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World Bank PSD Conference

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1 World Bank PSD Conference
Malaysia’s Economic Development with emphasis on Public-Private Collaboration ECONOMIC PLANNING UNIT By Dato’ Abd. Rahman Husin, Deputy Director General (Sectoral), Economic Planning Unit, MALAYSIA May 2006

2 BRIEFING OUTLINE 1 2 3 4 5 Malaysia, EPU & Development Planning
Public-Private Sector Collaboration –An Overview Privatization 3 BRIEFING OUTLINE Sectoral Perspective - Industrial Clusters 4 Conclusion 5


Independence : 31 August 1957 Form of State : Federated constitutional monarch Administrative Division : 13 states and 3 Federal Territories Total area : 330,242 sq km Land : 329,042 sq km Water : 1,200 sq km (Ethiopia : 1.1 million sq km – land area) Climate : Tropical; annual southeast (April-Oct) and northeast (Oct-Feb) monsoons Land Use : Arable land : 3 % Permanent crops : 12 % Forests : 68 % Others : 17 % Language : Bahasa Malaysia (Official), English, Chinese, Tamil Religions : Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity & Others MALAYSIA : GEO-POLITICAL STRUCTURE Map

Formulate policies and strategies in development planning Prepare long and medium term plans Prepare development programmes & project budget Monitor & evaluate the achievement of development programmes & projects Advise government on economic issues Initiate & undertake necessary economic research Plan & coordinate the privatization programme & evaluate its achievement Coordinate Malaysia’s involvement in the development of the Growth Triangle Initiatives Initiate & coordinate bilateral & multilateral assistance Manage the Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme EPU MALAYSIA

Director General Deputy Director General (Macro Planning Division) Sections directly under the Director General Deputy Director General (Sectoral Planning Division) Macroeconomics Secretariat to the National Economic Action Council Industry & E. Services Infrastructure & Utilities Distribution Social Services Secretariat to the Foreign Investment Committee Human Resources Agriculture Regional Economics Energy Environment General Services Development Budget Knowledge Economy Legal Adviser Privatization Technical Services No. of officers : 250 No. of staff : 150 Total : 400 External Assistance

7 Planning Horizon . . . LONG TERM PLANNING Vision 2020, 1991-2020
First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), MEDIUM TERM PLANNING Five-year development plans, such as the Ninth Malaysia Plan ( ) Mid-term review (MTR) of the five-year Plans SHORT TERM PLANNING Annual Budget PLANNING HORIZON AND MAJOR POLICY EVOLUTION

8 Major Economic Policies
Vision 2020 TOTAL DEVELOPMENT National Mission Performance & Impact Oriented Development to achieve the goals of Vision 2020 National Development Policy (NDP) Balanced Development, New Economic Policy (NEP) Growth with Equity, Post- independence Laissez-faire / export-oriented Economic and rural development

9 Transformation From an Agro-based to an Industrial-based Economy . . .
(GDP in RM billion at 1987 prices / Percentage to Total in italics) RM billion 300 250 200 57.6 % 58.1% 150 53.9 % 100 46.8 % 12.2 % 43.1 % 31.9 % 30.8 % 31.4 % 50 37.5 % 17.2 % 24.6 % 26.7 % 21.0 % 16.3 % 8.9 % 8.7 % 8.2%

10 Diversification Of Exports . . . (% to Total Exports)
Manufactures 80.5 Palm Oil 3.6 Others 4.2 Rubber 1.1 Tin 0.2 Forestry 1.2 Oil & gas 9.2 Rubber 33.4 Tin 19.6 Forestry 16.3 Others 9.8 Oil & gas 3.9 Palm Oil 5.1 Manufactures 11.9 1970 RM 5,163 million (US$2,065 million) 2005 RM 533,790 million (US$141,588 million)

11 Real GDP Growth . . . ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE Average 1971- 80
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006e 7.5 % 5.8 % 7.1 % 4.5 % 8.5 % 0.3 % 4.4 % 5.4 % 5.3 % 6.0 % ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

12 The Guiding Parameters
Open economy Mixed system Multi racial society A federation DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

13 Partners In Development . . .
through a MIXED ECONOMIC SYSTEM of free enterprise but with active government support and direction The GOVERNMENT provides the broad thrusts and sets direction for the whole economy, and ensures the achievements of socio-economic goals The PRIVATE SECTOR is free to operate and given appropriate policy, institutional and infrastructural support. DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPHY

PARLIAMENT Cabinet Ministers National Planning Council National Action Council National Economic Action Council (NEAC), National Economic Consultative Council (NECC) Draft Policy National Development Planning Committee Draft Secretariat Implementation & Coordination Unit Economic Planning Unit Private Sector Dialogue Proposal General framework Inter-Agency Planning Group (IAPG) Proposal Consultations Proposal Circulars Circulars Federal Ministries & Agencies State Governments Private Sector

15 Malaysia Incorporated Policy . . .
Launched in 1983 ~ marked the introduction of structured public-private sector collaboration Stresses the importance of cooperation between public and private sectors Establishment of several consultative panels/ dialogues comprising members from the public and private sector Budget & MITI dialogues Malaysian Business Council Government began instituting major policy initiatives PUBLIC-PRIVATE COLLABORATION

Economic liberalisation & deregulation Improving investment policies & incentives Ensuring a business-friendly environment Administrative & institutional improvements One-stop centres Systems & procedures for licensing Client’s Charter Productivity improvements – TQM, KPIs Public service delivery Providing an integrated industrial infrastructure SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES

Ninth Malaysia Plan, 2006 – 2010 The National Mission, 2006 – 2020 1. Moving the economy up the value chain 5. Strengthening the country’s institutional & implementation capacity ~ establish a more effective implementing & monitoring mechanism 2. Raising the capacity for knowledge and innovation, and nurturing “first class mentality” Five Key Thrusts TOWARDS 2020 ~ THE NEXT PHASE 3. Addressing persistent socio-economic inequalities constructively and productively 4. Improving the standard and sustainability of the quality of life To achieve the goals & objectives of Vision 2020

18 Thrust 1 To move the economy up the value chain Increasing productivity, competitiveness & value-add Generating new sources of wealth & job creation in technology- and knowledge-intensive sectors Giving a lead role to the private sector, & increasing private sector investment by providing an enabling environment for doing business, enhancing SMEs development, increasing public-private partnerships as well as attracting targeted high-quality FDI Inculcating a culture of high performance & excellence in public & private sectors including GLCs Expanding market for Malaysian products and services THE NATIONAL MISSION,

19 Thrust 5 To strengthen the institutional & implementation capacity Improving public services delivery by strengthening governance, streamlining administrative processes and measuring performance Improving usage and cost-efficiency of public sector funds by upholding financial prudence as well as improving the monitoring of implementation Addressing actual and perceived corruption in both the public and private sectors Enhancing corporate governance and delivery of private sector services by improving legal and regulatory frameworks Strengthening the role of Parliament, media & civil society THE NATIONAL MISSION,


21 PRIVATIZATION POLICY Privatization policy was launched in 1983
It represented a policy shift from public sector-led to private sector-led growth The policy has been an integral part of the national development policy of Malaysia PRIVATIZATION POLICY

22 Objective of Privatization . . .
Reduce financial & administrative burden of the Government Reduce public sector size & direct participation in the market place Promote competition, efficiency & productivity Accelerate economic growth Meet the targets of NEP, NDP & NNM PRIVATIZATION POLICY

Power RM42.3 bn / US$11.1bn Ports RM7.8 bn /US$2.1bn Airports RM10.0 bn / USS2.9 bn Urban Transportation RM12 bn/US$3.2bn Telecommunications/ multimedia RM6.6 bn /US$1.7bn Roads/highways RM31.6 bn/US$8.3bn Water treatment

Existing Projects/Activities : Outright sale (assets or shares) Lease Management-Buy-Out Management Contract New Projects : Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Build-Operate (BO) Build-Lease-Transfer (BLT)/Build-Transfer (BT) Guiding Principle : Choose a feasible method which maximize private sector investment Administrative machinery : Centralized planning and processing at the EPU Decentralized implementation by the ministries and State Governments Standardization of terms and conditions of privatization PRIVATIZATION POLICY

Total privatized projects Existing projects New projects Workers transferred to the private sector Savings (RM billion) Operating expenditure Development expenditure Proceeds from sale of Government equity KLSE market capitalization (Oct 2005) RM billion (for 40 privatized entities) % to total market capitalization 485 346 139 113,200 7.8 154.0 28.9 174.1 23.0 PRIVATIZATION POLICY

Need strong commitment by the Government Strong policy statements on private sector as the engine of growth Private sector must possess a certain level of expertise and readiness to undertake project & investment risks Require a well-developed financial market to support large scale investment Need proper planning, monitoring & coordination to ensure success in implementation Necessary to undertaken rigorous evaluation on project viability PRIVATIZATION POLICY


28 E&E Industrial Cluster
Major driver in transforming Malaysia from an agricultural to industrial exporter Took off in the early 1970s with export-oriented industrialization strategy Attractive investment climate: Investment Incentives Act 1968 & Industrial Coordination Act 1975 provided better incentives to attract FDI in E&E sector Key support institutions, infrastructure & services Industrial Infrastructure Utilities & Telecommunications Air Cargo & Port Facilities HRD – PSDC, Industrial Training Institutes, Universities and educated low-wage labour Leading industrial subsector 28% of manufacturing value added (2005) 65.8% of exports of manufactured goods 26.8% of total manufacturing sector employment Incentives FDI PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

29 Enhancing E&E Industrial Cluster – Development Strategies
Moving the value chain up by encouraging MNCs to shift more sophisticated/high tech operations to Malaysia Deepening supply chain by developing capabilities in domestic firms Increasing value added through the technology acquisition & development Generating synergy with the development of ICT & multimedia industry Nurturing global Malaysian-owned companies e.g. Globetronics, ENG Technology PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP


Strategic integrator & facilitator of development efforts in addition to its traditional role of administrator & provider of basic socio-economic infrastructure Develop long, medium and short term plans in pursuit of national socio-economic development goals Responsible for macro and socio-economic management towards socio-political, macroeconomic and financial stability Enhance liberalization and deregulation towards creation of a conducive environment for private investment Charting new directions and strategies for growth Custodian of public goods and spearheading social programmes Governance by networks – collaborate with private firms, industry associations and NGOs & engaging citizens CONCLUDING REMARKS

Provide dynamism in spearheading the economy and be the engine of growth Improve efficiency & productivity towards the creation of a competitive private sector Engage foreign investors in mutually beneficial partnership and joint ventures Embark on R&D and innovation activities for wealth creation Develop long, medium and short term plans in pursuit of national goals CONCLUDING REMARKS

Strong political and public sector support Sufficient level of empowerment Close collaboration among central agencies Ministries and implementing agencies Strong partnership between public and private sectors Effective communication strategy CONCLUDING REMARKS




37 NATIONAL MISSION, 2006-2020 Thrust 2
To raise the country’s capacity for knowledge and innovation and nurture ’first class mentality’ Promoting Islam Hadhari as a comprehensive & universal development framework for the nation Undertaking comprehensive improvement of the education system, from pre-school to tertiary level, from the aspects of curriculum and teaching to school facilities, with a special focus on raising the standard of schools in rural areas Enhancing national schools to become the people’s “school of choice” Producing universities of international standing and ensuring that tertiary institutions meet the needs of employers creating more avenues for skills development, training and lifelong learning for the labour force at all levels and for all ages, including in ICT Providing an environment and innovation system which encourages top-quality R&D and its commercialisation Refining and implementing programs which encourage the development of a strong moral and ethical culture as encapsulated in the National Integrity Plan Empowering youth & women to participate in national growth and development NATIONAL MISSION,

38 NATIONAL MISSION, 2006-2020 Thrust 3
To address persistent socioeconomic inequalities constructively & productively Eradicating hardcore poverty by 2010 as well as reducing overall poverty Reducing disparities between rural and urban population & among states & regions via sustainable income-generating avenues & by improving access to basic needs such as housing, education, healthcare, utilities & transportation Developing less developed regions through regional growth centres Bridging the digital divide Addressing inter- and intra-ethnic disparities, particularly by raising incomes through the enhancement of skills & capabilities Promoting equal opportunities in employment towards reducing disparities in occupation & income as well as enhancing integration among the ethnic groups Creating a new generation of competitive Bumiputera entrepreneurs & enterprises Reviewing past restructuring policies and programmes to evaluate their effectiveness and impact, and to focus future policies and programmes on merit and need NATIONAL MISSION,

39 Thrust 4 To improve the standards and sustainability of the quality of life Ensuring better protection of the environment and more efficient usage of natural resources Enhancing energy sufficiency and efficiency, including diversifying sources of energy Increasing the efficiency of water services delivery Providing better public transportation to relieve congestion and reduce fuel usage Improving access to and quality of healthcare and affordable housing Ensuring public safety and security Enhancing the development and promotion of Malaysian culture, arts and heritage NATIONAL MISSION,

40 Investment Incentives . . .
Pioneer status or Investment tax allowance for manufacturing companies Incentives for small- & medium-scale enterprise Training and R&D Grant Incentives for high technology companies Incentives for strategic projects Incentives for R&D SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES Back Other Incentives

41 Investment Incentives . . .
Incentives for software development Pre-packaged incentives Incentives for exports General incentives Industrial building allowance Infrastructure allowance Import duty exemptions for: raw materials / components and equipment & machinery SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES

42 Manufacturing Investment in Approved Projects, 2001- 2005
Industry Capital Investment (RM million) Number Domestic Foreign Resource-Based Food Manufacturing Beverages and Tobacco Wood & Wood Products Furniture and Fixtures Paper, Printing and Publishing Chemical and Chemical Products Petroleum Products Natural Gas Rubber Products Plastic Products Non-Metallic Mineral Products Non-Resource-Based Textiles and Textile Products Leather and Leather Products Basic Metal Industry Fabricated Metal Products Machinery Manufacturing Electronics and Electrical Products Transport Equipment Scientific and Measuring Equipment Others 1,948 369 26 193 233 123 288 61 2 144 358 151 2,771 178 12 163 487 443 1,051 353 84 93 25,612 (46.2) 3,469 ( 6.3) 142 ( 0.3) 2,267( 4.1) 1,363 ( 2.5) 6,418 (11.6) 5,004 ( 9.0) 1,787 ( 3.2) 50 ( 0.1) 1,442( 2.6) 2,050( 3.7) 1,620( 2.9) 29,303 (52.8) 1,171 ( 2.1) 57 ( 0.1) 9,308(16.8) 2,059( 3.7) 1,961 ( 3.5) 8,084(14.6) 6,157(11.1) 506( 0.9) 559( 1.0) 23,903 (31.0) 2,303 ( 3.0) 470 ( 0.6) 943 ( 1.2) 297 ( 0.4) 4,850 ( 6.3) 3,025 ( 3.9) 6,289 ( 8.2) 0 ( 0.0) 963 ( 1.2) 1,760 ( 2.3) 3,005 ( 3.9) 53,068 (68.8) 947 ( 1.2) 17 ( 0.0) 5,502( 7.1) 2,177 ( 2.8) 1,535 ( 2.0) 35,290 (45.7) 5,388( 7.0) 2,212( 2.9) 181 ( 0.2) Total 4,812 55,474 77,152 Total 49,516 (37.3) 5,772 ( 4.4) 612 ( 0.5) 3,210 ( 2.4) 1,659 ( 1.3) 11,268 ( 8.5) 8,029( 6.1) 8,076( 6.1) 50 ( 0.0) 2,405( 1.8) 3,810( 2.9) 4,625( 3.5) 82,371(62.1) 2,117( 1.6) 74 ( 0.1) 14,810 (11.2) 4,236 ( 3.2) 3,496 ( 2.6) 43,374 (32.7) 11,545 ( 8.7) 2,718 ( 2.0) 740 ( 0.6) 132,626

43 Providing An Integrated Industrial Infrastructure
TYPES Industrial Zones Special Commercial Premises SME Industrial Estates Technology Parks Industrial Corridors Business Premises SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES

RosettaNet Malaysia - launched in 2002 Joint initiative by Fed agencies (MITI, SMIDEC), State agencies (PDC), Manufacturers Association (FMM), MIMOS MNCs, SMEs & Solution Providers Enables Malaysian suppliers to link to global E&E supply chain Reduce inventory costs, time to market & lower transaction costs No. of companies successfully implemented RosettaNet Standards increased from 33 in 2004 to 327 in Mac 2006 PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP


46 RosettaNet Malaysia Partners include …
Solution Providers : Hewlett-Packard Sales Microsoft Oracle Penang Network Services Cardos Automation System KarenSoft  Technology* JSP Consulting e-Business LK Solutions B2B Commerce NDT Software Consulting SCS Computer Systems SAP Malaysia* Formfill Australasia Dagang Net NEC BGlobal MnEBay GridNode Advanced Professional (India) Rank Alpha Sterling Commerce J.D. Edwards PeopleSoft Novell Global EXchange Foreign MNCs : Intel Dell Inventec IBM Infineon Fairchild Ericsson Kemet Seagate LSI Logic Malaysian Companies : LKT Industrial Globetronics Public Packages BCM Electronics TFS Electronics (Unico) 1st Silicon Polytool Tech Leong Bee Soo Bee Ire-Tex D’nonce San Yong Enterprise Federal Packages Genting Sanyen Logistics Providers: Priority Cargo Associations & Clubs: FMM Government: MIMOS,MITI,SMIDEC,PDC, MECM, EPU

47 ICT & Multimedia Hub: MSC Milestones
1996 2003 2010 2020 The MSC: Next Leap Phase 3 Phase 1 Attain leadership in the Knowledge Based Economy Transform Malaysia into a knowledge society Create the MSC Grow MSC into a global ICT hub 1 Corridor Bill of Guarantees 50 world-class companies Launch 7 flagship applications World-leading framework of cyberlaws Cyberjaya as world-leading intelligent city Web of corridors 4,000 MSC Status & 250 MSC Global companies. 100,000 new jobs & RM69 bil revenue & RM2.5 bil exports Enhance ICT industry cluster Enhance multimedia applications Leadership towards harmonized global framework of cyber laws Link to world leading intelligent cities All of Malaysia 500 world-class companies Global test-bed for new multimedia applications International CyberCourt of Justice in MSC Become net ICT exporter Cybercities/cybercentres linked to global information highway

48 MSC Phase 1

49 Rollout MSC Cybercities/Cybercentres….
MSC Next Leap (2004 – 2010) Rollout MSC Cybercities/Cybercentres…. Kulim Hi-Tech Park Bayan Lepas, Penang

50 Flagship Applications

51 Companies in MSC INSOURCE OUTSOURCE LOCAL Target Market Global
Services delivered internally Partner with external provider Telekom Malaysia Petronas User: BCB Provider: EPIC-I (EDS) LOCAL Target Market Shared Services Pooling of resources to render common services cost- effectively, leveraging on economies of scale Global /Offshore

52 Well developed, low-cost infrastructure and strong government support
Malaysia is ranked 3rd globally for global outsourcing location attractiveness Well developed, low-cost infrastructure and strong government support Created 8,000 high-value job opportunities in MSC SSO MSC created 12,000 jobs by end of 2005 Source: A.T. Kearney’s2004 Offshore Location Attractiveness Index: Making Offshore Decisions

Factor Conditions for Growth of MSC & Public-Private Sector Collaboration Firm Government commitment Comprehensive package of incentives Bill of Guarantees Infrastructure Cyberlaws Incentives Competitive cost of doing business Emphasis on human capital development SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES Cont…

Cont… Factor Conditions for Growth of MSC & Public-Private Sector Collaboration Effective Institutional Mechanisms for Policy Directions, Implementation, Monitoring & Coordination International Advisory Panel Implementation Council Dedicated ‘one-stop’ agency – Multimedia Development Corporation (MDeC) with investor-friendly mindset to facilitate private sector investment SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES

Bill of Guarantees Provide a world-class physical and information infrastructure Allow unrestricted employment of local and foreign knowledge workers Ensure freedom of ownership by exempting companies with MSC Status from local ownership requirements Give the freedom to source capital globally for MSC infrastructure, and the right to borrow funds globally Provide competitive financial incentives, including no income tax for up to 10 years or an investment tax allowance, and no duties on import of multimedia equipment SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES Cont…

Bill of Guarantees Cont… Become a regional leader in intellectual property protection and cyberlaws Ensure no Internet censorship Provide globally competitive telecommunications tariffs Tender key MSC infrastructure contracts to leading companies willing to use the MSC as their regional hub Provide an effective one-stop agency – Multimedia Development Corporation SUPPORTING PRIVATE SECTOR INITIATIVES

57 Biotechnology Industry Cluster
Position biotechnology as a new engine of growth & wealth creation Transform and enhance value creation of the agriculture sector through biotechnology Capitalise on strengths of biodiversity to commercialise discoveries in health-related products Ensure growth opportunities in industrial bio-processing and bio-manufacturing Establish R&D centres of excellence and accelerate technology development via strategic acquisitions Build human resource capability Create an enabling financial, legislative and institutional framework Foster greater public-private sector collaboration through Bio-Nexus network PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

Competitive & Leading Biotech Industry PHASE I ( ) Capacity Building PHASE II ( ) Science to Business PHASE III ( ) Global Business HR Development Est. Advisory and Implementation Councils Est. Biotechnology Corp. Capacity Building in R&D Develop Agricultural, Healthcare and Industrial Biotechnologies & Bioinformatics Develop Legal and IP Framework Regional Biotechnology Hubs Develop BioNexus Malaysia as a brand Promote FDI participation Initial job and industry creation Develop expertise in drug discovery & devt. New Products Technology Acquisition Intensify FDI participation Intensify Spin-off Companies Strengthen Local and Global Brands Develop Capability in Technology Licensing Job Creation Consolidate Strengths and Capabilities in Technology Further Develop Expertise in Drug Discovery and Devt. Leading Edge Technology Business Create greater value through Global Malaysian Companies Re-branding of BioMalaysia as Global Hub

59 Competitive Advantage
Generating New Sources of Growth Growth Areas Competitive Advantage Agro-biotechnology Higher value added crops and foods Natural products Health-Biotechnology Bio-Generics Diagnostics Vaccines Industrial Biotechnology “Green” Chemistry Biocatalysts Biomaterials Bio-Manufacturing Strong Government support Well established agro and medical research base One of 12 mega diversity countries Create niche market Built upon local capability Demand for green technology applications Potential/new markets e.g. EU Environmental concerns

60 Bio-Nexus Network IAB IPN UPM/MARDI Dengkil Industry NINPVB Bio-Nexus
Agro-bio Healthcare-bio Industry Bio-Nexus NINPVB Enstek, Nilai Industrial-bio Natural Products Vaccines Food Cluster Genome Centre UKM Interactions between institutions & industry Platform Technology

61 Financial Services Cluster Labuan IOFC
5,152 offshore companies from 93 countries LOFSA – a one-stop agency Promoting Labuan as a unique IOFC with specialization in Islamic financial products & services Strengthening legislation & guidelines Enhancing competitiveness to sustain attractiveness Incentives to attract strong foreign entities with global market linkages PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

62 Palm Oil Industrial Cluster (POIC)
Lahad Datu POIC - to add value to the oil palm industry, create jobs & business opportunities Designated palm oil industrial cluster & logistic hub for east ASEAN Developed by POIC Sabah Sdn. Bhd. with support from Federal Government Equipped with adequate physical infrastructure to attract private investment in upstream & downstream industries PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

63 Halal Hub Development of halal product industry cluster to capture the growing share of the world halal market potential Credibility and worldwide recognition of JAKIM’s halal certification system and logo Availability of needed resources and strong government support Establish Halal Industry Corporation Provision of various incentives as well as programmes for improvement in product quality and standards, training, promotion, branding & market access International M’sia Halal Showcase (MIHAS) PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

64 TIGeR’s Supply Chain Model
Vertical Integration of local suppliers Global Buyers Government 1st Tier Suppliers Horizontal Integration with other businesses, services and government into the GSC 2nd Tier Suppliers Service Providers Govt. Agencies

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