5 What is the “glue” that holds societies together? What provides people with a sense of belonging?Why are these bubbles coming out of my head?
6 Emile Durkheim Concerned with social order and stability People are a product of their social environmentHuman potential is socially based, not biologically basedSocieties are built on social factsRapid social change produces social strain
7 Key Terms for Durkheim Social Facts Anomie Patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person.AnomieSocial control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and a sense of purpose in society
9 Conflict is necessary to produce social change and a better society I think today I will establish a free and classless societyI, too, have these bubbles popping out my head!
10 Karl MarxHistory is a continuous clash between conflicting ideas and forcesEconomic changes are most importantClass conflict between capitalist class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariat)AlienationFetishism of CommoditiesSociety should be changedCriticized for too much emphasis on class struggle
11 It really isn’t possible for sociologists to be value-free is it? Sociology should be value-free – it should exclude the researcher’s personal values and economic interestsIt really isn’t possible for sociologists to be value-free is it?Then, we need to gain the ability to see the world as others see it
12 Max WeberBureaucracies – determines the social relationships among peopleThese are destructive to human vitality and freedomRationalization – the modern world has become dominated by structures devoted to:EfficiencyCalculabilityPredictabilityTechnological ControlEmphasized the goal of value-free inquiry & necessity of understanding how others see the world
13 Structural Functionalist Based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system (Durkheim)Societal ConsensusCommon set of values, beliefs, behavioral expectationsSociety composed of inter-related partsSocial structures and institutions persist because they help society persistStrains
14 Functionalism & Merton Manifest FunctionsIntended or overtly recognized by participants in a social unitExamplesLatent FunctionsUnintended functions that are hidden and unacknowledged by participantsDysfunctionsUndesirable consequencesMay threaten a society’s capacity to adapt and survive
15 Conflict PerspectiveGroups in society are engaged in continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources (Marx, Weber)Encompasses several branches:Neo-Marxist (class struggle)Racial-Ethnic (exploitation)Feminist (gender issues)
16 Symbolic Interactionist Examines people’s day-to-day interactions and their behavior in small groups (micro-level)Society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groupsSubjective RealityEach person’s interpretation or definition of a given situation (shared or not shared symbols)
17 Post-ModernExisting theories have not successfully explained social life in a contemporary societySociety focused on a shift from production to consumptionPostmodern SocietyInformation explosionRise of a consumer societyGlobal Village