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Istanbul, June 12, 2006. New Workplace New Education Kai-ming Cheng University of Hong Kong Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia World.

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Presentation on theme: "Istanbul, June 12, 2006. New Workplace New Education Kai-ming Cheng University of Hong Kong Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia World."— Presentation transcript:

1 Istanbul, June 12, 2006

2 New Workplace New Education Kai-ming Cheng University of Hong Kong Forum on Job Creation in Eastern Europe & Central Asia World Bank/Government of Turkey June 12-13, 2006 Istanbul

3 Education: Whats New? The Contexts Society: new workplace Society: new workplace Education: new developments Education: new developments Learning: new understanding Learning: new understanding

4 Change in society & workplace Change in society & workplace

5 Then, Then, Industrial society ….

6 Industrial Society: the Pyramid

7 Assumptions … Large organizations Large organizations Parallel departments Parallel departments Layers and ranks Layers and ranks Detailed division of labour Detailed division of labour Tight structures Tight structures Rules and regulations Rules and regulations Credential-based recruitment Credential-based recruitment i.e. bureaucracies

8 Peoples assumptions … Lifelong career Lifelong career Long-term employment Long-term employment Presumed loyalty Presumed loyalty Upward mobility Upward mobility Escalating incomes Escalating incomes Foreseeable future Foreseeable future Predictable retirement Predictable retirement …….. ……..

9 People in Workplace: Industrial Work in specific jobs Work in specific jobs Engage in relatively isolated tasks Engage in relatively isolated tasks Are specialized Are specialized Are ranked Are ranked Implement pre-set designs Implement pre-set designs Follow prescribed procedures Follow prescribed procedures Abide by rules and regulations Abide by rules and regulations Recruited by qualifications Recruited by qualifications …… ……

10 Assumption: People are Specialized, Classified & Ranked

11 Industrial society: Education Preparing people For specific occupations at specific ranks For specific occupations at specific ranks Providing them with credentials Providing them with credentials Based on the knowledge and skills Based on the knowledge and skills

12 Industrial society: Secondary Education Therefore, Prepare young people for higher level education Prepare young people for higher level education Providing them with credentials Providing them with credentials Based on the knowledge and skills Based on the knowledge and skills Or employment, if they fail Or employment, if they fail

13 Industrial society: Secondary Education Teaching through subjects Teaching through subjects Helping students through examinations Helping students through examinations Providing them with credentials Providing them with credentials Based on the knowledge and skills Based on the knowledge and skills

14 Curriculum as Subjects

15 Knowledge & Skills Knowledge & Skills PreschoolPrimarySecondaryTertiary End of education: Next stage of education

16 The overhaul … The overhaul …

17 Mobile phones Mobile phones CEO of Samsung: We are not producing telephones. We are not producing telephones. We are producing fashion! We are producing fashion!

18 G2000 G2000 Michael Tien: When it works, Its obsolete! Customers dont know what they want!

19 Cantonese Cuisine (9) Chaozhou Cuisine (3) Peking Cuisine (5) Other Chinese Cuisines (5) Miso, Miso, Kiko m.a.x. concepts: concepts: mezz, EXP, café Landmark, thai basil, can.teen, little basil, the basil, fresh basil, rice paper, Café Express, Deli and Wine, Wine, Curtain Up, Concerto Bar & Cafe Starbucks Coffee Over 320 shops Restaurants: Maxims

20 Manufacturing Design Production Then Now

21 Insurance: Traditional

22 Insurance: Agents

23 Insurance: Brokers

24 Retail Banking Counter

25 Customized Services

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27 ATM

28 Core Functions Outsourcing

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30

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32 Outsourcing

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34 Just-in-time publishing PrintingInventoryShippingInventorySales PrintingSales

35 Post-industrial: SMEs

36 Task Forces Client TASK FORCE

37

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39 Project Groups Task Forces Production Teams Client Groups Accounts Deal Team Post-industrial: Large Organisations

40 Task Force

41 Post-industrial: Free-lancers

42 Now, Now, Post-industrial society …

43 Industrial: Scale Production

44 Post-Industrial: Customized Products

45 Hong Kong (around 291,000 registered companies) 99 under 100 (SME) 99 under 100 (SME) 69% of employees 69% of employees 94% under 20 94% under 20 40% of employees 40% of employees 86 under 10 86 under 10 33% of employees 33% of employees (June 2005)

46 Hong Kong … Free-lancers 220,000 Free-lancers 220,000 estimated vis-à-vis 2,200,000 in registered companies

47 The United States Business Enterprises 98 under 100 86 under 20 National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002

48 Project Groups/Task Forces Small Enterprises Free-lancers The Civil Service (Traditional) Post-industrial: Workplace

49 Post-industrial: SMEs

50 Project Groups Task Forces Production Teams Client Groups Accounts Deal Team Post-industrial: Large Organisations

51 Task Force

52 Post-industrial: Free-lancers

53 Project Groups/Task Forces Small Enterprises Free-lancers The Civil Service Post-industrial: Workplace

54 Organization: Organization: small, small, flat flat loose loose Mode of work: Mode of work: Teamwork Teamwork Collaborative design Collaborative design Ill-defined labour division Ill-defined labour division Blurred specialization Blurred specialization Integration of expertise Integration of expertise Post-industrial: Workplace

55 Many free-lancers Many free-lancers Many unemployed Many unemployed Frequent change of jobs Frequent change of jobs Frequent change of careers Frequent change of careers Ever-changing networks Ever-changing networks Frequent change of partners Frequent change of partners …….. …….. Post-industrial: Individuals

56 Workplace & Society Then Then Large & Pyramidal Large & Pyramidal Procedures, rules & regulations Procedures, rules & regulations Lifelong careers Lifelong careers Lifelong qualifications Lifelong qualifications Now Small & flat Communications & relations Multiple careers On-demand, just- in-time learning

57 Communication Communication Learning on-demand, just-in-time Learning on-demand, just-in-time Team-work Team-work Personal responsibilities Personal responsibilities Solving problems Solving problems Integrating expertise Integrating expertise Conceptualising complex matters Conceptualising complex matters ……. ……. Post-industrial: Expectations

58 Readiness to adapt to changes Readiness to adapt to changes Self-reflection Self-reflection Self-discipline & Self-management Self-discipline & Self-management Capacity to query, challenge, innovate Capacity to query, challenge, innovate Flexible human relations Flexible human relations Crossing occupational borders Crossing occupational borders Moving across cultures Moving across cultures ……. ……. Post-industrial: Expectations

59 However, If the end of education is changed No longer mainly for credentials No longer mainly for credentials No longer limited to knowledge and skills No longer limited to knowledge and skills Education has broader ends to meet Education has broader ends to meet There are lifelong attributes to develop among young people There are lifelong attributes to develop among young people

60 Optimism about life Optimism about life Passion about nature Passion about nature Commitment to society Commitment to society Commitment to nation Commitment to nation Perseverance amidst odds Perseverance amidst odds Readiness to expand one s capacity Readiness to expand one s capacity Broad base experiences Broad base experiences Experience in organising Experience in organising …… …… Lifelong attributes

61 Appreciation of arts and music Appreciation of arts and music Attitude of helping and caring Attitude of helping and caring Seriousness about the details Seriousness about the details Eagerness to interact with people Eagerness to interact with people Ability of a second or third language Ability of a second or third language Some experience of science discovery Some experience of science discovery Some experience of social investigations Some experience of social investigations …… …… Lifelong attributes

62 Love for peace Love for peace Sense of justice Sense of justice Consciousness of equity Consciousness of equity Awareness of the deprived Awareness of the deprived Comfort with other cultures Comfort with other cultures Basic understanding of sex Basic understanding of sex Facing moral dilemmas Facing moral dilemmas Rudimentary analysis and synthesis Rudimentary analysis and synthesis …… …… Lifelong attributes

63 Belief in rationality Belief in rationality Tolerance of diversity and plurality Tolerance of diversity and plurality …. …. Many of such are achievable only during the schooling years! Lifelong attributes

64 Implications for education 1. Drastic decrease of manual workers 2. Expanded need for higher education 3. Challenge to occupational identity 4. Intensified human interactions and demand for human attributes 5. Demand for more flexible learning modes and paths

65 Meanwhile … New understanding of Learning!

66 In Education, there is only one major core business: Learning!

67 Professional Accountability Basic questions: What is learning? How people learn? How people learn?versus How do we teach? How do we teach? How do we organize teaching? How do we organize teaching? How do we supervise the organisation of teaching? How do we supervise the organisation of teaching?

68 What is learning? Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont.

69 Assumptions about Education Learning is about absorption of knowledge Learning is about absorption of knowledge Learning takes place in institutions (schools, classrooms, subjects, syllabuses, examinations) Learning takes place in institutions (schools, classrooms, subjects, syllabuses, examinations) Learning takes place in individual brains Learning takes place in individual brains Learning takes place before using Learning takes place before using Learning is about the known Learning is about the known Education is about knowledge & skills Education is about knowledge & skills Everybody learns the same Everybody learns the same …… ……

70 Assumptions about Education There are smart kids & dumb kids There are smart kids & dumb kids Some can learn, some cannot Some can learn, some cannot Only smart kids deserve more education Only smart kids deserve more education School help keep the gate for learners School help keep the gate for learners Education helps classify human beings Education helps classify human beings Education helps ranks human beings Education helps ranks human beings Human beings are trained into occupations Human beings are trained into occupations Learning is more specialised when higher Learning is more specialised when higher ……….. ………..

71 However, ….. Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know. Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know.

72 What is learning? Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know. Learning is the transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know. Learning is the learners active construction of knowledge. Learning is the learners active construction of knowledge.

73 Learning New understanding of Learning Learning as Knowledge Construction Learning as Knowledge Construction Learning through Experience Learning through Experience Learning through Application Learning through Application Learning from Co-learners Learning from Co-learners Learning as Improvement Learning as Improvement

74 Learning Corollaries about Learning Learning takes place through meaningful human activities Learning takes place through meaningful human activities Understanding and application of knowledge are necessarily intertwined Understanding and application of knowledge are necessarily intertwined Individuals learn differently Individuals learn differently

75 Therefore … Challenges to Paradigms Challenges to Paradigms

76 Paradigm of Screening Challenges from reality: Rapid expansion of higher education Rapid expansion of higher education Unemployment among less-educated Unemployment among less-educated Middle-age unemployment Middle-age unemployment

77 Screening Screening Challenge to the paradigm: Belief in innate ability Belief in innate ability There are smart kids and dumb kids There are smart kids and dumb kids Belief in using knowledge for screening Belief in using knowledge for screening versus lifelong & multi-source learning versus lifelong & multi-source learning Belief in using single indicators (e.g. IQ) Belief in using single indicators (e.g. IQ) versus multiple intelligence versus multiple intelligence

78 Paradigm of Specialisation Challenges from reality: Division of labour blurred Division of labour blurred Frequent change of jobs & occupations Frequent change of jobs & occupations Job-study mismatch Job-study mismatch Demand for generic competence Demand for generic competence Diluted & delayed specialisation in higher education Diluted & delayed specialisation in higher education …… ……

79 Specialisation Challenges to the Paradigm: Belief that education is for classifying people Belief that education is for classifying people Belief in peoples occupational identity Belief in peoples occupational identity Belief that education should be more specialised at higher levels Belief that education should be more specialised at higher levels …… ……

80 Paradigm of Teaching Challenge from reality: Students also learn that are not taught Students also learn that are not taught Students also learn from alternative sources Students also learn from alternative sources Technology has made acquisition of knowledge much easier Technology has made acquisition of knowledge much easier

81 Teaching Challenges to the paradigm: Belief that learning is transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know Belief that learning is transmission of knowledge from those who know to those who dont know Belief that learning is about the known and not the unknown Belief that learning is about the known and not the unknown

82 Paradigm of Study Challenges from reality: The expectation for good characters and personalities The expectation for good characters and personalities The demand for human relational and social competence The demand for human relational and social competence The renewed importance for values, attitudes, emotions, ethics, principles, … The renewed importance for values, attitudes, emotions, ethics, principles, … ……….. ………..

83 Study Challenges to Paradigms Belief in academic study as proxy for learning Belief in academic study as proxy for learning Belief in classroom learning as the only reliable learning Belief in classroom learning as the only reliable learning Belief in examination scores as the only trustworthy measure of human capacity Belief in examination scores as the only trustworthy measure of human capacity ….. …..

84 Paradigm of Schooling Challenges from reality: Call for flexible learning anywhere, anytime, anybody Call for flexible learning anywhere, anytime, anybody Learning is recognised beyond institutions Learning is recognised beyond institutions Credit-unit Bank in Korea Credit-unit Bank in Korea Lifelong Learning Passport in Taiwan Lifelong Learning Passport in Taiwan Administrative considerations have taken over learning needs Administrative considerations have taken over learning needs

85 Schooling Challenges to Paradigms Belief that learning takes place only in schools Belief that learning takes place only in schools Belief that learning takes place only during structured activities Belief that learning takes place only during structured activities Classes, time-tables, subjects, specialised teachers, set menu curriculum, Classes, time-tables, subjects, specialised teachers, set menu curriculum, Belief that learning should be under the control of schools and institutions Belief that learning should be under the control of schools and institutions

86 After all … Industrial analytic, analytic, regulated, structured, clear-cut, uniform, convergent, normative, neat, assertive and reducible to parameters Post-industrial holistic, flexible, loose, fuzzy, plural, divergent, liberal, complex, speculative and tolerant of multiplex concepts

87 Reforms in Education: Reforms in Education: a scan

88 Reform trends Expansion of higher education Expansion of higher education Expanding learning opportunities Expanding learning opportunities Blurring subject boundaries Blurring subject boundaries Delay of specialisation Delay of specialisation Compressing formal learning Compressing formal learning Creating diverse learning activities Creating diverse learning activities Introducing moral elements Introducing moral elements

89 Reform trends Reforming examinations Reforming examinations Alternative ways of organizing school learning Alternative ways of organizing school learning Enriched teachers/facilitators team Enriched teachers/facilitators team Strengthening of professional capacity and autonomy Strengthening of professional capacity and autonomy Mobilization of community resources Mobilization of community resources …

90 Example I Higher education: Higher education: expansion of learning opportunities

91 Education System: Evolution

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93

94 Europe: + 25% Europe: + 25% China: +100% China: +100% Taiwan: oversupply Taiwan: oversupply Korea: oversupply Korea: oversupply …… ……

95 Example II Generic capacity: Generic capacity: reduction and delay of specialization

96 Specialization: Evolution Common Core Generic Capacity Building

97 Specialization: Evolution Common Core Generic Capacity Building Engineering: Washington Accord (70%) Engineering: Washington Accord (70%) Business Schools model (50%) Business Schools model (50%) Journalism schools model (30%) Journalism schools model (30%) Europe: Bologna Process (3 + 2 + 2) Europe: Bologna Process (3 + 2 + 2) UK: Foundations Degree (2 + 3 + 3) UK: Foundations Degree (2 + 3 + 3)

98 Example III Curriculum Reform: Curriculum Reform: Broadened learning experiences

99 Learning Experiences/ KLAs Classrooms Beyond Classrooms Beyond Campus Cyber- Space

100 Blurring subject boundaries Classrooms Beyond Classrooms Beyond Campus Cyber- Space Key-Learning Areas (Hong Kong)Key-Learning Areas (Hong Kong) Co-curriculum/After School EducationCo-curriculum/After School Education Reduction of formal curriculumReduction of formal curriculum Japan 30% Japan 30% Singapore 33% Singapore 33% Rise of International BaccalaureateRise of International Baccalaureate

101 Curriculum as KLAs

102 Example IV Increase of non-study learning Increase of non-study learning Co-curricula, partnership with workplace

103 Classes Study Student Activities Executives of Organisations Internship, Placement, Mentorship Design, Music, Drama, Sports Community Services Visits to the Rural, Deprived International Exchange

104 Classes Academic Knowledge Alternative Learning Leadership Learning Workplace Learning Creativity Learning Learning to Serve Learning to Care Learning across Cultures

105 Classes Academic Learning Learning to live together Leadership Learning Workplace Learning Creativity Learning Learning to serve Learning to care Learning cross cultures Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance Exchange, Youth Conferences Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork Mentorship

106 Classes Academic Learning Learning to live together Leadership Learning Workplace Learning Creativity Learning Learning to serve Learning to care Learning cross cultures Classrooms, Libraries, Laboratories Student Residence, Student Unions, Associations & Clubs, Young Leaders Music, Sports, Art, Drama, Dance Exchange, Youth Conferences Rural Visits, NGOs, Community Services, Church Internship, Practicum, Placement, Fieldwork Mentorship Tacit Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Social Competence Social Competence Values Education Values Education Civic Education Civic Education Character Education Character Education Personality Education Personality Education Moral Education Moral Education

107 After all … We are facing Diversity, Uncertainty, Change, … Plus Learning anywhere, anytime

108 OECD: Key Competencies Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups Acting autonomously Acting autonomously Using tools purposively and interactively Using tools purposively and interactively OECD: The Definition and Selection of Competencies: Theoretical and Conceptual Foundations Project (DeSeCo)

109 Key competencies Interacting in socially heterogeneous groups The ability to relate well to others The ability to relate well to others The ability to cooperate The ability to cooperate The ability to manage and resolve conflicts The ability to manage and resolve conflicts

110 Key competencies Acting autonomously Acting autonomously The ability to act within the big picture The ability to act within the big picture The ability to form and conduct life plans and personal projects The ability to form and conduct life plans and personal projects The ability to defend and assert ones rights, interests, limits, and needs The ability to defend and assert ones rights, interests, limits, and needs

111 Key competencies Using tools purposively and interactively Using tools purposively and interactively The ability to use language, symbols, and text interactively The ability to use language, symbols, and text interactively The ability to use knowledge and information interactively The ability to use knowledge and information interactively The ability to use technology interactively The ability to use technology interactively

112 Thank you!


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