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Genetic modification techniques. Tools of biotechnology Collect DNA Restriction enzymes –Blunt end –Sticky end Ligase enzymes Cloning DNA carriers –Bacteria.

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Presentation on theme: "Genetic modification techniques. Tools of biotechnology Collect DNA Restriction enzymes –Blunt end –Sticky end Ligase enzymes Cloning DNA carriers –Bacteria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genetic modification techniques

2 Tools of biotechnology Collect DNA Restriction enzymes –Blunt end –Sticky end Ligase enzymes Cloning DNA carriers –Bacteria –Virus –yeast

3 Other tools to transfer DNA –Electroporation –DNA gun Host cells

4 Cloning NOT making an entire organism in this case Means using living organisms to reproduce large numbers of pieces of DNA So you put your piece of DNA into a vector, and the vector is called a clone But still also means lots of bacterial cells all derived from one cell

5 DNA carriers Bacteria, viruses, yeast and bullets

6 Bacterial vectors Use the plasmids from bacteria


8 Plasmids are removed from bacteria, cut with restriction enzymes, new material inserted and the DNA ligase enzymes seal the cuts Put back into bacteria, where it can be reproduced each time the bacteria divides –Produces many copies of the gene of interest –Produces the protein associated with gene of interest eg insulin –Engineered bacteria may have new function

9 Viral vectors Virus is string of DNA (or RNA) in a protein coat You can splice new genes into the DNA of a virus and then put it back inside the protein coat If the virus is a bacteriophage (infects bacteria), it will then put the new DNA into the bacteria Bacteria then replicates the viral DNA

10 Viruses are used to infect animal cells (animal cells are quite hard to engineer so viruses are used a lot) –Especially retroviruses (HIV) Viruses often only infect certain cells so you can use a certain virus to infect a particular type of cell –Eg lung virus to put better genes into lungs of cystic fibrosis sufferers

11 Microballistics You can make really small bullets out of gold Gold is great because it doesn’t react with anything and it has high density so little bullets have mass If you coat the little bullets with DNA and shoot cells you sometimes hit the nucleus and the DNA gets integrated into the genome

12 Microballistics is the only way to do genetic modification on grass

13 Electroporation Electrocute a cell which damages the membranes, and they then can take up DNA from the solution they are in

14 Host cell preparation Host cells are usually bacteria –Can be plants –Rarely animals because of ethics Prokaryotes and eukaryotes use different enzymes for transcription and translation of proteins, so can’t use one to the other transfers

15 Some other chemical stuff

16 DNA synthesis Scientists can now make their own one sided strands of DNA (called oligonucleotides) If you make two complimentary strands they will join together Why do it? –To make gene probes You make your sequence and see if it will join with the bit you are testing

17 Can find mutations –Compare your oligonucleotide with the natural strand of DNA

18 Automatic protein sequencing To make a protein you use DNA as the pattern for the amino acid chain So scientists want to know the sequence But the sequences are huge so they break the DNA into bits A machine does the work

19 Polymerase Chain Reaction Way to copy a little bit of DNA many times in vitro Cloning takes weeks, PCR takes hours Samples can be smaller and really old Done with PCR polymerase which is an enzyme that copies a template strand

20 How to do PCR 1.Heat up the DNA to 95˚C and it will unwind and separate into two chains 2.Add primer that matches the end sequences of the DNA and cool to 40˚C so they anneal 3.Add lots of the four bases and some DNA polymerase and heat to 72˚C 4.The polymerase slides down the strand of single DNA adding the bases to make the complimentary strand 5.Repeat as required

21 Why do PCR? Forensic testing by police Anthropologists and achaeologists doing testing on fossils Gene testing for inherited diseases Testing for HIV and other viruses Cancer cell testing – bowel cancer Body identification

22 Gel electrophoresis Uses restriction enzymes which cut DNA into different lengths Each DNA sample produces different quantities of different lengths DNA is VERY NEGATIVE because of the phosphates in the nucleotides

23 Having cut up your DNA you put in wells at one end of an agarose gel block

24 How to do gel electrophoresis Take your DNA and multiply the sample up with pcr Cut the DNA with restriction enzymes, every different sample will give different size bits of DNA because restriction sites will vary Put cut up DNA in well of agarose gel block Put block into machine that runs current through the gel

25 The gel is like a net to the DNA, so little bits can move through it easier than long bits of DNA There is a positive electrode at the far end of the agarose gel which attracts the negative DNA Little bits of DNA travel further through the gel, and make a stripe in the gel, big bits don’t go far, and their stripe is closer to the well. Results are taken as photos

26 Interpreting the PCR If you share genes you will share restriction enzyme sites! So if you do a PCR on two people who share a lot of genes their stripe pattern looks the same


28 You have to stain the DNA – ethidium bromide is commonly used, it fluoresces in UV light Can remove the DNA out of the gel, and it still works

29 Southern blotting Used to find genes of interest in combination with –Gel electrophoresis –Hybridisation There also exist northern and western blots

30 How to do it! 1.Cut DNA with restriction enzymes 2.Separate DNA with gel electrophoresis 3.Take DNA from gel to a solid support like nylon or nitrocellulose sheet by southern blotting 1.Gel is soaked in base to denature it 2.Gel put on paper towel with ends in salt solution

31 3.Then put a membrane on top of the gel, and put paper towels on top. 4.The towels will draw the salt solution through the gel and up into the towels 5.The dna comes off the gel and gets stuck on the membrane 4.A oligonuleotide which is radioactive is stuck on the genes – it only sticks to the genes of interest 5.X-ray film is laid on the membrane. The radioactivity leaves marks on the film

32 Sources of DNA/genes for cloning 1.Take them from the organisms and grow up fragments in bacteria. You have lots of bits of genome in different bacteria – called a genomic library 2.Complementary DNA DNA has ‘introns’ which don’t seem to code for anything (junk DNA) and exons that code for protein

33 To get rid of the introns use reverse transcriptase (an enzyme from retroviruses) Put the edited mRNA into something un- named. Probably a bacteria – it will use the mRNA to make a strand of DNA, and then the single strand can be doubled using PCR Has no control sequences (promotors) only exons

34 RFLP anlaysis Restriction fragment length polymorphisms Refers to the pattern you get when you cut up lengths of DNA and separate on a gel To see the pattern you have to 1.Cut DNA with restriction enzymes 2.Gel electrophoresis

35 3.Southern blot 4.Use radioactive probe to find the genes of interest 5.Autoradiograph (take a photo with x- ray film) –Used to find genetic markers, and inherited in Mendalian way –Used for mapping genome, finding genetic disorders and for forensics


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