Presentation on theme: "Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities Richard Nelson Kansas State University & National Biodiesel Board Presentation to the Special."— Presentation transcript:
Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities Richard Nelson Kansas State University & National Biodiesel Board Presentation to the Special Libraries Association Seattle, WA June 17, 2008
Biodiesel Defined Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D Official IRS and EPA definition – goes to fuel quality.
General Concepts Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from fats and oils such as soybeans and animal fats. Biodiesel can be easily used in existing diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil! Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
Biodiesel Feedstocks Each biodiesel feedstock varies by its free fatty acid content and the different proportions of fatty acids found in each feedstock influence some biodiesel fuel properties Degree of saturation Cold flow properties Cetane number
Biodiesel Attributes Integrates into existing petroleum infrastructure; pour and go High Cetane (>50 vs 42) High Lubricity –2 % blend biodiesel increases lubricity by up to 65% BTU Content (128,000 BTU/gal vs 139,000) Cold Flow (3-10 o F > for soy-based B20) Flash Point (a minimum 260 o F vs 150 o F) Virtually Zero Sulfur –Meets 2006 ULSD rule
Biodiesel lowers emissions Emission TypeB100B20B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67%-20%-2.2% Carbon Monoxide -48%-12%-1.3% Particulate Matter -47%-12%-1.3% Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) +10%+/-2%+.2%
Biodiesel Fuel Markets PREMIUM DIESEL Lubricity Enhancement Conductivity Improver ULSD Sulfur Free Blend Stock MARINE Recreational Tour Boats Environmentally Sensitive Areas EPACT REGULATED FLEETS Federal State Selected Utilities Home Heating
US Biodiesel Demand Changes to EPACT Bioenergy Program Biodiesel Tax Incentive 5 MGY 75 MGY
One Driver: World Transport Vehicle Trends – Diesel Direct Impact on Biofuels Production and Demand ! Global share of diesel market has increase 40% in the last 5 years Conditions for further expansion of diesel look right: Global focus on CO 2 & Energy Security High energy prices (diesel ~33% more efficient versus gasoline) Diesel technology has come of age (not dirty diesels anymore) Where are the oilseed feedstocks going to come from to fuel this increase?
Fascination with Biofuels – Govt. Mandates US – Renewable Fuels Standard; 35 billion gallons (133 billion liters) by 2022 (20% of projected total consumption) EU – 5.75% by 2010; 10% by 2020; 25% by 2030 China – 5% biodiesel –China has said it aims to use 200,000 tons of biodiesel by 2010 and 2 million tons (2,057 billion liters) by Why? Energy Security & Peak Oil & Climate Change How will these intersect with market forces, where exactly will the feedstocks come from, and at what price?
New Renewable Fuel Standard Requirements Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Not just 10% ethanol in conventional gasoline
Biofuels Resources – Land Use Limited Crop Acreage Limited increase in land space and product yields Sustainability Concerns Improved yields, less inputs, grow on marginal lands (?) Increasing demand/production will put pressure on food and water supplies, prices, and sustainability American Grassland – excellent carbon sink
American Dust Bowl – 1930s 3 Story Building
Food & Fuel & Feed Oil & Agriculture just like Diamonds or Coffee are commodity markets supply and demand effect pricing in a given market, the lowest cost producer will always win Many factors affect the markets – Currency Policy Trading Technology Interest rates Consumers Trends Emerging markets There will be continued growth in renewable fuels
Some Perspective – Petroleum & Agriculture The oilseed and fat market is only a small fraction of the oil industry IF ALL DOMESTIC FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO FUEL, ONLY 8% OF DIESEL COULD BE REPLACED IF ALL GLOBAL FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO DIESEL, ONLY 10 % OF DISTILLATE COULD BE SUBSTITUTED –However, the entire world would go hungry
Biodiesel and Diesel Particulate Matter/Elemental Carbon Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m Standard D2 100% Biodiesel MSHA compliance samples, EC MSHA Target for UG Mines (123 EC)
Concerns of Fleet Managers about Biodiesel Fuel Quality –Engine Warranties –Performance in Cold Weather –Storage and Handling –Fuel Contamination –Filter Plugging –Degradation of Engine Parts –Fuel Stability –Price –Others?
Free GlycerinASTM D 6584Max % mass Total GlycerinASTM D 6584Max % mass Flash Point (Methanol)ASTM D 93Min 130 o C (Max 0.2 % vol) Acid NumberASTM D 664Max 0.50 mg KOH/g Water & SedimentASTM D 2709Max % vol Visual AppearanceASTM D 4176Max 2 Haze rating Oxidative StabilityEN 14112Min 3.0 hr SulfurASTM D 5453Max 15 ppm Cloud PointASTM D 2500Report o C Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °CASTM D – 6.0 mm 2 /sec Sulfated AshASTM D 874Max % mass Copper Strip CorrosionASTM D 130Max No. 3 Cetane NumberASTM D 613Min 47 Carbon Residue for 100% sampleASTM D 4530Max % mass Distillation, 90% recoveredASTM D 1160Max 360 °C Phosphorous ContentASTM D 4951Max % mass Relative density at 60 °FASTM D 1298Report Na and K, combinedEN 14538Max 5.0 ppm Ca and Mg, combinedEN 14538Max 5.0 ppm ASTM D b Specifications (Full)
Supply Chain Management Preserve the quality of the finished fuel Hand-offs can cause the biodiesel ball to be fumbled
Accredited Producer Focus A system for monitoring the production of biodiesel to the ASTM D 6751 specification. Sampling Testing Storage Retain Samples Shipping Certified Marketer Focus A system for the handling and distribution of biodiesel that maintains the fuel properties at the ASTM D 6751 specification. Sampling Testing Storage Retain Samples Blending Shipping
Actual biodiesel COA from a distributor to the final end-user If only Id checked the COA for ASTM!
OEMs Positions on Biodiesel Engine Warrantees: –Parts and Workmanship –OEMs Dont Make Fuel –OEMs Dont Warrantee Fuel –As with diesel-- problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplier OEMs want to see additional experience in the field