Presentation on theme: "In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom English Language ArtsIn a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) ClassroomApproximate Presentation Duration: 3 – 4 hoursTargeted Audience: TK Teachers
2AcknowledgementsThe following county offices of education developed the TK professional development modules:With contributions from:Fresno County Office of EducationMerced County Office of EducationCCSESA’s CISC School Readiness SubcommitteeContra Costa County Office of EducationHumboldt County Office of EducationOrange County Department of EducationSacramento County Office of EducationSanta Clara County Office of EducationShasta County Office of EducationCoordinated by:Sacramento County Office of EducationSeveral county offices of education contributed to the development of the TK professional development modules… either by developing the content and/or by conducting a pilot session with school district teachers and administrators.This project was coordinated by the Sacramento County Office of Education through funding from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.Funding provided by:2
3WELCOME The information in this presentation is based on: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations and Key Early Education ResourcesCalifornia Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1Current Research
4Language and Literacy Development “Intentional teachers use their knowledge of child development and literacy learning to supply materials, provide well-timed information, guide discussions, make thoughtful comments, ask meaningful questions, and pose calibrated challenges that advance children’s learning.”Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, p. 40Have participants review quote on slide and write down initial reactions/thoughts regarding key strategies to support language and literacy development.Have participants share in small group table discussions.Ask participants to share key ideas from small group discussions with the larger group.
5Norms Start and end on time Silence cell phones Listen to and contribute thoughts and ideas5
6Session OutcomesExamine the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Kindergarten Common Core Standards for English Language ArtsReview English Language Development for English learners and the English Language Arts Common Core StandardsIdentify instructional strategies for transitional kindergarten (TK) to support a modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate
7BackgroundCalifornia was one of just four states (along with Connecticut, Michigan, and Vermont) with a cut-off date later than December 1. In most states, children must turn five by September 1 in order to start kindergartenResearch indicates that beginning kindergarten at an older age improves children’s social and academic development(Cannon, J.S. & Lipscomb S., 2008)
8Senate Bill 1381 (Simitian) The Kindergarten Readiness Act of 2010 Senate Bill 1381 provides flexibility for districts in implementing TK that best meet the needs of students.It is important to note, that all kindergarten regulations apply to TK. Children are not mandated to attend TK as the existing statute does not require parents to enroll children in kindergarten.Children are not mandated to attend, but district must offer TK for birthdays between September 2 and December 2 ([Education Code Section 48000]; CCSESA, 2011).In , school districts began to offer a TK program for children whose fifth birthdates fall from November 2 through December 2.The date will continue moving back one month over each subsequent year so that by and, each year thereafter, children who are five on or before September 1 are eligible for kindergarten.The law also requires school districts to develop a transitional kindergarten program, for children who will no longer be age eligible for kindergarten.Transitional kindergarten is the first year of a two-year program that provides a “modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate” (Education Code section 48000).Source: Early Edge California
9Developmentally Appropriate Practice “…involves teachers meeting young children where they are (by stage of development), both as individuals and as part of a group; and helping each child meet challenging and achievable learning goals”Knowing about child development and learningKnowing what is individually appropriateKnowing what is culturally importantNational Association for the Education of Young Children (www.naeyc.org/DAP)As districts work to provide the “modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate ”we need to clarify our definition of “developmentally appropriate”.Developmentally appropriate practice, often shortened to DAP, is an approach to grounded teaching both in the research on how young children develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education. Its framework is designed to promote young children’s optimal learning and development. For more information, visit the National Association for the Education of Young Children website:3 Core Considerations of DAPKnowing about child development and learning – Knowing what is typical at each age and stage of early development is crucial. This knowledge, based on research, helps us decide which experiences are best for children’s learning and development.Knowing what is individually appropriate – What we learn about specific children help us teach and care for each child as an individual. By continually observing children’s play and interaction with the physical environment and others, we learn about each child’s interests, abilities and developmental progress.Knowing what is culturally important – We must make an effort to get to know the children’s families and learn about the values, expectations, and factors that shape their lives at home and in their communities. The background information helps us provide meaningful, relevant, and respectful learning experiences for each child and family.9
10Developmentally Appropriate Practice Principles of Child Development and Learning – Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8Copple, C., & Bredekamp. S., (Eds.). (2009). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth Through Age 8. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children, (pp ).The NAEYC has published a valuable resource that can be utilized to support the implementation of developmentally appropriate TK programs.Have participants read the principles and select one that resonates with you. Be ready to quickly share why you selected it. Depending on time available and group dynamics, participants might share in pairs, small groups, or as a whole group.If time permits, additional pair, small group, or whole group discussion might focus on sharing current practices that exemplify or are connected to selected principles.Review the handout “Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children B-age 8”. Review this document with the group.
11Universal Design for Learning Provide Multiple Means of RepresentationPerceptionLanguage expressions and symbolsComprehensionProvide Multiple Means of Action and ExpressionPhysical actionExpression and communicationExecutive functionProvide Multiple Means of EngagementRecruiting interestSustaining effort and persistenceSelf-regulationAs developmentally appropriate TK programs are planned, implemented, and refined, it is also critical to assure that they are grounded in Universal Design for Learning to ensure access to all components of the program for all students. UDL principles promote highly individualized and flexible instruction and are designed to move all learners from novice to expert as they become strategic learners prepared for a lifetime of learning.The goal of education in the 21st century is the mastery of the learning process–novice learners become expert learners who want to learn, know how to learn strategically, and who, in their own highly individual and flexible ways, are prepared for a lifetime of learning.UDLUniversal Design for Learning (UDL) is access to all aspects of learning for all students. Through careful planning for modifying their curriculum, instruction, grouping, and assessment techniques, teachers can be well prepared to adapt to the diversity in their classrooms.
12The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources All domains of the Preschool Learning Foundations correspond to the California Kindergarten Content StandardsPreschool Learning Foundations Language and Literacy domain aligns with the California Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language ArtsPreschool Learning Foundations Mathematicsdomain aligns with the California Common CoreState Standards for MathematicsAlignment Document includes key early education resources:CA Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations • CA Content Standards • Common Core State Standards • Head Start Child Development Early Learning FrameworkOptional:Provide copies of the CA Preschool Learning Foundations, and the Common Core State Standards for each table; give each participant a copy of the Alignment Document.Highlight (if needed, browse through the document with participants):The Preschool Learning Foundations are a critical step in the California Department of Education’s efforts to strengthen preschool education and school readiness and to close the achievement gap in California. The Foundations cover the following domains:Social-Emotional DevelopmentLanguage and LiteracyEnglish-Language Development (for English learners)MathematicsVisual and Performing ArtsPhysical DevelopmentHistory-Social ScienceScienceTogether, these domains represent crucial areas of learning and development for young children.Competencies are included as foundations for children “at around 48 months of age” and “at around 60 months of age.”Source: Expanding Access to High Quality Preschool Programs, 2003 California School Boards Association12
13Overview of Alignment California Preschool Learning Foundations California Kindergarten Content StandardsCommon Core State StandardsSocial-Emotional DevelopmentHealth, Education Mental, Emotional, and Social HealthLanguage and LiteracyEnglish-Language ArtsEnglish-Language DevelopmentMathematicsVisual and Performing ArtsPhysical DevelopmentPhysical EducationHealthHealth EducationHistory-Social ScienceScienceThis table represents an overview of the alignment among the nine domains of the Preschool Learning Foundations with the content of the CA Kindergarten Content Standards and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS).The alignment demonstrates that early learning is a significant part of the educational system and that the knowledge and skills of young children are foundational to future learning.Understanding the links between the different ages and different early childhood services allows educators to build on children’s earlier learning and prepare them for the next educational challenge.Visual and Performing Arts, Physical Development, Health, History-Social Science and Science are all separate domains in the Preschool Learning Foundations. The Common Core includes English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects.Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.13
14Overview of Language and Literacy Explain this table; share its location in the Alignment Document.The Preschool Learning Foundations and the CCSS in ELA cover the same key areas of learning.For every sub strand of the Preschool Learning Foundations, there is a corresponding CCSS.This table shows the alignment between strands and sub strands in the Preschool Foundations and the Standards in the CCSS for ELA.Show how the Foundations and CCSS are aligned, indicating a continuum of learning:Refer to the Alignment Document handout (Table 1.3, Overview of Language and Literacy)Open Alignment document and ask:What similarities or differences do you notice in the Alignment?How could teachers use the Alignment document to “modify the kindergarten curriculum so that it is age and developmentally appropriate”? (Education Code Section 48000)What do you notice/jumps out at you?What questions do you have?What impact/implications on/for your work in TK?Link to the Alignment Document is included in the resources(Alignment Document)Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.14
15Overview of Language and Literacy Refer to 2-page handout document that refers to the alignment between language and literacy foundations and the Common Core State Standards for English language artsSource: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.15
162012 English Language Development (ELD) Standards Key IdeasAlign with the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsHighlight and amplify the key language knowledge, skills, and abilities in the CCSS critical for English learners to access, engage with, and achieve in grade-level academic content while learning EnglishUse in tandem with the CCSS and not in isolationRefer to copies of the 11-page document, California Department of Education English Language Development Standards for Kindergarten.AB 124 was signed by the Governor on October 2, It required the CDE to develop new ELD Standards aligned to the CCSS ELA Standards. On November 7, 2012, the State Board of Education (SBE) adopted the 2012 ELD Standards.ELD Standards shall be aligned by grade level and be as rigorous and specific as the Common Core State Standards ELA Standards. EC (a)Like the CCSS has an integrated literacy model, the ELD Standards are also integrated, cross-disciplinary literacy-language development opportunities.ELs must have full access to high-quality English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies content, as well as other subjects, at the same time as they are progressing through the ELD level continuum. The CA ELD Standards are intended to support this dual endeavor by providing fewer, clearer, and higher standards:Fewer: Those standards that are necessary and essential for development and success;Clearer: A coherent body of standards that have clear links to curriculum and assessments; andHigher: Correspondence with the elevated standards in the CCSS.
17ELD Standards: Organization and Elements 5 proficiency levels:Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced, and Advanced3 proficiency levels:Emerging, Expanding, and BridgingDescription of ELs’ abilitieswithin each language proficiency level and domain (L-S-R-W)Descriptions of what ELs can do as they enter, progress through, and exit proficiency levels, and early and exit descriptions for language modesStandards for four grade-level spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12Standards for the same grade levels/spans as ELA CCSS: one set for each level K-8, and spans for 9-10 and 11-12Standards organized by ELA domain: listening, speaking, reading, and writingStandards organized by mode (collaborative, interpretive, productive) and learning about how English works. Alignment with CCSS/strands is integrated and explicitly notedThis table highlights some differences between the 1999 and 2012 ELD Standards.
18ELD Proficiency Levels ELD ContinuumEmergingExpandingBridgingExtent of Linguistic SupportSubstantial Moderate LightThe ELD Continuum notes what ELs know and can do at three proficiency levels: emerging, expanding, and bridging. There are also descriptors that can help you see a student’s progress within a proficiency level.“We have looked at the critical components of the TK program it must be developmentally appropriate, grounded in UDL, aligned with both Preschool Foundations and CCSS and new ELD standards. Now we will narrow our focus and concentrate on literacy in the TK program.”The Standards overview document also points out that students with less English language proficiency need more linguistic support (scaffolding) than students at higher levels of English proficiency. However, more scaffolding/support may be needed even for students at high proficiency levels if the concept is new or more cognitively demanding.We have looked at the critical components of the TK program it must be developmentally appropriate, grounded in UDL, aligned with both Preschool Foundations and CCSS and new ELD standards. Now we will narrow our focus and concentrate on literacy in the TK program.Use appropriate scaffolding strategiesfor each level of the ELD continuumto help English learners
19Interdisciplinary Approach to Literacy “The interdisciplinary approach to literacy … is [based on] extensive research establishing the need for college and career ready students to be proficient in reading complex informational text independently in a variety of content areas.”“The Standards set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines” (Common Core State Standards for ELA & L, 2013, p. iii).Kindergarten Common Core Standards describe the skills and knowledge students can demonstrate at the end of the kindergarten year.Students apply CC Standards to a range of text types from various cultures and periods.Literature sources should include stories, (adventures, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, fiction, and myth), dramas, and poetry.Informational text should include: biographies; autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science and the arts; technical text including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics.(CDE, 2013, Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy, p. v)19
20Integration of Language and Literacy “…when taking an in-depth look at one domain, one needs to keep in mind that, for young children, learning is usually an integrated experience. For example, a young child may be concentrating on mathematical reasoning, but at the same time, there may be linguistic aspects of the experience.”Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2008, p. xiiEven though the domains of the PLF, Volume 1 (i.e., Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English Language Development, and Mathematics) are presented separately, the domains are integrated in practice which is illustrated in the Preschool Curriculum Framework (PCF), a companion document to the Preschool Learning Foundations.20
21The TK Learning Environment: A Reflection of Languages, Cultures, and Community Reflecting the cultures of the students and families in your classroom helps all students feel comfortable in their surroundings.This slide shows use of environmental print to reflect all languages spoken at home and in the surrounding community. Remember that language and literacy skills in the home language transfer to those in English, so honoring the home language is very important.21
22The TK Learning Environment Sample Learning AreaReading Area (Books displayed at eye level):A variety of fiction & informational books with engaging illustrations and simple text, including books in home languages representative of classroom populationSimple alliteration books so students can learn beginning sounds while playing with languagePhoto albums & class books made by the students to help them connect reading to their own lives and also support language development as children discuss the photos and compose captionsLearning Centers:Very young children need to make choices about which activities to engage in and learning areas are a great way to provide many opportunities for choice on a daily basis. Teacher intentionality is crucial here to be sure that highly engaging activities and materials align with the Foundations and the Kindergarten Common Core Standards, as well as use of open ended questions and prompts to build oral language and critical thinking skills.Reading Area:This is a great way to provide a quiet space for students to choose a book to sit and read alone, with a partner, or in a small group. Pillows, couches, and canopies/shelving to soften and close off the area can make it a very special place to read and be read to.Both fiction and non-fiction books should be included in the library, as well as books that reflect the languages and cultures of the children in the classroom.22
23The TK Learning Environment This slide shows a TK reading area.Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide:What else might enhance this reading area?23
24The TK Learning Environment Sample Learning AreaDramatic Play Area:Costumes and theme-based props to engage children in hands-on, social interactions that support language and literacy developmentDramatic play areas are intentionally designed to:Support the development of oral language and vocabularyProvide opportunities for purposeful and playful encounters with peers and adultsContribute to the print-rich environment.Provide sheltered opportunities for Englishlearners to practice their English.It is important to rotate materials, costumes, and props regularly to intentionally support language and literacy development and to keep learning areas interesting and enticing for all students. Adult interactions with students that are purposeful and promote playful encounters with literacy will enhance language and literacy development.Creating print-rich learning areas will support the development of children’s literacy and oral language skills. Supply all learning areas with portable writing materials (i.e., clipboards, pencils, paper). Incorporate books related to the learning area.Encourage students to dress up and pretend. The scripts they create for their play are stories. Creating their own stories in play helps them understand stories that are read to them and is preparation for reading. Dramatic play also strengthens social-emotional development.Small group and individual interactions with peers provide English learners with social interaction and authentic opportunities to practice their English.24
25The TK Learning Environment This slide shows a TK Dramatic Play Center. Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide:(e.g., It’s an authentic restaurant beyond the usual playhouse, including a table with eating utensils, phone, cash register, flowers, etc.)“Children learn best when instruction is relevant and meaningful to them. When children can apply language and literacy learning to their everyday interests and activities, that learning will be genuine, deep, and lasting” (Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 24).“Learning is enhanced when the classroom environment reflects a community of literacy learners” (Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1997, 87). Teachers play a critical role in establishing this community through their interactions with individual children and the collaborations they foster among peers. Intentional teachers use their knowledge of child development and literacy learning to supply materials, provide well-timed information, guide discussions, make thoughtful comments, ask meaningful questions, and post calibrated challenges that advance children’s learning.“Young children’s motivation to learn to read and write comes from an intrinsic desire to communicate. But they need adult guidance and support to begin the journey toward full literacy with competence and enthusiasm” (Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 40).Ask participants to identify additional materials that could intentionally support development of language and literacy skills related to reading language arts and enhance this dramatic play area.Potential responses: a variety of writing materials and paper (i.e., clipboards, pencils, markers, whiteboard), environmental print (i.e., signs, food containers, menus, related books).Ask participants how the dramatic play area can be enhanced to support English learners.Potential responses: ethnic food containers, menus in various languages.Children learn best when instruction is relevant and meaningful to them. When children can apply language and literacy learning to their everyday interests and activities, that learning will be genuine, deep, and lasting.Source: Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 2425
26The TK Learning Environment Sample Learning AreaWriting Area:Assortment of paper, envelopes, and a variety of writing tools, including but not limited to, pencils, pens, markers, paint, crayons, and chalk neatly displayed along with easels for children to practice writingEnvironmental print, books, word/name cards, letter-making tools, student name cards, and alphabet stripsVariety of writing tools that have been adapted to provide access for all childrenWriting Area:Set up a well-stocked writing area and frequently add new materials that can support units of study or spark student interest in writing.Ask participants to identify materials they might see in a writing center that may be related to the restaurant in the dramatic play area (e.g., sample menus with paper and pens to make their own, grocery list making materials, pictures of foods they can write about, etc.).Consider finding ways that students can write using alternatives to pencils and pens, such as writing in a tray of sand or using large chalk or paint.In addition to a Writing Center, be sure to include writing materials in other interest areas, inside and outside, if possible. Elicit some ideas from participants or have them look at pages in the Framework for suggestions for interactions and strategies.26
27The TK Learning Environment This slide shows a Writing Area. Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide (e.g., inviting and clearly defined area; neat and organized; print-rich including a word wall, new vocabulary words, examples of a variety of materials for writing; there are enough materials).Ask participants to identify materials that could intentionally support development of writing skills.Potential responses: a variety of writing materials and paper (i.e., clipboards, pencils, markers, whiteboard, environmental print, assortment of envelopes and notecards, name and work cards, alphabet strips, letter-making tools).27
28Alignment between Preschool Learning Foundations and CCSS for ELA The purpose of the Foundations is to promote understanding of children’s learning at around 48 months and at around 60 months of age in a high-quality preschool/Transitional Kindergarten program.They are for all children, including children learning English and those with disabilities.Domain = Language and LiteracyStrand = ReadingSub strand = Phonological AwarenessInclude this slide as a handout for participants.Review the alignment between the Preschool Foundations at around 60 months for phonological awareness to the PA standard for Common Core Standards. Please note that since the publication of the Alignment Document, the adopted Common Core State Standards for California (March 2013) includes (f): Blend two to three phonemes into recognizable words.Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.28
29Alignment Comparison (Cont.) * Added by California to the CCSS.† The footnote that appears in the published version of this foundation has been omitted so that the alignment can be highlighted.Include this slide as a handout for participants.Review the alignment between the Preschool Foundations at around 60 months for language use and conventions to the speaking and listening standard for Common Core Standards.Have participants identify the similarities and differences. Have small groups work to identify sample activities to support students’ development along this continuum. Include modifications and differentiated instruction to meet the diverse needs of these young learners.Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.
30ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Promote oral language and vocabulary developmentExtend conversations and use open-ended questions to expand students’ language development and comprehensionIntroduce new vocabulary words using realia or concrete examplesProvide multiple opportunities for students to express their ideas and use new vocabulary words in small- and large-group settings“Young children need to be exposed to a rich and varied vocabulary and the rules of discourse in order to develop the language facility that underlies the late acquisition of literacy, interpersonal problem- solving skills, and other cognitive and social abilities.”Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, 2007, p.15Discuss with group – invite input.“Young children need to be exposed to a rich and varied vocabulary and the rules of discourse in order to develop the language facility that underlies the late acquisition of literacy, interpersonal problem-solving skills, and other cognitive and social abilities.” (Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, p.15)Optional activity:Have each group take a theme-based Dramatic Play Area (e.g., restaurant, doctor’s office, grocery store, etc.) and quickly brainstorm what they might include and then list the oral language and vocabulary they might expect to model for or elicit from the children as they engage in the activities in the center.
31ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Strengthen interest in printEnvironmental PrintFood packages and couponsNewspapers, magazines, and catalogsGreeting cards and calendarsMenus and recipesConnect sounds to wordsMake charts of poemsCreate word wallsUse pointersBuild knowledge of concepts about printDiscuss with group – invite input.Other examples: books, billboards, comics, containers, coupons, flyers, labels, office supply packages, posters, telephone books.
32ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Support writing developmentProvide multiple opportunities for fine motor developmentProvide a variety of writing instruments and materials in all learning areasModel and engage students in interactive writingProvide opportunities for drawing, dictating, and writingDisplay students’ writingDiscuss with group, invite input.Optional activity:Have each group take a theme-based Dramatic Play Area (e.g., restaurant, doctor’s office, grocery store, etc.) and quickly brainstorm what they might include and then list the writing skills they might expect to model for or elicit from the children as they engage in the activities in the center. Also ask them to consider how their ideas might connect to the writing center to reinforce oral language and vocabulary development.
33ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Support phonological awareness through:Playful and interactive experiences to manipulate soundsAlliteration through songs, chants, and booksInteractive opportunities to blend and segment onsets and rimesClapping syllables, using snapping blocks for word countsExposure and practice with rhyming wordsDiscuss with group, invite input.For children in kindergarten, studies have found that several basic cognitive abilities transfer across languages that facilitates the development of literacy skills and supports the acquisition of a second language. These abilities include the using their knowledge of letter-sound relationships to begin to decode print. “In the task of decoding, the basic linguistic knowledge and cognitive processes involved are letter recognition, phonological awarness, letter-sound relationships (phonics), the blending of sounds to form words…Phonological awareness and decoding ability in Spanish have been found to be related to the ability of bilingual children in grade one to decode texts in English.” (California Department of Education, Preschool English Learners – Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning, 2009, pgs )
34ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Build letter knowledge with…SongsBooksPoemsName cards and common wordsLetter matching activitiesTactile experiences to identify and form lettersLetter sounds tied to movementDiscuss with group, invite input.Example tactile experiences: forming letters in the air (air writing), in shaving cream, sand, Playdough, pipecleaners, etc.
35ELA - Early Literacy Strategies Read aloud books in a variety of genresConfirm students’ understanding of text by providing opportunities to:respond to questionsidentify characters and major eventsretell familiar storiesProvide family literacy opportunitiescreate lending library including books in the child’s home languageDiscuss with group, invite input.Discuss with participants that confirming student understanding of text in TK provides a critical foundation for the more complex comprehension skills children will need to develop.
36Differentiating Instruction Provide a variety of open-ended materials to engage students in multi- sensory experiencesAdapt instructional materials and learning activities to address the diverse needs of studentsVary the degree of scaffolding to extend learning opportunities for students who need additional time to build competence and to increase rigor for students who demonstrate masteryUse flexible grouping and various instructional formats to maximize support for students’ individualized needsActivity:Think/Pair/Share other approaches to differentiate instruction.36
37Strategies for English Learners Scaffolding:Make/use talking sticks and/or provide toy microphones for children who may be more reluctant to attempt using expressive languageUse manipulatives, realia, or photos to support vocabulary and language developmentMove from non-verbal responses to one-two words, yes/no, frame sentences, simple answersProvide clear signs and picture cues for interest areasEncourage families to play with language and count syllables in songs/chants/rhymes in their home language because those skills will transfer to EnglishOPTIONAL: Display/demonstrate talking sticks, musical instruments, clapping out syllables, and play with language through chanting, songs, and rhymes.OPTIONAL:Ask participants to share example of effective strategies that they have used to support English learners in their classroom. Share out in large group.37
38Universal Design for Learning Goal:Create accessible environments and experiences for all students.The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model considers three principles for learning opportunities:Multiple means of engagementMultiple means of representationMultiple means of expressionA universal design for learning is an approach to ensure that the needs of diverse learners are addressed in the transitional kindergarten classroom.The Universal Design for Learning model is based on three principles for learning opportunities that include:Multiple means of engagementMultiple means of representationMultiple means of expressionFor additional UDL information, refer to Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)Optional:Provide visual examples of adaptations for students with disabilities38
39Assessment Approaches Use multiple measures to monitor students’ progressObservation and anecdotal notesWork samples and portfoliosVideo and audio recordingsChecklist of phonological awareness skillsAsk participants to share any other ideas/strategies/processes for collecting phonological awareness data.39
40Supporting Phonological Awareness Play with Language/RimeAlliterationNow we will shift the focus on how we can support the development of phonological awareness in the TK classroom.Phonological awareness is an important skill that children start to acquire during preschool and continue to build in early elementary school as they learn to read. It is considered the kingpin to learning to read with fluency by the end of second grade. In preschool and TK, teachers can use alliteration books such as, “Dr. Seuss’s ABC Book,” “Willoughby Wallaby Woo,” by Dennis Lee and “Some Smug Slug,” by Pamela Duncan.Playing with language is critical at this age, especially taking words apart and putting them together. Children should be hearing the “rime“ or portion of the syllable that starts with its vowel (usually the part that rhymes when you delete the beginning consonant and add another, as in ”rat,” “mat,” “cat.” The “at” is the rime and is also what makes it rhyme. There are many resources available, such as “There’s a Wocket in My Pocket,” by Dr. Seuss and “Jamberry,” by Bruce Degen. Repetitive, cumulative patterning books like, “The House That Jack Built,” by Diana Mayo and “The Bag I’m Taking to Grandma’s,” by Shirley Neitzel are excellent as well, especially for English learners as choral reading promotes risk-taking.Repetitive-Cumulative40
41Let’s Begin Strand: Reading Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness At around 48 months, the foundations for phonological awareness are written only for older four-year olds because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 months and 60 months of ageAt around 60 monthsOrally blends and deletes words and syllables without the support of pictures or objectsOrally blends the onsets, rimes, and phonemes of words and orally deletes the onsets of words, with support of pictures or objectsFor most Foundations, typical behaviors at around 48 months and 60 months are described, with the exception of the phonological awareness sub strand where the behaviors are only described for children at or around 60 months. This is because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 and 60 months of age. Phonological Awareness is defined by the Foundations as an oral language skill: An individual’s sensitivity to the sound (or phonological) structure of spoken language. In transitional kindergarten, some students may be working toward isolating and pronouncing the individual phonemes in three phoneme consonant-vowel-consonant words (initial, medial vowel, and final sounds) to prepare for kindergarten and beyond. For example, r-a-t, f-u-n, h-i-m.OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: Think, Pair, Share: What will this look like at the end of TK?Discuss how these are the building blocks for decoding down the road and that students enter TK at varying levels and will require differentiated instruction.One great way to model segmentation of phonemes is through an activity called Elkonin Boxes. Elkonin boxes are an instructional method used in the early elementary grades to build phonological awareness by segmenting words into syllables or sounds. They are named after Elkonin, the Russian psychologist who pioneered their use. The "boxes" are squares drawn on a piece of paper or a chalkboard, with one box for each syllable or phoneme, depending on what kind of segmentation is being done. To use Elkonin boxes, a child listens to a word and moves a token or unifix cube into a box for each syllable or phoneme. In some cases different colored tokens may be used for consonants and vowels or just for each phoneme in the word. A fun activity for TK students would be to make three boxes on the floor using colored tape and have individual student “jump out” the sounds. (For example, for the word cat, the student jumps into the first box and says, “/k/,” second box and says “/a/” and the third box and says, “/t/”). Everyone repeats /k/ /a/ /t/ aloud together and then the teacher says, “cat.”41
42Let’s PracticeReview Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness (at around 60 months)Review Common Core State Standard for ELAPhonological AwarenessDemonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds(phonemes)Recognize and produce rhyming wordsCount, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken wordsBlend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken wordsThe Alignment Document highlights the alignment between the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Common Core State Standards in the area of phonological awareness.Refer to the Alignment Document handout on phonological awareness as referenced in slide 28 (Alignment Document page 43).42
43Let’s PracticeCreate a lesson that would differentiate for all the learners in your TK classroom. Be sure to include strategies to support English learners and children with disabilitiesAsk participants to review the alignment between the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Common Core State Standards. Participants will work in pairs/small groups to create a differentiated lesson to build phonological awareness skills for students at varying developmental levels. Include strategies to support English learners and children with disabilities.Have lots of books, tools, and adapted materials, such as whisper phones (this direct-to-ear device helps students hear themselves very clearly while uttering sounds) for participants to use while planning their activities.OPTIONAL:You may wish to allow participants to choose to develop an oral language development lesson vs. phonological awareness.43
44Resources TK Online Resources The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education ResourcesCalifornia County Superintendents Educational Service Association (CCSESA)Information and resources for early education are posted on the CCSESA Web site underSchool ReadinessTransitional Kindergarten (TK) Planning Guide – A Resource for Administrators of California Public School DistrictsCalifornia Department of Education (CDE)Kindergarten in CaliforniaTransitional Kindergarten FAQsTransitional Kindergarten Implementation GuideCalifornia Kindergarten AssociationAn association to support kindergarten teachersCalifornia Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN)CPIN, funded by CDE, conducts professional development on CDE publications such as the Preschool Learning Foundations, Preschool Curriculum Framework and Preschool English Learners GuideChanging the Kindergarten Cutoff Date: Effects on California Students and SchoolsCannon, J. S. and Lipscomb, S.
45Resources TK Online Resources National Association for the Education of Young ChildrenResources to promote Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1, 2, and 3Aligned with the foundations, the curriculum framework provides guidance on planning learning environments and experiences for young childrenPreschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and LearningA resource guide to educate preschool English learnersPreschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2, and 3The foundations for preschool-age children identify key domains of learning and guide instructional practiceTransitional Kindergarten (TK) CaliforniaOnline resources to support the successful implementation of transitional kindergarten