Presentation on theme: "Teachers, Pedagogy and Student Achievement"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teachers, Pedagogy and Student Achievement Richard J. KraftUniversity of Colorado-BoulderWorld Bank Consultant
2 40 no or low cost policies for higher student achievement Cost-Effective Ranking of Educational Policies by Policy Specialists (Schiefelbein, Wolff, Schiefelbein, 1998)40 no or low cost policies for higher student achievement1. Assign best teachers to first grade2. Do not switch teacher during school year4. Enforce policies on length of school year6. Test 10% of 4th graders-report to teachers9. Revise maths and reading curriculum16. Classroom libraries
3 The teacher is the key to good schools and high achievement!
4 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994)Factors Studied Significant Effects with Number of Total AnalysesPrimary SecondaryTeacher’s length of educationTotal years of schooling 9:18 5:8Tertiary or teacher college 21:37 8:14In-service teacher training 8:13 3:4Teacher gender (female) 1:2 2:4
6 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994)Factors Studied Significant Effects with Number of Total AnalysesPrimary SecondaryTeacher subject knowledgeor language proficiency 4:Teacher experience 13:23 1:12Teacher salary level 4:11 2:11Teacher social class 7:
7 Do small or large group pedagogy make a difference?
8 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994)Classroom pedagogy and organizationPrimary SecondaryInstructional time 15:17 12:16Active pedagogy 3:8 2:5Frequent monitoringof pupil performance 3:4 0:1Class preparationtime :8 1:2
9 Can parents improve schools. Imam-Council President Can parents improve schools? Imam-Council President. Women Voting for first time in School Board election-Egypt.
10 Teacher and Pedagogical Attributes Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994)Classroom pedagogy and organizationPrimary SecondaryFrequency of homework 9:11 2:2Teacher efficacy 1:1 0:1Cooperative-learningtask structure :3
11 PAKEM,CLCC,MBA improve gov’t and religious schools in Indonesia
12 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) “Measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics…policies regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work.”
13 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) “Teacher effectiveness is a strong determinant of class differences in student learning, far outweighing the effects of differences in class size and heterogeneity. Students who are assigned to several ineffective teachers in a row have significantly lower achievement and gains.”
14 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Factors: Teacher Performance/Student AchievementVariable Research Resultsa. Teacher Intelligence Low or insignificantb. Verbal ability More sensitive measurec. Subject Knowledge Mixed resultsd. Education courses Math/science positivee. Year’s experience Levels off at 5 yrs.f. Licensing Positive/mixed
15 Does the form of pedagogy affect student achievement?
16 Teacher Quality and Student Achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000) Factors: Teacher Performance/Student AchievementVariable Research Resultsf. Flexibility, creativity positiveg. Clarity, enthusiasm positiveh. Task-oriented behavior positivei. Variability of lessons positivej. Teaching repertoire (experience and skill based, direct and indirect, lecture and small group instruction)
17 Some Key Lessons on Teachers and Student Achievement Subject and Age Appropriate PedagogyTime: Full school year and school dayTime on taskTeachers-students on time and controlled absencesBest teachers in early gradesMaster reading, writing and maths in early gradesClass and school libraries, laboratories actually usedActive, creative, higher order thinking and questioning, experimentation, experiential, skill based teachingParental support and a “reading culture”Nutrition and FeedingEarly Childhood EducationTeachers-Teaching-Teachers, Observation of Other Classes,
18 Does mass testing make a difference in student achievement?
20 Exemplary Pre-school and Kindergarten Programmes Catholic Sister’s Programme EritreaUniversal Kindergarten/Pre-school------ChileHead Start U.S.Infant Schools Great BritainEarly Childhood Teacher Training----Canada
21 Is early childhood education important for later achievement?
22 Do parent and community involvement affect student achievement?
23 Exemplary Primary School Programmes-Student Achievement Escuela Nueva (New School)--Latin AmericaBreakthrough to Literacy -----S. and E. AfricaPrimary Reading Programme ZambiaPAKEM/CLCC IndonesiaNew Schools Project EgyptFé y Alegría Latin AmericaSEQIP Indonesia
30 Factors Significant Effects with Number of Total Analyses School Inputs Affecting Student Achievement (Adapted from Fuller and Clarke, 1994)Factors Significant Effects with Number of Total AnalysesPrimary SecondaryClass Size 9:26 2:22Textbooks 19:26 7:13School Library 16:18 3:4Science Laboratories 5:12 1:1Nutrition and Feeding 7:8 1:1Expenditure per pupil 3:6 3:5
31 Does infrastructure affect quality of schooling?
32 Do you need a classroom or a building to have a school?
33 Do class or school libraries make a difference in student achievement?
34 Pre-Service Teacher Education Entrance Criteria Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Rep. of ChinaNational written examinations for entranceGermanyNational oral and written examinations for entranceFrance, New Zealand, Canada, U.S.A. and JapanInstitutions set own entrance criteria
35 Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes: Degree level Canada, U.S.A., JapanBachelor’s degree or fifth year program for both primary and secondary teachersAustralia, New Zealand Indonesia, and Hong Kong (recent)Upgrading primary teachers to bachelor’s degree
36 Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs-Subject Concentrations Many countries have primary education as a subject concentrationCanadian provinces and China TaipeiOne subject concentration for primaryHong Kong and GermanyTwo subject concentrations for primarySecondary teachers worldwide have one or two subject concentrations
37 Do practical experiences make a difference for new teachers?
38 Pre-Service Student Teaching Full-year internship--France, Luxembourg, Belgium, TaiwanTwo year internship/courses----GermanyOne-Semester U.S.One week or less Many in Egypt
39 Exemplary Pre-Service Teacher Education Programmes Botswana: University-Based Excellence,Train TTC Instructors, Tied to school curriculumPakistan-Mobile Teacher Training Unit-GirlsChile, U.S.-Theory and Practice, Early Childhood, Accreditation (NCATE)Bangladesh-BRAC, Community WomenGreat Britain -Open University
40 Exemplary In-Service, Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Sri Lanka-Cost effective 9:1 ratio university or normal school based versus distance learningEgypt and Others -Teacher & Supervisor StandardsUganda- Clinical SupervisionJapan-Lesson StudyLatin America- Teachers-Training-Teachers
42 Student AchievementSingapore, Hong Kong, China-Taiwan, Japan, and KoreaHigh student achievement on most international examinations-teacher role in student achievement under study
43 Research on Teaching United States School-based research by university researchersAction-research by classroom teachers
44 Oscar Mogollón, Colombia Founder, New School’s Movement
45 Exemplary Programme I (Kraft, 1999, Schiefelbein, 2001) Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Peru, UgandaNew Schools (Escuela Nueva)1. Democratic Education and Student Leadership2. Community Involvement and Shared Decision Making3. Empowered Teacher Authors and Trainers4. Continuous Assessment and Flexible Promotion5. Individualized and Small Group Instruction
46 Exemplary Programme I 6. Cultural Sensitivity and Local Content 7. Active Learning and Teacher Facilitators8. Learning Centers and Classroom Libraries9. Student Workbooks and Teacher Handbooks10. Local Control and National Commitment
47 Median Scores on the First International Comparative Study (UNESCO/OREALC), 1998 ColombiaUrban RuralLanguage Math Language Math
52 Country Language Math Cuba 343 351 Argentina 263 251 Chile 259 242 Median Scores on the First International Comparative Study (UNESCO/OREALC), 1998Country Language MathCubaArgentinaChileBrazilHonduras
53 Exemplary Programme IV Japan-Lesson Study (Lewis, 2002) Increased student autonomy and initiative, and close observation of student learning and needsLearning how to learn, problem solvingTeaching for understanding of imp’t subjectsTeachers jointly plan research lessonsStudent co-operative learning, engagementFocus on academic outcomesContent chosen to meet student needsShared observation of live lessons
54 My Favorite School! Jardin de Niños El Simiente (Adapted from Bernbaum and Kraft, 2002) Multigrade (3 teachers for 8 grades), creative leadership, Montessori, Escuela Nueva, manipulatives, garden, fish pond, 5000 tree nursery, handicapped accessible, dance troupe, band, hundreds of books, read 1 book per day per student, typewriters, active science, founded jr. secondary, student work, parental involvement, workshops for other teachers, clean but minimal infrastructure