Presentation on theme: "Dr Henrica A. F. M. Jansen UNECE Workshop on Gender Statistics Geneva, 9 October 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Dr Henrica A. F. M. Jansen UNECE Workshop on Gender Statistics Geneva, 9 October 2008
% 1.Many women never tell anyone about partner violence 2.Very few women talk to a formal agency or person in authority.
Country Year of field work Coverage Sample size Age (years) Mode of data collection % physically assaulted by partner Albania2002National404915-44 8 Azerbaijan2001National553315-44 20 Finland2005- 2006 National446418-74Postal survey 30 France2002National590818+Telephone survey 9 Germany2003National1026416-85Face to face and self-administered 23 Lithuania1999National101018-74 42 Republic of Moldova 2000National33315-44 15 Romania1999National532215-44 29 Russia2000Three provinces 548215-44 22 Serbia2003Capital118915-49 23 Sweden2000National586818-64Postal survey 18 Switzerland2003National150020-60Telephone survey 21 United Kingdom2001National1222616-59British crime survey, face to face, CASI 19 Many countries doing domestic Violence surveys
Brazil Peru Samoa Namibia United Republic of Tanzania Bangladesh Thailand Japan Serbia New Zealand Ethiopia Countries with two study sites Countries with one study site Equatorial Guinea Maldives TURKEY Vanuatu Solomon Isl Kiribati Tonga Countries part of WHO multi-country or that used WHO methodology Chili Vietnam
No expertise No money Hidden agendas Competition Other work priorities Importance of data quality!!
Look at existing sources of data Find allies, interested parties (national, international) Find out about existing methods and expertise Get your objectives clear Explore funding Set up advisory committee of interested parties Work on proposal Get ethical approval
Qualitative research?? How about men? Sample size? Regional or national sample? What types of violence? Long/short questionnaire, module ? Who trains the interviewers? Ethics!!!!!! Develop a very good proposal Do a thorough pre-test of methods: feasibility, confidence, issues, respondents reactions
UN EU Bilateral funders CIDA, SIDA, DFID… Funder with interest in women ??
WHO (20+ languages, including Arab) IVAWS National surveys other countries DHS, CDC (short modules) DRAW ON EXISTING EXPERTISE!!! Work is currently ongoing on developing a common short module
Ethical and safety issues Selection and training of interviewers: very important!! Psychological support for interviewers and respondents Survey as awareness building among respondents Survey as transforming for interviewers and researchers It is an intervention in itself
My husband slaps me, has sex with me against my will and I have to conform. Before being interviewed I didn't really think about this. I thought this is only natural. This is the way a husband behaves. Woman interviewed in Bangladesh
"Somehow it made me feel good, because it was something that I had never told anyone before. Now Ive told someone". --Respondent, Brazil
I learned a lot from the beginning of the training, till the end of the survey. The survey opened wounds, but I had to learn to face it and cope with it. The respondents really needed and enjoyed this experience… My career path changed, … because I could do something which can make a difference… Interviewer from Namibia
A population based survey on violence against women should be and can be done ethically and safely Women are willing to share experiences with trained and empathetic interviewers
If you have a good proposal and the right people, it can be done Ensure buy-in from stake-holders, build partnerships from the beginning Get technical advice, tools, manuals, support There should be a first time!!
Estimates of prevalence of violence against women Associations between partner violence and health outcomes Risk and protective factors for partner violence Strategies used by women who experience partner violence (who do they talk to, where do they seek help, what response do they get) WHO multi-country study objectives
Develop and test new instruments for measuring violence cross-culturally Increase national capacity amongst researchers and womens organizations working on violence Increase sensitivity to violence among researchers, policy-makers and health providers Promote ethically sound research
How the questions are phrased Number of opportunities to disclose Context in which questions are asked Characteristics and skill of interviewers Social stigma attached to issue
Formative qualitative research, consultations, etc Quantitative household survey women 15-49y 1 or 2 sites per country: appr. 1500 women/site Standardized questionnaire Standardized 3 week training All respondents provided with information about sources of support; follow up support offered One data entry system, double entry Standardized quality control measures
Domestic Partner violence: physical, sexual, emotional, controlling behaviours Violence in pregnancy Violence resulting in injuries By others Physical violence by others (>15) Sexual violence by others (>15) Childhood sexual abuse (<15) Forced first sex
Section 1: Respondent and her community Section 2: General Health Section 3: Reproductive health Section 4: Children Section 5: Current or most recent partner Section 6: Attitudes toward gender roles Section 7: Respondent and her partner Section 8: Injuries Section 9: Impact and coping Section 10: Other experiences Section 11: Financial autonomy Section 12: Completion of the interview
CountryStudy population BangladeshWomen 15-49 ever married PeruWomen 15-49 ever married/cohabiting, ever dating Serbia and Montenegro Women 15-49 ever married/cohabiting, currently dating
Slapped or threw something at that could hurt you? Pushed or shoved you or pulled your hair? Hit with his fist or with something else that could hurt you? Kicked, dragged or beat you up? Choked or burnt you on purpose? Threatened to use or actually used a gun, knife or other weapon against you? Moderate Severe Has your partner ever..... (in the last 12 months; has this happened once, a few times, many times?)
Were you ever physically forced to have sexual intercourse when you did not want to? Did you ever have sexual intercourse you did not want because you were afraid of what he might do? Ever force you to do something sexual that you found degrading or humiliating?
Has your partner ever…. Insulted you or made you feel bad about yourself? Belittled or humiliated you in front of other people? Done things to scare or intimidate you on purpose (e.g. by the way he looked at you, by yelling and smashing things)? Threatened to hurt you or someone you care about?
Before the age of 15, do you remember if any one in your family ever touched you sexually or made you do something sexual that you didnt want to? If yes, who did this to you? How old were you when it happened for the first time? How old was this person? How many times did this happen? Once/twice; few, many? Probes: school, friend or family, neighbor; stranger or anyone else?
1. Safety of respondents and research team 2. Studies need to be methodologically sound 3. Confidentiality for safety and data quality 4. Selection and training of team members 5. Actions to reducing distress to respondents 6. Possibilities of referral, support mechanisms 7. Proper interpretation and use of study results 8. Violence questions in other surveys
Training should include introduction on gender and violence Training as opportunity for researchers and interviewers to come to terms with own experiences Addressing emotional needs of team members Role of interviewers: Not counselling, not trying to "save" respondents
Serbia 2003 13 inexperienced, carefully selected interviewers, trained during 3 weeks 21 professional interviewers, selected because of their interest in the topic, trained during one day
Inexperienced, 3 week training Professional, 1 day training Response rate 93% 86% Disclosure rate 26% 21% Respondent satisfaction – with violence 46% 29% Respondent satisfaction – without violence 46% 38%
The example of Turkey: National Research on Domestic Violence against Women in Turkey 2008 Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü
To develop national level data on violence against women that will enable the formulation of targeted policies and programmes in order to combat violence against women more effectively These data will be collected through qualitative and quantitative research Turkey DVAW Study Objectives
Formative qualitative research: In-depth interviews in 3 cities and focus groups Quantitative household survey: Sample size of 24000 households, representing 12 NUTS-1 areas (One woman 15-59 years old per household)
CFCU: The Central Finance and Contracts Unit (CFCU) on behalf of the Government of Turkey as Contracting Authority. KSGM: The General Directorate on the Status of Women is the beneficiary. ECD: provided the funding (2.5 million EURO).
The Consortium: ICON-INSTITUT Public Sector GmbH (Germany) – providing international expertise and project and contract management. Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University (Turkey) – providing local expertise for project implementation, including data collection, analysis, report writing, dissemination, etc. BNB Consulting (Turkey) – providing organizational support, including logistics. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Nüfus Etütleri Enstitüsü
Questionnaire length to ensure interviews of on average 30 minutes duration, 5-8 households per interviewer per day Sampling density: 36-48 hh in a cluster: 1 in every 2 or 3 hh in a sampling block (appr 100 hh) On cluster per team per day, 2.5 months in field 15 teams of each 10 persons Using new system of address list from the National Statistical Office
Household selection sheet different (adapted from DHS) All domains (as in WHO questionnaire) are included, but reduced number of questions on social capital, health, children, attitudes Violence questions the same as WHO and will allow international comparability
33000 household questionnaires 25000 women questionnaires 250 interviewer manuals 20 supervisor and field editor manuals Field monitoring forms: cluster forms, supervisor forms and address listing forms
Two-week training period: plenary and 6 class rooms 143 women and 46 men trained After training 155 (including 4 institute staff) were retained for fieldwork
2 shifts of 10 data enterers Interactive error checking 100 % double entry
Target groupsNumber of interviews AnkaraSamsunMersinTotal 1. Women who are subjected to violence and apply for support 2226 2. Women –mother and mother in-law 59 and above years old 2226 3. Perpetrators who got penalty from 4320 Family Protection Law 2226 4. Religious leaders/Imams 2226 5. Womens NGOs who run counseling centers 2226 6. Professionals (doctors of forensic medicine, social worker, psychologist, lawyer/judge, police, representatives of local government ) 55515 Total 15 45
Target groups Number of focus groups 1. Young and educated men married for at most 3 years 1 2. Young and less-educated men married for at most 3 years 1 3. Old and educated men married for at least 15 years 1 4. Old and less-educated men married for at lest 15 years 1 5. Young and educated single men 1 6. Young and less educated single men 1 7. Professionals who give psychological, physiological and social support to women who are subjected to domestic violence 1 8. Professionals who give legal support to women who are subjected to domestic violence 1 9. Police officers participated in training 1 10. Police officers, not participated in training 1 11. Reporters 1 Total 11
Turkey will have for the first time official national statistics on VAW The fact that the survey is taken place already made a difference because it sensitized hundreds of interviewers and many thousands of respondents Survey as social action!