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Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities

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Presentation on theme: "Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities
Presentation to the Special Libraries Association Seattle, WA June 17, 2008 Richard Nelson Kansas State University & National Biodiesel Board

2 Biodiesel Defined Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751. Official IRS and EPA definition – goes to fuel quality.

3 General Concepts Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil!
Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from fats and oils such as soybeans and animal fats. Biodiesel can be easily used in existing diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil! Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.

4 Biodiesel Feedstocks Degree of saturation Cold flow properties
Each biodiesel feedstock varies by its free fatty acid content and the different proportions of fatty acids found in each feedstock influence some biodiesel fuel properties Degree of saturation Cold flow properties Cetane number


6 Vegetable Oil / Animal Fat/Waste Grease
Methanol + Catalyst Vegetable Oil / Animal Fat/Waste Grease Methanol Recovery Crude Biodiesel Transesterfication Crude Glycerin Glycerin Refining Glycerin Refining Biodiesel


8 Biodiesel Attributes Integrates into existing petroleum infrastructure; “pour and go” High Cetane (>50 vs 42) High Lubricity 2% blend biodiesel increases lubricity by up to 65% BTU Content (128,000 BTU/gal vs 139,000) Cold Flow (3-10o F > for soy-based B20) Flash Point (a minimum 260oF vs 150oF) Virtually Zero Sulfur Meets 2006 ULSD rule

9 Biodiesel lowers emissions
Emission Type B100 B20 B2 Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67% -20% -2.2% Carbon Monoxide -48% -12% -1.3% Particulate Matter -47% Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) +10% +/-2% +.2%

10 Biodiesel Fuel Markets
EPACT REGULATED FLEETS Federal State Selected Utilities MARINE Recreational Tour Boats Environmentally Sensitive Areas Home Heating PREMIUM DIESEL Lubricity Enhancement Conductivity Improver ULSD Sulfur Free Blend Stock

11 US Biodiesel Demand 450 250 Biodiesel Tax Incentive Changes to EPACT
Bioenergy Program 75 MGY 5 MGY

12 One Driver: World Transport Vehicle Trends – Diesel Direct Impact on Biofuels Production and Demand ! Global share of diesel market has increase 40% in the last 5 years Conditions for further expansion of diesel look right: Global focus on CO2 & Energy Security High energy prices (diesel ~33% more efficient versus gasoline) Diesel technology has come of age (not dirty diesels anymore) Where are the oilseed feedstocks going to come from to “fuel” this increase?

13 Fascination with Biofuels – Govt. Mandates
US – Renewable Fuels Standard; 35 billion gallons (133 billion liters) by 2022 (20% of projected total consumption) EU – 5.75% by 2010; 10% by 2020; 25% by 2030 China – 5% biodiesel China has said it aims to use 200,000 tons of biodiesel by 2010 and 2 million tons (2,057 billion liters) by 2020. Why? Energy Security & “Peak Oil” & Climate Change How will these intersect with market forces, where exactly will the feedstocks come from, and at what price?

14 New Renewable Fuel Standard Requirements
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 Not just 10% ethanol in conventional gasoline

15 Biofuels Resources – Land Use
Limited “Crop” Acreage Limited increase in land space and product yields Sustainability Concerns Improved yields, less inputs, grow on marginal lands (?) Increasing demand/production will put pressure on food and water supplies, prices, and sustainability American Grassland – excellent carbon sink

16 American ‘Dust Bowl’ – 1930s
3 Story Building


18 Food & Fuel & Feed Oil & Agriculture just like Diamonds or Coffee are commodity markets supply and demand effect pricing in a given market, the lowest cost producer will always win Many factors affect the markets – Currency • Policy Trading • Technology Interest rates • Consumers Trends • Emerging markets There will be continued growth in renewable fuels

19 Some Perspective – Petroleum & Agriculture
The oilseed and fat market is only a small fraction of the oil industry IF ALL DOMESTIC FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO FUEL, ONLY 8% OF DIESEL COULD BE REPLACED IF ALL GLOBAL FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO DIESEL, ONLY 10 % OF DISTILLATE COULD BE SUBSTITUTED However, the entire world would go hungry



22 Biodiesel and Diesel Particulate Matter/Elemental Carbon Emissions
MSHA compliance samples, EC Standard D % Biodiesel 500 400 300 200 100 MSHA Target for UG Mines (123 EC) Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3

23 Concerns of Fleet Managers about Biodiesel
Fuel Quality Engine Warranties Performance in Cold Weather Storage and Handling Fuel Contamination Filter Plugging Degradation of Engine Parts Fuel Stability Price Others?

24 ASTM D 6751-07b Specifications (Full)
Free Glycerin ASTM D 6584 Max % mass Total Glycerin Max % mass Flash Point (Methanol) ASTM D 93 Min 130 oC (Max 0.2 % vol) Acid Number ASTM D 664 Max 0.50 mg KOH/g Water & Sediment ASTM D 2709 Max % vol Visual Appearance ASTM D 4176 Max 2 Haze rating Oxidative Stability EN 14112 Min 3.0 hr Sulfur ASTM D 5453 Max 15 ppm Cloud Point ASTM D 2500 Report oC Kinematic Viscosity at 40 °C ASTM D 445 1.9 – 6.0 mm2/sec Sulfated Ash ASTM D 874 Copper Strip Corrosion ASTM D 130 Max No. 3 Cetane Number ASTM D 613 Min 47 Carbon Residue for 100% sample ASTM D 4530 Max % mass Distillation, 90% recovered ASTM D 1160 Max 360 °C Phosphorous Content ASTM D 4951 Max % mass Relative density at 60 °F ASTM D 1298 Report Na and K, combined EN 14538 Max 5.0 ppm Ca and Mg, combined

25 Supply Chain Management
Splash In-Tank Blending In-Line Blending The more mixing the better Biodiesel is slightly heavier than diesel fuel, specific gravity, 0.88 versus 0.85, #1 diesel 0.80 Preserve the quality of the finished fuel Hand-offs can cause the “biodiesel ball to be fumbled”

26 Accredited Producer Focus Certified Marketer Focus
A system for monitoring the production of biodiesel to the ASTM D 6751 specification. Sampling Testing Storage Retain Samples Shipping Certified Marketer Focus A system for the handling and distribution of biodiesel that maintains the fuel properties at the ASTM D 6751 specification. Sampling Testing Storage Retain Samples Blending Shipping

27 Actual biodiesel COA from a distributor to the final end-user
If only I’d checked the COA for ASTM!

28 OEMs Positions on Biodiesel
Engine Warrantees: Parts and Workmanship OEM’s Don’t Make Fuel OEM’s Don’t Warrantee Fuel As with diesel--problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplier OEMs want to see additional experience in the field


30 Educational Resources

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