Presentation on theme: "WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Dr. Bård Anders Andreassen, NCHR, UO Introduction - The Nobel Symposium on the Right to Development."— Presentation transcript:
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Dr. Bård Anders Andreassen, NCHR, UO Introduction - The Nobel Symposium on the Right to Development (RtD), October 2003. Sen, Sengupta, Alston Two main points - the vagueness of the notion of RtD - the failure of the human rights community to interact: The development community has not embraced the RtD - The Rights-based Approach to development seen as an alternative to the right to development. Why? Imply?
Three topics 1. What is the current debate on the RtD? 2. What is the relationship between the RtD and the rights-based approach to development? 3. How can a rights-based approach to development influence development - in terms of substance - in terms of process? - Handbook in Human Rights Assessment WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05
History of the concept UN Charter (55), common article 1 of the ICESCR and ICCPR K. MBaye 1966, and 1970 1977: the HR Commission »Study on the international dimensions of the right to development ; »how are international and global issues linked to obstacles to human rights realization (root causes)? The Declaration adopted in 1986, 146/1/8: Resolution, not binding, but reflects general international law »Reconfirmed in Vienna 1993 1998: Open-ended working group of experts, and an Independent Expert. Arjun Sengupta »5 reports, follow up by Sub-Commission High Commissioner of HR - high priority to RtD (Robinson)
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 The UN Declaration on the Right to Development Article 1 …. an inalienable right by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development …….. in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realised persons/peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to and enjoy processes of development the human person is the central subject of development in the sense of being the active participant and beneficiary of the right to development Article 2 (1)
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Key components Right to Development as a composite right »not just the sum of all human rights »if one right is violated, all rights are affected »causality of rights »normative interconectedness »Requires availability and access to sufficent resources incl. economic growth and international co-operation The importance of participation »rights of human agency: information, association, organisation, expression etc
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Key components, contd Operationalisation of the RtD » RtD is right to a process » progressive realization of all human rights » capability approach to development (Amartya Sen) Basic needs and social justice: article 2.3: the fair distribution of the benefits resulting from development National policies (art 2.3, 3.1, 8); international obligations (art 3,4,7) focuses on three sets of rights: the right to health, food and education
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Operationalisation Development compact (RtD-DC) involves »Focusing on selected rights, eg. MDG consistent with human rights goals »Designing a national development programme, human rights-based »Accontability incl. consultation nwith stakeholders (civil society etc) »International collaboration and commitment: contractual »International fund for development compacts? »Assessing results »Monitoring mechanisms Development compact as an ideal model of rights-based international cooperation? »NEPAD »PRSPs »WBs CDFs etc
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Value added of the RtD? If the RtD represents a realisation of all sectors of HRs, what is being added? Complementarity among rights, not least between economic and social rights to health, food, education, and civil and political rights »Causal connections Helps to focus on process (obligation of conduct) and not just outcome (obligation of result): popular involvement and participation International cooperation as a human rights obligation »Imperfect obligations A holisitic view of development, using human rights as standards Development compacts as operationalisation?
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Arguments against the RtD, obstacles duty-holder –Perfect and imperfect obligations what is the substantive content justiciability issue – an integrated approach fo justiciability? when is the right violated – how to measure what are the enforcement remedies
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 The rights-based approach to development An alternative to the right to development? –less controversial –a more operational concept in bringing HR and development together? Main issue: Mainstreaming of human rights in policies and development interventions Main components »Goal of development – expand and ensure HR »Process: participatory, accountable, non-discriminatory »Emphasises the prime responsibility of the State
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 How can a rights-based approach to development influence development programs? Handbook in Human Rights Assessment: State Obligations, Awareness and Empowerment (NORAD/NCHR 2001) Purpose of the Handbook - a tool for assessing the human rights dimensions, and effects of developments projects - perceived/real effects may be explicit - perceived/real effects may be indirect - identify: likeliness of positive/negative effects - to ensure that development aid projects do not hamper or impede international human rights standards
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Scope of the Handbook The various stages of the Project Cycle –Preparatory phase: - the (draft) project document - appropriation - agreement –Implementation phase: – Follow up and mid-term review To identify the need for a full scale human rights impact analysis, or to obtain more information
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 Human Rights Assessment rests on two pillars - the implementation of the states treaty obligations - the ability of individuals/groups to claim their rights through awareness, empowerment and participation Rights empowerment involves power to influence public decisions power to participate in decision-making power to express issues for public debate power to negotiate on values and interest power to influence traditions and customs
WB SEMINAR ON THE RIGHT TO DEVELOPMENT, WASHINGTON 12 05 05 The Human Rights Assessment Model addresses whether and to what extent a project is consistent with human rights treaty obligations or the partner country enhances human rights awareness within the target population and/or other persons/groups affected by the project empowers people targeted or otherwise affected to exercise and enjoy their human rights enhances the involvement of people in local and national decision-making, and planning/implementaiton of development projects