes in relations of women & men; participation in decision making
Increasing access to information: Solar panel used to power a radio 73% of household solar beneficiaries in Bushenyi owned radios,TV(2005)
INTEGRATION OF GENDER IN ENERGY PROJECT contd Formulating strategies for establishing solar PV financing mechanisms through financial Institutions: – loans to solar companies, women & men at household level. Gender focused operational rules used by village banks & solar companies to ensure that women were targeted for: (1) credit & sales; (2) participation in decision making during selection of size of panels (no. of lights, position, income earning purposes Strengthening of the capacity of the private sector through solar companies (association in UREA) to design, install, service & in future, manufacture PV systems on a commercial basis. –Gender analysis by solar companies & village banks (difference in needs for females & males, roles)
access to marketing information Benefits: Fisher man using payphone with Solar Charged Battery: access to marketing information
BENEFITS FOR WOMEN & MEN contd Enabled increased use of PV technologies in rural areas through increased number of clients for village bank/ solar companies (36 females out of 86 in 9 months); established use of gender guidelines by solar companies Supported womens empowerment, thru increased participation in income-generating activities (increase in income); participation in decision making due to increased access to informationSupported womens empowerment, thru increased participation in income-generating activities (increase in income); participation in decision making due to increased access to information Spouses often pooled resources & cooperated in order to finance loans; women became more active in joint businesses. 73% of the women respondents indicated having participate in making choices about acquiring solar technology Both men & women gained skills in maintenance, battery charging & usage (30% women trained).
One of the solar beneficiaries going to feed her zero grazing goats
Provision of light for zero grazed goats (Income earning for women)
BENEFITS contd Girls education benefited from being able to study later at night after completing domestic chores ( performance increased by 60%). Bufumira: battery charging as alternative income earning activity for men (from fishing). Increased diversification of economic activities for men Provided activities owned & managed by women: selling of refrigerated drinks/eats in shop/bar/eating places, using solar lighting to feed high breed chicken, goats & pigs, using lighting for hairdressing & craftwork.
IMPACTS OF GENDER APPROACH ON PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS Improved female-male relations through creation of effective marketing network, enabled increased use of PV technologies in households; healthier living conditions, decreased expenditures on paraffin (used to spend 5,200shs per month) Gender responsive financing mechanism enabled improved delivery of energy services by solar companies & village banks in ways that considered differential needs, roles of females/males, decision making Increased income for women through participation in income earning activities using solar PV Improved cooperation and decision making among females & males through joint businesses. Increased skills for women& girls in maintenance, battery charging & usage (men & boys used to be the only ones trained) Increased participation for women in Contribution to improved girls education through being able to study later at night after completing domestic chores.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR FUTURE ANALYTICAL RESEARCH – Make use of gender focused indicators as monitoring information to keep track of changes & impacts of the project over time Have collaborative linkages with information bearers (encourage documentation of gender disaggregated data) Challenges can exist where documentation of gender disaggregated data was minimal during monitoring of project outcomes
LESSONS LEARNED FOR POLICY DIALOG & INSTITUTIONS Formulate gender guidelines for the project in ways that link with existing policy framework on gender, poverty & energy Work through institutional linkages that encourage private & public partnership in ways that consider womens & mens needs for energy servicesWork through institutional linkages that encourage private & public partnership in ways that consider womens & mens needs for energy services Replicate lessons learnt in order to strengthen use of policy & institutional strategies that enable womens increased access to energy services (in cases where they are disadvantaged). E.g provided in-put for planning of rural electrification in Uganda
LESSONS LEARNED FOR FUTURE PROJECT PLANNING Project Planning should consider women & mens participation in all areas of energy service provision, not only as energy users. Make use of lessons learnt in pilot projects to replication application of gender guidelines in different projects & settings Private-public partnerships work better by involving them in the planning, implementation & monitoring of energy projects
Challenges for future project planning Do energy projects gather statistics that combine gender, poverty & energy when monitoring; gender indicators used? Are we able to use monitoring information & lessons learnt to plan & implement rural electrification projects? Are there private & public partnerships with capacity to design & use gender planning tools to be used in planning, monitoring of energy service provision?
CONCLUSION Improved livelihood & increased incomes to poor women 7 men can be achieved if there is increased energy service provision through: i. Establishing or strengthening financial & institutional mechanisms to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) services on commercial basis to household, business through applying guidelines that include women & mens needs; ii.Building partnerships: Govt for regulatory services in line with gender policy (delivery of services without exclusion of women); solar companies with gender focused rules in delivery of services; with financial institutions that solar users associate with & consider differences in needs; IiiStrengthening outreach & competitive skills of solar companies; IvUsing strategies that consider differentiated needs and roles of women and men as priority concerns in energy service provision.
………END……… Effectiveness of Energy service provision can be improved through using gender planning tools for: Establishing application of gender focused rules in financial systems;Establishing application of gender focused rules in financial systems; Strengthening gender planning skills of private energy service providers & policy/regulatory roles of public institutions; Increasing access to information that enables shared decision making for women & men at household level; increased access to energy services by women.Increasing access to information that enables shared decision making for women & men at household level; increased access to energy services by women. Thank you