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Teachers, Pedagogy and Student Achievement Richard J. Kraft University of Colorado-Boulder World Bank Consultant.

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Presentation on theme: "Teachers, Pedagogy and Student Achievement Richard J. Kraft University of Colorado-Boulder World Bank Consultant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teachers, Pedagogy and Student Achievement Richard J. Kraft University of Colorado-Boulder World Bank Consultant

2 Cost-Effective Ranking of Educational Policies by Policy Specialists (Schiefelbein, Wolff, Schiefelbein, 1998) 40 no or low cost policies for higher student achievement 1. Assign best teachers to first grade 2. Do not switch teacher during school year 4. Enforce policies on length of school year 6. Test 10% of 4 th graders-report to teachers 9. Revise maths and reading curriculum 16. Classroom libraries

3 The teacher is the key to good schools and high achievement!

4 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994) Factors Studied Significant Effects with Number of Total Analyses Primary Secondary Teachers length of education Total years of schooling 9:185:8 Tertiary or teacher college 21:378:14 In-service teacher training 8:133:4 Teacher gender (female) 1:22:4

5 Mr. Mohammed, Outstanding Teacher in Egypt

6 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994) Factors Studied Significant Effects with Number of Total Analyses Primary Secondary Teacher subject knowledge or language proficiency 4:4--- Teacher experience13:231:12 Teacher salary level 4:112:11 Teacher social class 7:10----

7 Do small or large group pedagogy make a difference?

8 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994) Classroom pedagogy and organization Primary Secondary Instructional time15:1712:16 Active pedagogy 3:8 2:5 Frequent monitoring of pupil performance 3:4 0:1 Class preparation time 5:8 1:2

9 Can parents improve schools? Imam-Council President. Women Voting for first time in School Board election-Egypt.

10 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994) Classroom pedagogy and organization Primary Secondary Frequency of homework9:112:2 Teacher efficacy1:10:1 Cooperative-learning task structure----3:3

11 PAKEM,CLCC,MBA improve govt and religious schools in Indonesia

12 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics…policies regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work.

13 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Teacher effectiveness is a strong determinant of class differences in student learning, far outweighing the effects of differences in class size and heterogeneity. Students who are assigned to several ineffective teachers in a row have significantly lower achievement and gains.

14 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Factors: Teacher Performance/Student Achievement VariableResearch Results a. Teacher IntelligenceLow or insignificant b. Verbal ability More sensitive measure c. Subject KnowledgeMixed results d. Education courses Math/science positive e. Years experienceLevels off at 5 yrs. f. LicensingPositive/mixed

15 Does the form of pedagogy affect student achievement?

16 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Factors: Teacher Performance/Student Achievement VariableResearch Results f. Flexibility, creativitypositive g. Clarity, enthusiasmpositive h. Task-oriented behaviorpositive i. Variability of lessonspositive j. Teaching repertoire (experience and skill based, direct and indirect, lecture and small group instruction)

17 Some Key Lessons on Teachers and Student Achievement Subject and Age Appropriate Pedagogy Time: Full school year and school day Time on task Teachers-students on time and controlled absences Best teachers in early grades Master reading, writing and maths in early grades Class and school libraries, laboratories actually used Active, creative, higher order thinking and questioning, experimentation, experiential, skill based teaching Parental support and a reading culture Nutrition and Feeding Early Childhood Education Teachers-Teaching-Teachers, Observation of Other Classes,

18 Does mass testing make a difference in student achievement?

19 Teachers and Student Achievement (AERA, 2004)

20 Exemplary Pre-school and Kindergarten Programmes Catholic Sisters Programme Eritrea Universal Kindergarten/Pre-school------Chile Head Start U.S. Infant Schools Great Britain Early Childhood Teacher Training----Canada

21 Is early childhood education important for later achievement?

22 Do parent and community involvement affect student achievement?

23 Exemplary Primary School Programmes-Student Achievement Escuela Nueva (New School)--Latin America Breakthrough to Literacy -----S. and E. Africa Primary Reading Programme Zambia PAKEM/CLCC Indonesia New Schools Project Egypt Fé y Alegría Latin America SEQIP Indonesia

24 New Schools Project-Egypt

25 Do service learning and peer tutoring make a difference?

26 Exemplary Secondary School Programmes-Student Achievement Lesson Study Japan Don Bosco Vocational Schools Worldwide EDUCO Honduras Service Learning Argentina, U.S., China Middle Schools OECD, U.S. Apprenticeships Germany, Japan Languages Netherlands, Scandinavia Textbooks Singapore Teachers Training Teachers(TTT)---Cuba, Lat.Am.

27 Does Class Size affect Student Achievement?

28 Do desks and textbooks affect achievement?

29 Do curriculum guides make a difference?

30 School Inputs Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994) Factors Significant Effects with Number of Total Analyses Primary Secondary Class Size 9:262:22 Textbooks19:267:13 School Library16:183:4 Science Laboratories 5:121:1 Nutrition and Feeding 7:81:1 Expenditure per pupil 3:63:5

31 Does infrastructure affect quality of schooling?

32 Do you need a classroom or a building to have a school?

33 Do class or school libraries make a difference in student achievement?

34 Pre-Service Teacher Education Entrance Criteria Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Rep. of China National written examinations for entrance Germany National oral and written examinations for entrance France, New Zealand, Canada, U.S.A. and Japan Institutions set own entrance criteria

35 Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes: Degree level Canada, U.S.A., Japan Bachelors degree or fifth year program for both primary and secondary teachers Australia, New Zealand Indonesia, and Hong Kong (recent) Upgrading primary teachers to bachelors degree

36 Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs-Subject Concentrations Many countries have primary education as a subject concentration Canadian provinces and China Taipei One subject concentration for primary Hong Kong and Germany Two subject concentrations for primary Secondary teachers worldwide have one or two subject concentrations

37 Do practical experiences make a difference for new teachers?

38 Pre-Service Student Teaching Full-year internship--France, Luxembourg, Belgium, Taiwan Two year internship/courses----Germany One-Semester U.S. One week or less Many in Egypt

39 Exemplary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes Botswana: University-Based Excellence, Train TTC Instructors, Tied to school curriculum Pakistan-Mobile Teacher Training Unit-Girls Chile, U.S.-Theory and Practice, Early Childhood, Accreditation (NCATE) Bangladesh-BRAC, Community Women Great Britain -Open University

40 Exemplary In-Service, Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Sri Lanka-Cost effective 9:1 ratio university or normal school based versus distance learning Egypt and Others -Teacher & Supervisor Standards Uganda-Clinical Supervision Japan-Lesson Study Latin America- Teachers-Training-Teachers

41 Betty Jawoko Clinical Supervision, Uganda

42 Student Achievement Singapore, Hong Kong, China-Taiwan, Japan, and Korea High student achievement on most international examinations-teacher role in student achievement under study

43 Research on Teaching United States School-based research by university researchers Action-research by classroom teachers

44 Oscar Mogollón, Colombia Founder, New Schools Movement

45 Exemplary Programme I (Kraft, 1999, Schiefelbein, 2001) Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, Uganda New Schools (Escuela Nueva) 1. Democratic Education and Student Leadership 2. Community Involvement and Shared Decision Making 3. Empowered Teacher Authors and Trainers 4. Continuous Assessment and Flexible Promotion 5. Individualized and Small Group Instruction

46 Exemplary Programme I 6. Cultural Sensitivity and Local Content 7. Active Learning and Teacher Facilitators 8. Learning Centers and Classroom Libraries 9. Student Workbooks and Teacher Handbooks 10. Local Control and National Commitment

47 Median Scores on the First International Comparative Study (UNESCO/OREALC), 1998 Colombia UrbanRural Language MathLanguage Math

48 Frances Sampa, Zambia Director, Primary Reading Prog.

49 Exemplary Programme II (Sampa, 2005) Zambia Primary Reading Programme (Breakthrough to Literacy) Literacy training-language experience Mother tongue and English Teacher workbooks Student writing Grade 1 surpass Grade 5: 700% gain 1 year

50 Primary Reading Programme E. and S. Africa-Uganda, Zambia

51 Exemplary Programme III (Gasparini, 2000) Cuba Teacher empowerment School competition Local curriculum development High student achievement

52 Median Scores on the First International Comparative Study (UNESCO/OREALC), 1998 Country Language Math Cuba Argentina Chile Brazil Honduras

53 Exemplary Programme IV Japan-Lesson Study (Lewis, 2002) Increased student autonomy and initiative, and close observation of student learning and needs Learning how to learn, problem solving Teaching for understanding of impt subjects Teachers jointly plan research lessons Student co-operative learning, engagement Focus on academic outcomes Content chosen to meet student needs Shared observation of live lessons

54 My Favorite School! Jardin de Niños El Simiente (Adapted from Bernbaum and Kraft, 2002) Multigrade (3 teachers for 8 grades), creative leadership, Montessori, Escuela Nueva, manipulatives, garden, fish pond, 5000 tree nursery, handicapped accessible, dance troupe, band, hundreds of books, read 1 book per day per student, typewriters, active science, founded jr. secondary, student work, parental involvement, workshops for other teachers, clean but minimal infrastructure


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