2Overview MCA Benin Compact Access to Land project Plan Foncier Rural EvaluationObjectives/ HypothesisMethodologyHousehold surveyImplementationNext Steps
3MCA Benin Compact Access to land: more secure & useful land tenure Access to financial services: enhance credit facilities and grants given to micro, small, and medium enterprises;Access to justice: bring courts closer to rural populations and improve court functioningAccess to markets: eliminate physical and procedural constraints to the flow of goods through the Port of Cotonou
4Access to Land Project Policy & Legal Reform Achieving formal property rights to land in rural & urban areasImproving land administration & information managementDecentralizes land registration by establishing regional officesProvides education on land policy
5Plan Foncier Rural (Rural Landholding Plan) Objective: Expand creation of rural land plans, land tenure certificates and local land management capacityProcess:Information campaignsAssess socio-economic & land tenure conditions of villages in selected communesPrepare village profiles including documentation of location-specific land tenure terms and normsProduce land use and tenure maps (the PFR)Participatory methodRural and holding plan submitted for public review and commentRural land use certificates issued & facilitation of formal, written records of subordinate land rights using improved approachesBenin’s land tenure project, villages eligible to participate in the lottery displayed high poverty rates, were located in a rural area offering potential short-term economic opportunities, and showed a willingness to promote women’s land rights.
6Evaluation objective/ hypotheses Measure project impact on household income in PFR project areas and on investment in targeted rural parcelsHypotheses:Households will invest in making their property more productive (without fear of not recouping investment because of losing access to the land)Enhanced land tenure security should facilitate land transactions from less efficient producers to more efficient producers, raising productivityCapital constrained owners can use land as collateral to finance investments on parcel
7Evaluation Methodology Randomization PFR implementation at the village levelPipeline: original plan to roll out PFR in EMICOV villages over approximately 3 yearsOrder of PFR implementation based on commune’s likelihood of benefitting from programYear 1Year 2Year 3EMICOV villages# treatment villages206055# control villages
8Link to household survey data National household living standards measurement survey - EMICOVEMICOV sample used as a basis for creating treatment and control groupsQualifying villages randomly assigned to treatment or control groupsEMICOV survey provides data for assessing project impactImplement PFR first in eligible EMICOV villagesTreatment & control villagesPFR Eligible communesEMICOV samplerandomized representative sample that underlies the EMICoV survey.The survey collects comprehensive data on household income, expenditure, employment, economic activity, and investment. The EMICoV sample covers approximately 10% of the ZDs (zones dénombrement, or census tracts) in the country.
9Evaluation implementation Rapid diagnostic in EMICOV sample villagesDiagnostic determines PFR eligible villages- does village possess characteristics that would allow the land reform activities to succeedHalf of pool of eligible villages assigned to the “treatment’ group where land reform activities will occur and half will be assigned to the “control”Expected pool of 270 eligible EMICOV villages135 would be randomly assigned to treatment135 treatment villagesEligible villagesRandom selection}270 villagesRapid Diagnostic in EMICOV villages135 control villagesNon eligible villages
10Implementation Challenges Implementation delaysSelection process included EMICOV & Non EMICOV villagesRandomization applied to EMICOV & Non EMICOV villages (separately)First round pool of eligible EMICOV villages lower than expectedTarget # treatment villages was 34- only 26 selectedUnlikely to achieve targeted pool of EMICOV villages and # of EMICOV treatment villagesAt least 120 treatment villages feasibleUpdated PFRroll out planY1 spring2008Y2 fall 2008Y32009EMICOV villagesTreatment8055ControlNon EMICOVvillages45110have agreed upon an implementation schedule that prioritizes the EMICoV sample villagesThe rural activities of the ATL component of the Compact are planned to take place in 300 villages that will be selected from 42 communes in 9 departments according to criteria to be developed by MCA-Benin and approved by MCC.
11But wait… you want randomization? Separate randomization also used to select non EMICOV villages for PFR participationParticipants perceived increased transparency and fairness in this processeach lottery participant chose a plastic ball from an urn and then opened it to see if the card in the ball contained a color-coded “yes” or a “no”. The six villages that pulled a “yes” won the opportunity to participate in MCA-Benin’s rural land tenure program,
12Next steps PFR preparatory process on going (land lexicons, etc) Analyzing baseline characteristics of sample villages through EMICOV dataQualitative work- short term proxies such as:changing attitudes towards land securityintent to investusing titles as collateralwealth effectsThe “after” comparisonfactors outside of the ATL project that will affect these measures. This is particularly important for the rural ATL component, as factors such as soil quality, rainfall, and overall accessibility (including access to markets) have a significant effect on household outcomes (with or without the ATL activities). The use of spatial data on topography, road networks, soil fertility and rainfall variation, assembled in a GIS, combined with EMICoV data (which will also contain geo-located observations), will allow for the explicit and direct integration of these variables into the impact analysis