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Incorporating an Integral approach to experiential education: A new foundation to expand and deepen learning NSEE, Dallas, TX October 2009 Beth Sheehan,

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Presentation on theme: "Incorporating an Integral approach to experiential education: A new foundation to expand and deepen learning NSEE, Dallas, TX October 2009 Beth Sheehan,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Incorporating an Integral approach to experiential education: A new foundation to expand and deepen learning NSEE, Dallas, TX October 2009 Beth Sheehan, Southern New Hampshire University Mark McDonald, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Kirsty Spence, Brock University

2 Purpose of todays workshop Introduce Ken Wilbers Integral approach and its relevance to EE Introduce Ken Wilbers Integral approach and its relevance to EE Demonstrate the application of the Integral approach and its impact on student learning and development Demonstrate the application of the Integral approach and its impact on student learning and development Discuss research, evaluation and assessment Discuss research, evaluation and assessment Promote discussion & feedback from you! Promote discussion & feedback from you!

3 Experiential Learning Theory Two (2) major theoretical streams in the literature Two (2) major theoretical streams in the literature –Individual : construction of personal knowledge Dewey, Kolb, Boud and Walker, Mezirow, Piaget, Schön Dewey, Kolb, Boud and Walker, Mezirow, Piaget, Schön –Collective: shared knowledge through cultural, historical and social relationships Argyris, Argyris & Schön, Fenwick, Vince, Yorks and Kasl Argyris, Argyris & Schön, Fenwick, Vince, Yorks and Kasl

4 all quadrant/all level model (AQ/AL) learning and problem solving from holistic perspective oriented by 4 central perspectives Left Hand Path Right Hand Path ExteriorInterior Sources: Wilber 1995/2000a/2000b Collective Individual Upper Half Lower Half upper & lower halves left & right hand paths 4 quadrants: Upper Left (UL) Upper Right (UR) Lower Left (LL) Lower Right (LR) Upper Left Interior Individual Upper Right Exterior Individual Lower Left Interior Collective Lower Right Exterior Collective

5 Individual Collective InteriorExterior Upper Left Students subjective feelings, experience and intentions within an experienceStudents subjective feelings, experience and intentions within an experience Capturing UL: Reflection and dialog exercises on individual intentions, expectations, feelings, beliefs, assumptions, etc. Upper Right Objective, empirical and measurable aspects of the students experienceObjective, empirical and measurable aspects of the students experience Capturing UR: Observations and descriptions of physical actions and behaviors, physiological changes, and/or others reactions to those behaviors Lower Left Shared meanings held by the collective group embedded in the context of the experienceShared meanings held by the collective group embedded in the context of the experience Capturing LL: Culture, values, rituals, morals of the collective Lower Right All objective, empirical, and measurable organizational aspects (systems, structures, processes)All objective, empirical, and measurable organizational aspects (systems, structures, processes) How each functionally fits to create an effective organizationHow each functionally fits to create an effective organization rganizational behaviors and associated outcomes that do or do not match desired behaviors of the system. Capturing LR: Organizational behaviors and associated outcomes that do or do not match desired behaviors of the system. (Jowdy, McDonald, & Spence, 2004)

6 Integral, Developmental & EL Theory Developmental theory (Cook-Greuter, 2004) Developmental theory (Cook-Greuter, 2004) –Lateral development engage students motivational levels engage students motivational levels subject content, information, and knowledge, subject content, information, and knowledge, new skills that expand, deepen, and enrich the way students currently perceive reality, to ultimately apply their new competencies to widening circles of influence (Cook-Greuter, 2004, p. 277). new skills that expand, deepen, and enrich the way students currently perceive reality, to ultimately apply their new competencies to widening circles of influence (Cook-Greuter, 2004, p. 277). –Vertical development reshapes students current thinking, idea generation & interpretation reshapes students current thinking, idea generation & interpretation expanded interpretations of experiences & reality expanded interpretations of experiences & reality more effective behaviors when dealing with interpersonal conflict, decision making, and leadership (Cook-Greuter, 2004, 2005; Rooke & Torbert, 2005; Torbert, 1991; Torbert et al., 2004). more effective behaviors when dealing with interpersonal conflict, decision making, and leadership (Cook-Greuter, 2004, 2005; Rooke & Torbert, 2005; Torbert, 1991; Torbert et al., 2004).

7 7 Action LogicPercentageFocus of Awareness Magician/Alchemist1% Interplay: awareness, thought, action, effect transforming self & others Strategist4% process & goal oriented systems view Individualist10% everything is relative own ability to have impact Achiever30% results, goals, plans objective reality Expert38% consistency & improvement; rationality Diplomat12% acceptance & belonging socially expected behaviour Opportunist5% own needs & interests self-protection; acts on impulses Developmental Theory Leadership Development Framework (LDF)

8 Integral, Developmental & Experiential Integral Theory Integral Theory –Holistic approach to understanding and experiencing the world Developmental Theory Developmental Theory –Way to measure personal growth that results from integral approach to EL Experiential Learning Experiential Learning –Process that provides the type of structure and environment for vertical development to occur –Creates challenges that can potentially transform ones view of reality

9 Experiential Learning Curriculum featuring Integral Theory Sport Event Management Sport Event Management –Granite Bowl: Undergraduate/graduate enrollment –Classroom as organization: Students divided in 6 departments –Teacher as guide/coach/CEO –Emergent leadership – encourage distributed leadership –Community event

10 Experiential Learning Curriculum featuring Integral Theory Course management using four quadrants Course management using four quadrants Upper Left– Utilize student reflection Upper Left– Utilize student reflection –Individual intentions, expectations and goals –Test new behaviors –Ego development Upper Right – Observations Upper Right – Observations –Fit of individual actions and behaviors in the event management organization –Reactions of others to individual behaviors in the organization –Individual jobs/tasks

11 Experiential Learning Curriculum featuring Integral Theory Course management using four quadrants Course management using four quadrants Lower Left – Students establish culture & values Lower Left – Students establish culture & values –Core purpose and values (Collins & Porras, 1997) –Tradition and past legacy/history –Shared goals Lower Right – Organizational design Lower Right – Organizational design –Horizontal, departmental structure –Agenda, meeting minutes and reporting structure –University processes –Operations and marketing systems associated with event management

12 Integral Approach No quadrant is separate or more valuable than the other No quadrant is separate or more valuable than the other All are correlated with and dependent on the other All are correlated with and dependent on the other Interactions between the quadrants lead to important opportunities in the Classroom as Organization model to promote vertical, student development Interactions between the quadrants lead to important opportunities in the Classroom as Organization model to promote vertical, student development

13 Impact: student reflections The culture and environment that we have in the Granite Bowl and the tasks that are clearly outlined for the outside work that we have has established a foundation that make it easier to communicate. As we divide tasks between department members it makes it easier for other staff members to contact the right member and get information flowing more easily than it may have been. Also, with the shared values and goals between everyone that works in the Granite Bowl we understand probably now more than ever that communication is crucial for the success of this event and we are working harder and harder to gain that. The culture and environment that we have in the Granite Bowl and the tasks that are clearly outlined for the outside work that we have has established a foundation that make it easier to communicate. As we divide tasks between department members it makes it easier for other staff members to contact the right member and get information flowing more easily than it may have been. Also, with the shared values and goals between everyone that works in the Granite Bowl we understand probably now more than ever that communication is crucial for the success of this event and we are working harder and harder to gain that.

14 Impact: student reflections The culture/environment and systems that are part of the GB organization are connected to the challenges I discussed above because of the team concept. There isnt a true leader in our group of students so everything we do must go through each other and be approved. There has to be more trust between us than we have ever been used to and there is a new sense of responsibility. On one wants to let anyone down, yet we are all adapting to this new system; and everyone adapts differently. The culture/environment and systems that are part of the GB organization are connected to the challenges I discussed above because of the team concept. There isnt a true leader in our group of students so everything we do must go through each other and be approved. There has to be more trust between us than we have ever been used to and there is a new sense of responsibility. On one wants to let anyone down, yet we are all adapting to this new system; and everyone adapts differently. How can you help solve this problem/overcome this challenge. Solve it however, in terms of helping the COLLECTIVE group adjust - changes in the environment. Systematic changes, cultural changes? How can you help solve this problem/overcome this challenge. Solve it however, in terms of helping the COLLECTIVE group adjust - changes in the environment. Systematic changes, cultural changes?

15 Why Integral Theory? Captures the essence of EL – its not just the experience, its all that surrounds it (Furco, 2007) Captures the essence of EL – its not just the experience, its all that surrounds it (Furco, 2007) Instructors Instructors –Structure and develop an experience-based curriculum –Design assignments and reflections –Constant reference point throughout an experience Students Students –Framework to make sense and interpret their experience –Deepens learning, widens perspectives, improves higher order thinking skills –Leads to personal development – self and social awareness, ego-development

16 Research project Investigating the impact of experience- based curricula on students vertical development Investigating the impact of experience- based curricula on students vertical development Mixed methods design Mixed methods design –Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) –Interviews Control and experimental Control and experimental Pre and post – T1, T2 and T3 data collection Pre and post – T1, T2 and T3 data collection

17 Thank you Beth Sheehan e.sheehan@snhu.edu Mark McDonald mcdonald@sportmgt.umass.edu Kirsty Spence Kirsty.spence@brocku.ca


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