Presentation on theme: "Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities"— Presentation transcript:
1Biodiesel Benefits, Issues, & Opportunities Presentation to the Special Libraries AssociationSeattle, WAJune 17, 2008Richard NelsonKansas State University &National Biodiesel Board
2Biodiesel DefinedBiodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, designated B100, and meeting the requirements of ASTM D 6751.Official IRS and EPA definition – goes to fuel quality.
3General Concepts Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil! Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel for diesel engines derived from fats and oils such as soybeans and animal fats.Biodiesel can be easily used in existing diesel engines with little or no modification.Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil!Biodiesel blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel meeting ASTM D 6751 with petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel.
4Biodiesel Feedstocks Degree of saturation Cold flow properties Each biodiesel feedstock varies by its free fatty acid content and the different proportions of fatty acids found in each feedstock influence some biodiesel fuel propertiesDegree of saturationCold flow propertiesCetane number
8Biodiesel AttributesIntegrates into existing petroleum infrastructure; “pour and go”High Cetane (>50 vs 42)High Lubricity2% blend biodiesel increases lubricity by up to 65%BTU Content (128,000 BTU/gal vs 139,000)Cold Flow (3-10o F > for soy-based B20)Flash Point (a minimum 260oF vs 150oF)Virtually Zero SulfurMeets 2006 ULSD rule
12One Driver: World Transport Vehicle Trends – Diesel Direct Impact on Biofuels Production and Demand !Global share of diesel market has increase 40% in the last 5 yearsConditions for further expansion of diesel look right:Global focus on CO2 & Energy SecurityHigh energy prices (diesel ~33% more efficient versus gasoline)Diesel technology has come of age (not dirty diesels anymore)Where are the oilseed feedstocks going to come from to “fuel” this increase?
13Fascination with Biofuels – Govt. Mandates US – Renewable Fuels Standard; 35 billion gallons (133 billion liters) by 2022 (20% of projected total consumption)EU – 5.75% by 2010; 10% by 2020; 25% by 2030China – 5% biodieselChina has said it aims to use 200,000 tons of biodiesel by 2010 and 2 million tons (2,057 billion liters) by 2020.Why? Energy Security & “Peak Oil” & Climate ChangeHow will these intersect with market forces, where exactlywill the feedstocks come from, and at what price?
14New Renewable Fuel Standard Requirements Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007Not just 10% ethanol in conventional gasoline
15Biofuels Resources – Land Use Limited “Crop” AcreageLimited increase in land space and product yieldsSustainability ConcernsImproved yields, less inputs,grow on marginal lands (?)Increasing demand/productionwill put pressure on foodand water supplies, prices,and sustainabilityAmerican Grassland – excellent carbon sink
18Food & Fuel & FeedOil & Agriculture just like Diamonds or Coffee are commodity marketssupply and demand effect pricingin a given market, the lowest cost producer will always winMany factors affect the markets –Currency • PolicyTrading • TechnologyInterest rates • ConsumersTrends • Emerging marketsThere will be continued growth in renewable fuels
19Some Perspective – Petroleum & Agriculture The oilseed and fat market is only a small fraction of the oil industryIF ALL DOMESTIC FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO FUEL, ONLY 8% OF DIESEL COULD BE REPLACEDIF ALL GLOBAL FEEDSTOCKS WERE CONVERTED TO DIESEL, ONLY 10 % OF DISTILLATE COULD BE SUBSTITUTEDHowever, the entire world would go hungry
22Biodiesel and Diesel Particulate Matter/Elemental Carbon Emissions MSHA compliance samples, ECStandard D % Biodiesel500400300200100MSHA Target for UG Mines (123 EC)Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3
23Concerns of Fleet Managers about Biodiesel Fuel QualityEngine WarrantiesPerformance in Cold WeatherStorage and HandlingFuel ContaminationFilter PluggingDegradation of Engine PartsFuel StabilityPriceOthers?
24ASTM D 6751-07b Specifications (Full) Free GlycerinASTM D 6584Max % massTotal GlycerinMax % massFlash Point (Methanol)ASTM D 93Min 130 oC (Max 0.2 % vol)Acid NumberASTM D 664Max 0.50 mg KOH/gWater & SedimentASTM D 2709Max % volVisual AppearanceASTM D 4176Max 2 Haze ratingOxidative StabilityEN 14112Min 3.0 hrSulfurASTM D 5453Max 15 ppmCloud PointASTM D 2500Report oCKinematic Viscosity at 40 °CASTM D 4451.9 – 6.0 mm2/secSulfated AshASTM D 874Copper Strip CorrosionASTM D 130Max No. 3Cetane NumberASTM D 613Min 47Carbon Residue for 100% sampleASTM D 4530Max % massDistillation, 90% recoveredASTM D 1160Max 360 °CPhosphorous ContentASTM D 4951Max % massRelative density at 60 °FASTM D 1298ReportNa and K, combinedEN 14538Max 5.0 ppmCa and Mg, combined
25Supply Chain Management SplashIn-Tank BlendingIn-Line BlendingThe more mixing the betterBiodiesel is slightly heavier than diesel fuel, specific gravity, 0.88 versus 0.85, #1 diesel 0.80Preserve the quality of the finished fuelHand-offs can cause the “biodiesel ball to be fumbled”
26Accredited Producer Focus Certified Marketer Focus A system for monitoring the production of biodiesel to the ASTM D 6751 specification.SamplingTestingStorageRetain SamplesShippingCertified Marketer FocusA system for the handling and distribution of biodiesel that maintains the fuel properties at the ASTM D 6751 specification.SamplingTestingStorageRetain SamplesBlendingShipping
27Actual biodiesel COA from a distributor to the final end-user If only I’d checked the COA for ASTM!
28OEMs Positions on Biodiesel Engine Warrantees:Parts and WorkmanshipOEM’s Don’t Make FuelOEM’s Don’t Warrantee FuelAs with diesel--problems caused by the fuel are the responsibility of the fuel supplierOEMs want to see additional experience in the field