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In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom

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1 In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom
English Language Arts In a Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Classroom Approximate Presentation Duration: 3 – 4 hours Targeted Audience: TK Teachers

2 Acknowledgements The following county offices of education developed the TK professional development modules: With contributions from: Fresno County Office of Education Merced County Office of Education CCSESA’s CISC School Readiness Subcommittee Contra Costa County Office of Education Humboldt County Office of Education Orange County Department of Education Sacramento County Office of Education Santa Clara County Office of Education Shasta County Office of Education Coordinated by: Sacramento County Office of Education Several county offices of education contributed to the development of the TK professional development modules… either by developing the content and/or by conducting a pilot session with school district teachers and administrators. This project was coordinated by the Sacramento County Office of Education through funding from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Funding provided by: 2

3 WELCOME The information in this presentation is based on:
The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations and Key Early Education Resources California Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1 Current Research

4 Language and Literacy Development
“Intentional teachers use their knowledge of child development and literacy learning to supply materials, provide well-timed information, guide discussions, make thoughtful comments, ask meaningful questions, and pose calibrated challenges that advance children’s learning.” Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, p. 40 Have participants review quote on slide and write down initial reactions/thoughts regarding key strategies to support language and literacy development. Have participants share in small group table discussions. Ask participants to share key ideas from small group discussions with the larger group.

5 Norms Start and end on time Silence cell phones
Listen to and contribute thoughts and ideas 5

6 Session Outcomes Examine the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Kindergarten Common Core Standards for English Language Arts Review English Language Development for English learners and the English Language Arts Common Core Standards Identify instructional strategies for transitional kindergarten (TK) to support a modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate

7 Background California was one of just four states (along with Connecticut, Michigan, and Vermont) with a cut-off date later than December 1. In most states, children must turn five by September 1 in order to start kindergarten Research indicates that beginning kindergarten at an older age improves children’s social and academic development (Cannon, J.S. & Lipscomb S., 2008)

8 Senate Bill 1381 (Simitian) The Kindergarten Readiness Act of 2010
Senate Bill 1381 provides flexibility for districts in implementing TK that best meet the needs of students. It is important to note, that all kindergarten regulations apply to TK. Children are not mandated to attend TK as the existing statute does not require parents to enroll children in kindergarten. Children are not mandated to attend, but district must offer TK for birthdays between September 2 and December 2 ([Education Code Section 48000]; CCSESA, 2011). In , school districts began to offer a TK program for children whose fifth birthdates fall from November 2 through December 2. The date will continue moving back one month over each subsequent year so that by and, each year thereafter, children who are five on or before September 1 are eligible for kindergarten. The law also requires school districts to develop a transitional kindergarten program, for children who will no longer be age eligible for kindergarten. Transitional kindergarten is the first year of a two-year program that provides a “modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate” (Education Code section 48000). Source: Early Edge California

9 Developmentally Appropriate Practice
“…involves teachers meeting young children where they are (by stage of development), both as individuals and as part of a group; and helping each child meet challenging and achievable learning goals” Knowing about child development and learning Knowing what is individually appropriate Knowing what is culturally important National Association for the Education of Young Children (www.naeyc.org/DAP) As districts work to provide the “modified kindergarten curriculum that is age and developmentally appropriate ”we need to clarify our definition of “developmentally appropriate”. Developmentally appropriate practice, often shortened to DAP, is an approach to grounded teaching both in the research on how young children develop and learn and in what is known about effective early education. Its framework is designed to promote young children’s optimal learning and development. For more information, visit the National Association for the Education of Young Children website: 3 Core Considerations of DAP Knowing about child development and learning – Knowing what is typical at each age and stage of early development is crucial. This knowledge, based on research, helps us decide which experiences are best for children’s learning and development. Knowing what is individually appropriate – What we learn about specific children help us teach and care for each child as an individual. By continually observing children’s play and interaction with the physical environment and others, we learn about each child’s interests, abilities and developmental progress. Knowing what is culturally important – We must make an effort to get to know the children’s families and learn about the values, expectations, and factors that shape their lives at home and in their communities. The background information helps us provide meaningful, relevant, and respectful learning experiences for each child and family. 9

10 Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Principles of Child Development and Learning – Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8 Copple, C., & Bredekamp. S., (Eds.). (2009). Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth Through Age 8. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children, (pp ). The NAEYC has published a valuable resource that can be utilized to support the implementation of developmentally appropriate TK programs. Have participants read the principles and select one that resonates with you. Be ready to quickly share why you selected it. Depending on time available and group dynamics, participants might share in pairs, small groups, or as a whole group. If time permits, additional pair, small group, or whole group discussion might focus on sharing current practices that exemplify or are connected to selected principles. Review the handout “Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children B-age 8”. Review this document with the group.

11 Universal Design for Learning
Provide Multiple Means of Representation Perception Language expressions and symbols Comprehension Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression Physical action Expression and communication Executive function Provide Multiple Means of Engagement Recruiting interest Sustaining effort and persistence Self-regulation As developmentally appropriate TK programs are planned, implemented, and refined, it is also critical to assure that they are grounded in Universal Design for Learning to ensure access to all components of the program for all students. UDL principles promote highly individualized and flexible instruction and are designed to move all learners from novice to expert as they become strategic learners prepared for a lifetime of learning. The goal of education in the 21st century is the mastery of the learning process–novice learners become expert learners who want to learn, know how to learn strategically, and who, in their own highly individual and flexible ways, are prepared for a lifetime of learning. UDL Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is access to all aspects of learning for all students. Through careful planning for modifying their curriculum, instruction, grouping, and assessment techniques, teachers can be well prepared to adapt to the diversity in their classrooms.

12 The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources
All domains of the Preschool Learning Foundations correspond to the California Kindergarten Content Standards Preschool Learning Foundations Language and Literacy domain aligns with the California Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts Preschool Learning Foundations Mathematics domain aligns with the California Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Alignment Document includes key early education resources: CA Infant/Toddler Learning and Development Foundations • CA Content Standards • Common Core State Standards • Head Start Child Development Early Learning Framework Optional: Provide copies of the CA Preschool Learning Foundations, and the Common Core State Standards for each table; give each participant a copy of the Alignment Document. Highlight (if needed, browse through the document with participants): The Preschool Learning Foundations are a critical step in the California Department of Education’s efforts to strengthen preschool education and school readiness and to close the achievement gap in California. The Foundations cover the following domains: Social-Emotional Development Language and Literacy English-Language Development (for English learners) Mathematics Visual and Performing Arts Physical Development History-Social Science Science Together, these domains represent crucial areas of learning and development for young children. Competencies are included as foundations for children “at around 48 months of age” and “at around 60 months of age.” Source: Expanding Access to High Quality Preschool Programs, 2003 California School Boards Association 12

13 Overview of Alignment California Preschool Learning Foundations
California Kindergarten Content Standards Common Core State Standards Social-Emotional Development Health, Education Mental, Emotional, and Social Health Language and Literacy English-Language Arts English-Language Development Mathematics Visual and Performing Arts Physical Development Physical Education Health Health Education History-Social Science Science This table represents an overview of the alignment among the nine domains of the Preschool Learning Foundations with the content of the CA Kindergarten Content Standards and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The alignment demonstrates that early learning is a significant part of the educational system and that the knowledge and skills of young children are foundational to future learning. Understanding the links between the different ages and different early childhood services allows educators to build on children’s earlier learning and prepare them for the next educational challenge. Visual and Performing Arts, Physical Development, Health, History-Social Science and Science are all separate domains in the Preschool Learning Foundations. The Common Core includes English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 13

14 Overview of Language and Literacy
Explain this table; share its location in the Alignment Document. The Preschool Learning Foundations and the CCSS in ELA cover the same key areas of learning. For every sub strand of the Preschool Learning Foundations, there is a corresponding CCSS. This table shows the alignment between strands and sub strands in the Preschool Foundations and the Standards in the CCSS for ELA. Show how the Foundations and CCSS are aligned, indicating a continuum of learning: Refer to the Alignment Document handout (Table 1.3, Overview of Language and Literacy) Open Alignment document and ask: What similarities or differences do you notice in the Alignment? How could teachers use the Alignment document to “modify the kindergarten curriculum so that it is age and developmentally appropriate”? (Education Code Section 48000) What do you notice/jumps out at you? What questions do you have? What impact/implications on/for your work in TK? Link to the Alignment Document is included in the resources (Alignment Document) Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 14

15 Overview of Language and Literacy
Refer to 2-page handout document that refers to the alignment between language and literacy foundations and the Common Core State Standards for English language arts Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 15

16 2012 English Language Development (ELD) Standards
Key Ideas Align with the California Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Highlight and amplify the key language knowledge, skills, and abilities in the CCSS critical for English learners to access, engage with, and achieve in grade-level academic content while learning English Use in tandem with the CCSS and not in isolation Refer to copies of the 11-page document, California Department of Education English Language Development Standards for Kindergarten. AB 124 was signed by the Governor on October 2, It required the CDE to develop new ELD Standards aligned to the CCSS ELA Standards. On November 7, 2012, the State Board of Education (SBE) adopted the 2012 ELD Standards. ELD Standards shall be aligned by grade level and be as rigorous and specific as the Common Core State Standards ELA Standards. EC (a) Like the CCSS has an integrated literacy model, the ELD Standards are also integrated, cross-disciplinary literacy-language development opportunities. ELs must have full access to high-quality English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies content, as well as other subjects, at the same time as they are progressing through the ELD level continuum. The CA ELD Standards are intended to support this dual endeavor by providing fewer, clearer, and higher standards: Fewer: Those standards that are necessary and essential for development and success; Clearer: A coherent body of standards that have clear links to curriculum and assessments; and Higher: Correspondence with the elevated standards in the CCSS.

17 ELD Standards: Organization and Elements
5 proficiency levels: Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced, and Advanced 3 proficiency levels: Emerging, Expanding, and Bridging Description of ELs’ abilities within each language proficiency level and domain (L-S-R-W) Descriptions of what ELs can do as they enter, progress through, and exit proficiency levels, and early and exit descriptions for language modes Standards for four grade-level spans: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12 Standards for the same grade levels/spans as ELA CCSS: one set for each level K-8, and spans for 9-10 and 11-12 Standards organized by ELA domain: listening, speaking, reading, and writing Standards organized by mode (collaborative, interpretive, productive) and learning about how English works. Alignment with CCSS/strands is integrated and explicitly noted This table highlights some differences between the 1999 and 2012 ELD Standards.

18 ELD Proficiency Levels
ELD Continuum Emerging Expanding Bridging Extent of Linguistic Support Substantial Moderate Light The ELD Continuum notes what ELs know and can do at three proficiency levels: emerging, expanding, and bridging. There are also descriptors that can help you see a student’s progress within a proficiency level. “We have looked at the critical components of the TK program it must be developmentally appropriate, grounded in UDL, aligned with both Preschool Foundations and CCSS and new ELD standards. Now we will narrow our focus and concentrate on literacy in the TK program.” The Standards overview document also points out that students with less English language proficiency need more linguistic support (scaffolding) than students at higher levels of English proficiency. However, more scaffolding/support may be needed even for students at high proficiency levels if the concept is new or more cognitively demanding. We have looked at the critical components of the TK program it must be developmentally appropriate, grounded in UDL, aligned with both Preschool Foundations and CCSS and new ELD standards. Now we will narrow our focus and concentrate on literacy in the TK program. Use appropriate scaffolding strategies for each level of the ELD continuum to help English learners

19 Interdisciplinary Approach to Literacy
“The interdisciplinary approach to literacy … is [based on] extensive research establishing the need for college and career ready students to be proficient in reading complex informational text independently in a variety of content areas.” “The Standards set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines” (Common Core State Standards for ELA & L, 2013, p. iii). Kindergarten Common Core Standards describe the skills and knowledge students can demonstrate at the end of the kindergarten year. Students apply CC Standards to a range of text types from various cultures and periods. Literature sources should include stories, (adventures, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, fiction, and myth), dramas, and poetry. Informational text should include: biographies; autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science and the arts; technical text including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics. (CDE, 2013, Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy, p. v) 19

20 Integration of Language and Literacy
“…when taking an in-depth look at one domain, one needs to keep in mind that, for young children, learning is usually an integrated experience. For example, a young child may be concentrating on mathematical reasoning, but at the same time, there may be linguistic aspects of the experience.” Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2008, p. xii Even though the domains of the PLF, Volume 1 (i.e., Social-Emotional Development, Language and Literacy, English Language Development, and Mathematics) are presented separately, the domains are integrated in practice which is illustrated in the Preschool Curriculum Framework (PCF), a companion document to the Preschool Learning Foundations. 20

21 The TK Learning Environment: A Reflection of Languages, Cultures, and Community
Reflecting the cultures of the students and families in your classroom helps all students feel comfortable in their surroundings. This slide shows use of environmental print to reflect all languages spoken at home and in the surrounding community. Remember that language and literacy skills in the home language transfer to those in English, so honoring the home language is very important. 21

22 The TK Learning Environment
Sample Learning Area Reading Area (Books displayed at eye level): A variety of fiction & informational books with engaging illustrations and simple text, including books in home languages representative of classroom population Simple alliteration books so students can learn beginning sounds while playing with language Photo albums & class books made by the students to help them connect reading to their own lives and also support language development as children discuss the photos and compose captions Learning Centers: Very young children need to make choices about which activities to engage in and learning areas are a great way to provide many opportunities for choice on a daily basis. Teacher intentionality is crucial here to be sure that highly engaging activities and materials align with the Foundations and the Kindergarten Common Core Standards, as well as use of open ended questions and prompts to build oral language and critical thinking skills. Reading Area: This is a great way to provide a quiet space for students to choose a book to sit and read alone, with a partner, or in a small group. Pillows, couches, and canopies/shelving to soften and close off the area can make it a very special place to read and be read to. Both fiction and non-fiction books should be included in the library, as well as books that reflect the languages and cultures of the children in the classroom. 22

23 The TK Learning Environment
This slide shows a TK reading area. Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide: What else might enhance this reading area? 23

24 The TK Learning Environment
Sample Learning Area Dramatic Play Area: Costumes and theme-based props to engage children in hands-on, social interactions that support language and literacy development Dramatic play areas are intentionally designed to: Support the development of oral language and vocabulary Provide opportunities for purposeful and playful encounters with peers and adults Contribute to the print-rich environment. Provide sheltered opportunities for English learners to practice their English. It is important to rotate materials, costumes, and props regularly to intentionally support language and literacy development and to keep learning areas interesting and enticing for all students. Adult interactions with students that are purposeful and promote playful encounters with literacy will enhance language and literacy development. Creating print-rich learning areas will support the development of children’s literacy and oral language skills. Supply all learning areas with portable writing materials (i.e., clipboards, pencils, paper). Incorporate books related to the learning area. Encourage students to dress up and pretend. The scripts they create for their play are stories. Creating their own stories in play helps them understand stories that are read to them and is preparation for reading. Dramatic play also strengthens social-emotional development. Small group and individual interactions with peers provide English learners with social interaction and authentic opportunities to practice their English. 24

25 The TK Learning Environment
This slide shows a TK Dramatic Play Center. Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide: (e.g., It’s an authentic restaurant beyond the usual playhouse, including a table with eating utensils, phone, cash register, flowers, etc.) “Children learn best when instruction is relevant and meaningful to them. When children can apply language and literacy learning to their everyday interests and activities, that learning will be genuine, deep, and lasting” (Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 24). “Learning is enhanced when the classroom environment reflects a community of literacy learners” (Gambrell & Mazzoni, 1997, 87). Teachers play a critical role in establishing this community through their interactions with individual children and the collaborations they foster among peers. Intentional teachers use their knowledge of child development and literacy learning to supply materials, provide well-timed information, guide discussions, make thoughtful comments, ask meaningful questions, and post calibrated challenges that advance children’s learning. “Young children’s motivation to learn to read and write comes from an intrinsic desire to communicate. But they need adult guidance and support to begin the journey toward full literacy with competence and enthusiasm” (Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 40). Ask participants to identify additional materials that could intentionally support development of language and literacy skills related to reading language arts and enhance this dramatic play area. Potential responses: a variety of writing materials and paper (i.e., clipboards, pencils, markers, whiteboard), environmental print (i.e., signs, food containers, menus, related books). Ask participants how the dramatic play area can be enhanced to support English learners. Potential responses: ethnic food containers, menus in various languages. Children learn best when instruction is relevant and meaningful to them. When children can apply language and literacy learning to their everyday interests and activities, that learning will be genuine, deep, and lasting. Source: Epstein, Intentional Teacher, 2007, p. 24 25

26 The TK Learning Environment
Sample Learning Area Writing Area: Assortment of paper, envelopes, and a variety of writing tools, including but not limited to, pencils, pens, markers, paint, crayons, and chalk neatly displayed along with easels for children to practice writing Environmental print, books, word/name cards, letter-making tools, student name cards, and alphabet strips Variety of writing tools that have been adapted to provide access for all children Writing Area: Set up a well-stocked writing area and frequently add new materials that can support units of study or spark student interest in writing. Ask participants to identify materials they might see in a writing center that may be related to the restaurant in the dramatic play area (e.g., sample menus with paper and pens to make their own, grocery list making materials, pictures of foods they can write about, etc.). Consider finding ways that students can write using alternatives to pencils and pens, such as writing in a tray of sand or using large chalk or paint. In addition to a Writing Center, be sure to include writing materials in other interest areas, inside and outside, if possible. Elicit some ideas from participants or have them look at pages in the Framework for suggestions for interactions and strategies. 26

27 The TK Learning Environment
This slide shows a Writing Area. Elicit from participants what they notice in the slide (e.g., inviting and clearly defined area; neat and organized; print-rich including a word wall, new vocabulary words, examples of a variety of materials for writing; there are enough materials). Ask participants to identify materials that could intentionally support development of writing skills. Potential responses: a variety of writing materials and paper (i.e., clipboards, pencils, markers, whiteboard, environmental print, assortment of envelopes and notecards, name and work cards, alphabet strips, letter-making tools). 27

28 Alignment between Preschool Learning Foundations and CCSS for ELA
The purpose of the Foundations is to promote understanding of children’s learning at around 48 months and at around 60 months of age in a high-quality preschool/Transitional Kindergarten program. They are for all children, including children learning English and those with disabilities. Domain = Language and Literacy Strand = Reading Sub strand = Phonological Awareness Include this slide as a handout for participants. Review the alignment between the Preschool Foundations at around 60 months for phonological awareness to the PA standard for Common Core Standards. Please note that since the publication of the Alignment Document, the adopted Common Core State Standards for California (March 2013) includes (f): Blend two to three phonemes into recognizable words. Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012. 28

29 Alignment Comparison (Cont.)
* Added by California to the CCSS. † The footnote that appears in the published version of this foundation has been omitted so that the alignment can be highlighted. Include this slide as a handout for participants. Review the alignment between the Preschool Foundations at around 60 months for language use and conventions to the speaking and listening standard for Common Core Standards. Have participants identify the similarities and differences. Have small groups work to identify sample activities to support students’ development along this continuum. Include modifications and differentiated instruction to meet the diverse needs of these young learners. Source: The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources, CDE, 2012.

30 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Promote oral language and vocabulary development Extend conversations and use open-ended questions to expand students’ language development and comprehension Introduce new vocabulary words using realia or concrete examples Provide multiple opportunities for students to express their ideas and use new vocabulary words in small- and large-group settings “Young children need to be exposed to a rich and varied vocabulary and the rules of discourse in order to develop the language facility that underlies the late acquisition of literacy, interpersonal problem- solving skills, and other cognitive and social abilities.” Source: Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, 2007, p.15 Discuss with group – invite input. “Young children need to be exposed to a rich and varied vocabulary and the rules of discourse in order to develop the language facility that underlies the late acquisition of literacy, interpersonal problem-solving skills, and other cognitive and social abilities.” (Epstein, The Intentional Teacher, p.15) Optional activity: Have each group take a theme-based Dramatic Play Area (e.g., restaurant, doctor’s office, grocery store, etc.) and quickly brainstorm what they might include and then list the oral language and vocabulary they might expect to model for or elicit from the children as they engage in the activities in the center.

31 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Strengthen interest in print Environmental Print Food packages and coupons Newspapers, magazines, and catalogs Greeting cards and calendars Menus and recipes Connect sounds to words Make charts of poems Create word walls Use pointers Build knowledge of concepts about print Discuss with group – invite input. Other examples: books, billboards, comics, containers, coupons, flyers, labels, office supply packages, posters, telephone books.

32 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Support writing development Provide multiple opportunities for fine motor development Provide a variety of writing instruments and materials in all learning areas Model and engage students in interactive writing Provide opportunities for drawing, dictating, and writing Display students’ writing Discuss with group, invite input. Optional activity: Have each group take a theme-based Dramatic Play Area (e.g., restaurant, doctor’s office, grocery store, etc.) and quickly brainstorm what they might include and then list the writing skills they might expect to model for or elicit from the children as they engage in the activities in the center. Also ask them to consider how their ideas might connect to the writing center to reinforce oral language and vocabulary development.

33 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Support phonological awareness through: Playful and interactive experiences to manipulate sounds Alliteration through songs, chants, and books Interactive opportunities to blend and segment onsets and rimes Clapping syllables, using snapping blocks for word counts Exposure and practice with rhyming words Discuss with group, invite input. For children in kindergarten, studies have found that several basic cognitive abilities transfer across languages that facilitates the development of literacy skills and supports the acquisition of a second language. These abilities include the using their knowledge of letter-sound relationships to begin to decode print. “In the task of decoding, the basic linguistic knowledge and cognitive processes involved are letter recognition, phonological awarness, letter-sound relationships (phonics), the blending of sounds to form words…Phonological awareness and decoding ability in Spanish have been found to be related to the ability of bilingual children in grade one to decode texts in English.” (California Department of Education, Preschool English Learners – Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning, 2009, pgs )

34 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Build letter knowledge with… Songs Books Poems Name cards and common words Letter matching activities Tactile experiences to identify and form letters Letter sounds tied to movement Discuss with group, invite input. Example tactile experiences: forming letters in the air (air writing), in shaving cream, sand, Playdough, pipecleaners, etc.

35 ELA - Early Literacy Strategies
Read aloud books in a variety of genres Confirm students’ understanding of text by providing opportunities to: respond to questions identify characters and major events retell familiar stories Provide family literacy opportunities create lending library including books in the child’s home language Discuss with group, invite input. Discuss with participants that confirming student understanding of text in TK provides a critical foundation for the more complex comprehension skills children will need to develop.

36 Differentiating Instruction
Provide a variety of open-ended materials to engage students in multi- sensory experiences Adapt instructional materials and learning activities to address the diverse needs of students Vary the degree of scaffolding to extend learning opportunities for students who need additional time to build competence and to increase rigor for students who demonstrate mastery Use flexible grouping and various instructional formats to maximize support for students’ individualized needs Activity: Think/Pair/Share other approaches to differentiate instruction. 36

37 Strategies for English Learners
Scaffolding: Make/use talking sticks and/or provide toy microphones for children who may be more reluctant to attempt using expressive language Use manipulatives, realia, or photos to support vocabulary and language development Move from non-verbal responses to one-two words, yes/no, frame sentences, simple answers Provide clear signs and picture cues for interest areas Encourage families to play with language and count syllables in songs/chants/rhymes in their home language because those skills will transfer to English OPTIONAL: Display/demonstrate talking sticks, musical instruments, clapping out syllables, and play with language through chanting, songs, and rhymes. OPTIONAL: Ask participants to share example of effective strategies that they have used to support English learners in their classroom. Share out in large group. 37

38 Universal Design for Learning
Goal: Create accessible environments and experiences for all students. The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) model considers three principles for learning opportunities: Multiple means of engagement Multiple means of representation Multiple means of expression A universal design for learning is an approach to ensure that the needs of diverse learners are addressed in the transitional kindergarten classroom. The Universal Design for Learning model is based on three principles for learning opportunities that include: Multiple means of engagement Multiple means of representation Multiple means of expression For additional UDL information, refer to Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) Optional: Provide visual examples of adaptations for students with disabilities 38

39 Assessment Approaches
Use multiple measures to monitor students’ progress Observation and anecdotal notes Work samples and portfolios Video and audio recordings Checklist of phonological awareness skills Ask participants to share any other ideas/strategies/processes for collecting phonological awareness data. 39

40 Supporting Phonological Awareness
Play with Language/Rime Alliteration Now we will shift the focus on how we can support the development of phonological awareness in the TK classroom. Phonological awareness is an important skill that children start to acquire during preschool and continue to build in early elementary school as they learn to read. It is considered the kingpin to learning to read with fluency by the end of second grade. In preschool and TK, teachers can use alliteration books such as, “Dr. Seuss’s ABC Book,” “Willoughby Wallaby Woo,” by Dennis Lee and “Some Smug Slug,” by Pamela Duncan. Playing with language is critical at this age, especially taking words apart and putting them together. Children should be hearing the “rime“ or portion of the syllable that starts with its vowel (usually the part that rhymes when you delete the beginning consonant and add another, as in ”rat,” “mat,” “cat.” The “at” is the rime and is also what makes it rhyme. There are many resources available, such as “There’s a Wocket in My Pocket,” by Dr. Seuss and “Jamberry,” by Bruce Degen. Repetitive, cumulative patterning books like, “The House That Jack Built,” by Diana Mayo and “The Bag I’m Taking to Grandma’s,” by Shirley Neitzel are excellent as well, especially for English learners as choral reading promotes risk-taking. Repetitive-Cumulative 40

41 Let’s Begin Strand: Reading Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness
At around 48 months, the foundations for phonological awareness are written only for older four-year olds because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 months and 60 months of age At around 60 months Orally blends and deletes words and syllables without the support of pictures or objects Orally blends the onsets, rimes, and phonemes of words and orally deletes the onsets of words, with support of pictures or objects For most Foundations, typical behaviors at around 48 months and 60 months are described, with the exception of the phonological awareness sub strand where the behaviors are only described for children at or around 60 months. This is because much of the initial development of phonological awareness occurs between 48 and 60 months of age. Phonological Awareness is defined by the Foundations as an oral language skill: An individual’s sensitivity to the sound (or phonological) structure of spoken language. In transitional kindergarten, some students may be working toward isolating and pronouncing the individual phonemes in three phoneme consonant-vowel-consonant words (initial, medial vowel, and final sounds) to prepare for kindergarten and beyond. For example, r-a-t, f-u-n, h-i-m. OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: Think, Pair, Share: What will this look like at the end of TK? Discuss how these are the building blocks for decoding down the road and that students enter TK at varying levels and will require differentiated instruction. One great way to model segmentation of phonemes is through an activity called Elkonin Boxes. Elkonin boxes are an instructional method used in the early elementary grades to build phonological awareness by segmenting words into syllables or sounds. They are named after Elkonin, the Russian psychologist who pioneered their use. The "boxes" are squares drawn on a piece of paper or a chalkboard, with one box for each syllable or phoneme, depending on what kind of segmentation is being done. To use Elkonin boxes, a child listens to a word and moves a token or unifix cube into a box for each syllable or phoneme. In some cases different colored tokens may be used for consonants and vowels or just for each phoneme in the word. A fun activity for TK students would be to make three boxes on the floor using colored tape and have individual student “jump out” the sounds. (For example, for the word cat, the student jumps into the first box and says, “/k/,” second box and says “/a/” and the third box and says, “/t/”). Everyone repeats /k/ /a/ /t/ aloud together and then the teacher says, “cat.” 41

42 Let’s Practice Review Sub Strand: 2.0 Phonological Awareness (at around 60 months) Review Common Core State Standard for ELA Phonological Awareness Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes) Recognize and produce rhyming words Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words The Alignment Document highlights the alignment between the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Common Core State Standards in the area of phonological awareness. Refer to the Alignment Document handout on phonological awareness as referenced in slide 28 (Alignment Document page 43). 42

43 Let’s Practice Create a lesson that would differentiate for all the learners in your TK classroom. Be sure to include strategies to support English learners and children with disabilities Ask participants to review the alignment between the Preschool Learning Foundations and the California Common Core State Standards. Participants will work in pairs/small groups to create a differentiated lesson to build phonological awareness skills for students at varying developmental levels. Include strategies to support English learners and children with disabilities. Have lots of books, tools, and adapted materials, such as whisper phones (this direct-to-ear device helps students hear themselves very clearly while uttering sounds) for participants to use while planning their activities. OPTIONAL: You may wish to allow participants to choose to develop an oral language development lesson vs. phonological awareness. 43

44 Resources TK Online Resources
The Alignment of the California Preschool Learning Foundations with Key Early Education Resources California County Superintendents Educational Service Association (CCSESA) Information and resources for early education are posted on the CCSESA Web site under School Readiness Transitional Kindergarten (TK) Planning Guide – A Resource for Administrators of California Public School Districts California Department of Education (CDE) Kindergarten in California Transitional Kindergarten FAQs Transitional Kindergarten Implementation Guide California Kindergarten Association An association to support kindergarten teachers California Preschool Instructional Network (CPIN) CPIN, funded by CDE, conducts professional development on CDE publications such as the Preschool Learning Foundations, Preschool Curriculum Framework and Preschool English Learners Guide Changing the Kindergarten Cutoff Date: Effects on California Students and Schools Cannon, J. S. and Lipscomb, S.

45 Resources TK Online Resources
National Association for the Education of Young Children Resources to promote Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)                 Preschool Curriculum Framework, Volume 1, 2, and 3 Aligned with the foundations, the curriculum framework provides guidance on planning learning environments and experiences for young children Preschool English Learners: Principles and Practices to Promote Language, Literacy, and Learning A resource guide to educate preschool English learners Preschool Learning Foundations, Volume 1, 2, and 3 The foundations for preschool-age children identify key domains of learning and guide instructional practice Transitional Kindergarten (TK) California Online resources to support the successful implementation of transitional kindergarten

46 Questions?

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