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Presentation on theme: "VIRUSES, BACTERIA, AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES"— Presentation transcript:

Produced by Kelly Somerlot, M.S. Terry L. Derting, Ph.D.

2 I.VIRUSES I. Viruses

3 A. INTRODUCTION The Common Cold: What causes it?
A common cold is an illness caused by a virus infection located in the nose. Introduction (p.282) Common Cold, what causes it? How does it enter the body? Best treatment? Doesn’t kill virus, treats symptoms. Fast Facts: ** Cold viruses live only in the noses of humans and not in animals except chimpanzees and other higher primates. ** A cold virus is deposited into the front of the nasal passages by contaminated fingers or by droplets from coughs and sneezes. ** Small doses of virus (1-30 particles) are sufficient to produce infection. ** Cold viruses can only multiply when they are inside of living cells. When on an environmental surface, cold viruses cannot multiply. However, they are still infectious if they are transported from an environmental site into the nose. ** Cold symptoms are due mainly to the body's response to the infection. When a nasal cell is infected by a cold virus, the body responds by activating parts of the immune system and some nervous system reflexes

4 B. Virus Characteristics
1. STRUCTURE DNA inside Chicken Pox Human Influenza B. Characteristics 1. Structure (p283) a. composed of genetic material b. classified as RNA or DNA (not both) found in head of virus c. enclosed in a protein coat or capsid d. very small, different shapes (p. 284, Table 19-2) FAST FACT: The protein that forms the protective capsid surrounding the West Nile virus genetic material may contribute to the deadly inflammation associated with the virus. West Nile virus, which has rapidly spread across the United States, causes neurological symptoms and encephalitis, which can result in paralysis or death. According to researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, the West Nile virus capsid (WNV-Cp) is a destructive protein that can trigger apoptosis – the automatic self-destructive program within cells – inside infected cells, possibly adding to the damage caused by the virus. Rabies Virus HIV

5 2. Two Types of Viruses 2. Two Types Virulent Temperate

6 Lytic Cycle of a Virulent Virus --Causes disease immediately
Infectious Diseases: Viral Infection Infectious Diseases: Viral Infection 2. Types a. virulent b. temperate This slide shows virulent virus cycle: (animation will begin on its own- after slight delay) Absorption: Virus attaches itself to the cell. Entry: Enzymes weaken the cell wall and nucleic acid is injected into the cell, leaving the empty caspid outside the cell. Many viruses actually enter the host cell intact. Replication: Viral DNA takes control of cell activity. Assembly: All metabolic activity of the cell is directed to assemble new viruses. Release: Enzymes disintegrate the cell in a process called lysis, releasing the new viruses.

7 Lysogenic Cycle of a Temperate Virus
--Does not cause disease immediately b. Temperate Lysogenic Cycle of a Temperate Virus Activated to produce new viruses Remains in cell 2. Types a. virulent b. temperate This slide shows temperate virus cycle: The virus attaches itself and injects its DNA into the cell. The viral DNA attaches itself to the host DNA, becoming a new set of cell genes called a prophage. When the host cell divides, this new gene is replicated and passed to new cells. This causes no harm to the cell, but may alter its traits. Now there are two possibilities: A. The prophage survives as a perminant part of the DNA of the host organism. B. Some external stimuli can cause the prophage to become active, using the cell to produce new viruses.

8 3. Are viruses living? What are all living things made of?
What do all living things need? How does environment affect living things? How do living things reproduce? 3. Living or Non-living? non-living – Why? They have some characteristics of life but not all No nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, cell membrane, do not reproduce by mitosis Are not capable of carrying out cellular functions – are not cells. can only reproduce by invading a cell 1.uses the enzymes and organelles of host cells to make more virues 2. Obligate intercellular parasites- require a host cell to reproduce. Spread by wind, in water, in food or blood and other bodily secretions How do characteristics of viruses compare to that of living organisms?

9 4. Virus Reproduction Process
Absorption Entry Replication Release 4. Virus Reproduction Click play button to open animation (uses Quicktime player as default) View Animation

10 C. Virologist 1. Growing cells in a controlled medium: ________________ Tissue culture 2. Serology 3. _____________is used to separate fragments of molecules based on charge and size. - study of biological fluids used to determine antibody response Electrophoresis d. Studies bacteriophages. C. Virologist- people who study viruses a. tissue culture- growing cells in a controlled medium b. serology – study of biological fluids used to determine an organism’s antibody response c. electrophoresis- a process that separates fragments of large molecules, such as proteins, rDNA on basis of charge and size. ** (click once when ready for electrophoresis animation) d. study bacteriophages- the most commonly studied virus that infect bacteria

11 D. Diseases Common Cold ___________________ * 200 kinds of Viruses
1. The Common Cold Symptoms include nasal discharge, obstruction of nasal breathing, swelling of the sinus membranes, sneezing, sore throat, cough, and headache.

12 Polio 2. ________________
Poliomyelitis is a crippling disease of spinal nerve cells caused by poliovirus infection. The disease can strike non-immune persons of any age but affects mainly children under the age of three, and causes paralysis in one case of every 200 to 1000 infections.    Preventable by vaccination.  2. Polio

13 Tobacco Mosaic 3. ______________________ 3. Tobacco Mosaic
Symptoms induced can include mosaic, mottling, necrosis, stunting, leaf curling, and yellowing of plant tissues.

14 STD AIDS 4. ___________ 4. AIDS
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. HIV destroys the body's ability to fight infections by attacking cells of the immune system.

15 Rabies 5. ______________ 5. Rabies
The vast majority of cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. Infects the central nervous system, causing encephalopathy and ultimately death. 5. Rabies

16 Cold Sore 6. ______________ 6. Cold Sore (Herpes simplex )
                     Between % of all people possess this virus and is spread through direct contact with an infected individual. Once the virus has entered the body, it cannot be removed. Only 10% of HSV1 infected people ever develop a sore. 6. Cold Sore

17 Shingles 7. _____________
An acute infection caused by a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, which also causes chicken pox. 7. Shingles It usually occurs during adulthood after exposure to chicken pox in childhood. The chicken pox virus remains dormant in the body.

18 For every 1,000 children who get it, 1 or 2 will die from it
Measles 8. _____________ Most infected children will have a rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and watery eyes. For every 1,000 children who get it, 1 or 2 will die from it Spreads so easily that any child who is not immunized will probably get it, either now or later in life. 8. Measles

19 Warts 9. ___________ Non-cancerous skin growths caused by a viral infection in the top layer of the skin. Viruses that cause them are called human papillomavirus (HPV). 9. Warts STD

20 STD Herpes 10. _______________ 10. Herpes (Simplex2)
HSV-2 usually produces only mild symptoms or signs or no symptoms at all. However, HSV-2 can cause recurrent painful genital sores in many adults, and HSV-2 infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected. 10. Herpes (Simplex2)

21 Hepatitis B 11. _____________ 11. Hepatitis B
The most common serious liver infection in the world. It is caused by the HBV virus that attacks the liver. HBV is 100 times more infectious than the AIDS virus. Yet, can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine.

22 E. Treatment/Prevention
1. Vaccine Anitbodies Produced Guard/Fight Real Disease Vaccine Given 2. Interferon E. Treatment/Prevention 1. Vaccine- substance containing a weakened or killed strain of a virus 2. Interferon- a protein that inhibits the reproduction and speed of viruses

23 II. Bacteria

24 A. Bacteria Characteristics
MONERA 1. Kingdom _________________ A. Bacteria Characteristics Kingdom Monera Introduction

25 What is absent in this cell?
2. Prokaryotic What is absent in this cell? 2. Prokaryotic- no nucleus or membrane bound organelles

26 Microscopic 3. ________________ How big are bacteria?
4. Where do they live? 3. Microscopic (click on “Microscopic” to view the scale of bacteria, will open internet website independently of powerpoint). 4. Live in nearly every environment (hot springs, deep sea vents, Antarctic ice, mouth, animals, people, soil, everywhere!)

27 Spherical Spiral Rod 5. What shape are they? a._______________
b._______________ c._______________ a. b. c. Spherical Spiral Rod The word “spiral” is hyperlinked to a short video. 5. Shape a. spherical- cocci b. spiral- spirilli c. rod- bacilli

28 6. Groups Staphylo Strepto a. _________________: forms clusters
Staphylococcus Strepto b. _________________: forms filaments or chains 6. Groups a. staphylo –form clusters (i.e. staphylococcus) b. strepto – forms filaments or chains (i.e. streptococcus) Streptococcus

29 -Some are rigid, Some flexible
7. Have Cell Walls -Some are rigid, Some flexible 8. Form Endospores in Harsh Conditions 7. Have Cell Walls 8. Form Endospores in Harsh Conditions

9. Movement flagella 10. Nutrition HETEROTROPHS VS. AUTOTROPHS 9. Movement – flagella (Click on “movement to view animation”) 10. Nutrition a. hetertrophic – depend on other organisms for food 1. Parasitic – take nutrition from living things 2. Saprophyte – feed on dead, decaying material b. autotrophic – produce their own food 1. Photoautotrophic – use sunlight as a source of energy 2. Chemoautotrophs- a. use energy from chemical reactions b. nitrogren fixation- process by which gaseous N2 is converted to ammonia compounds (ex. NH4, NO3) _____________: Take nutrition from other living organisms ____________: feed on dead and/or decaying matter _____________: use the sunlight as a source of energy Photo-Autotrophs _____________: use energy that results from a chemical reaction Chemo-Autotrophs Parasitic Saprophyte

31 11. Respiration in Bacteria
Obligate Anaerobes a. ____________- cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Facultative Anaerobes b. ____________- can live with or without oxygen. 11. Respiration in Bacteria a. obligate anaerobes-cannot survive in the presence of oxygen b. facultative anaerobes- live with or without oxygen c. obligate anerobes-cannot survive without oxygen Obligate Aerobes c. ____________- cannot survive without the presence of oxygen.

32 12. Reproduction a. __________________: (asexual reproduction) one cell splits into two cells. Binary Fission b. __________________: (sexual reproduction) exchange of genetic material between two bacteria. “binary fission” is linked to a short video showing fission – click on the word. The click on black box to see and hear video 12. Reproduction a. binary fission- asexual process, one cell splits into two cells b conjugation- sexual process, exchange genetic material between two bacteria Conjugation

33 B. Harmful Bacteria TOXIN PATHOGEN
1. _________________:an organism that causes disease TOXIN 2. _________________:poisonous substance that disrupts the metabolism of the infected organism B. Harmful bacteria 1.. Pathogen- an organism that causes disease 2. toxin- poisonous substance that disrupts the metabolism of the infected organism. a. endotoxin- found in cell walls of some acteria and causes fever, weakness, damage to circulatory system b. Exotoxin- secreted into areas surrounding the bacteria- very potent poisons Endotoxin Exotoxin

34 3. Disease a. Anthrax Cutaneous Inhalation
A . Anthrax- fatal disease of sheep and cattle ***Click on animations at left to see short animation of two forms of anthrax- narration describes each, volume/speakers will be needed to hear these animations (Cutaneous anthrax, Inhalation Anthrax). Two more videos continue after the inhalation one if you want to see them. The third is linked to the word “anthrax” and the fourth is linked to the picture on the right. Inhalation

35 b. Tuberculosis b. tuberculosis

36 c. Typhoid fever c. Typhoid fever (endotoxin)

37 d. Diphtheria d. diphtheria- exotoxins

38 e. Botulism e. Botulism –exotoxins (food borne, infant, avian, wound)

39 f. Tetanus f. Tetanus - exotoxins

40 g. Gonorrhea STD g. gonorrhea

41 h. Syphilis STD h. syphilis

42 i. Chlamydia STD i. Chlamydia

43 ANTIBIOTICS 4. Treatments Penicillium mutate
Inhibit growth of some bacteria ________________________ - product of fungus Bacteria can _______________to become resistant to antibiotics Penicillium 4. Treatments-antibiotics a. inhibit growth of some bacteria b. Penicillium – product of fungus c. bacteria can mutate to become resistent to antibiotics mutate

44 Decomposers/ Natural Cycle!
C. Helpful Bacteria Aid Digestion! Also-- Decomposers/ Natural Cycle! Bioremediation! Food/Preservatives! Pesticide Control! Treat Wastewater! Make milk into yogurt! Make antibiotics!                                        C. Helpful Bacteria 1 fermentation of alcohol 2 insecticides 3 milk fermentation=yogurt 4 clean up oil spills 5 sewage treatment 6 decay and digestion © Eric MacDicken

45 D. Bacteriology

46 III. Infectious Diseases

47 Pathogens Fungus 2. Virus 3. Protozoan 4. Bacteria 5. Invertebrates
Athletes Foot 2. Virus 3. Protozoan Malaria Malaria 3 Malaria 4 Pathogens 1 fungus-athletes foot 2 virus 3 protozoa- malaria/african sleeping sickness (click on malaria photo for video 1, click on “malaria” for video 2, click on “malaria 3” for video 3, and click on “malaria 4” for malaria 4 video. 4 bacteria 5 invertebrates- Trichonosis- worm in pork muscle 4. Bacteria 5. Invertebrates Trichonosis

48 B. Toxins Chemical substances harmful to the normal functioning of cells _______________- disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses. Neurotoxins B. Toxins Chemical substances harmful to the normal functioning of cells Neurotoxins-disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses

49 C. Transmission Air Water Human Contact Arthropods C. Transmission
1 air- spores, droplets, dust 2 water 3 human contact 4 arthropods – lice, ticks, fleas

50 D. Defense 1. First Level of Response: D. Defense
1. First level of defense-skin, mucus glands, HCl in stomach

51 2. Phagocytosis 2 phogocytosis **Picture to left is WBC
** Animation on right will start process of phagocytosis automatically during slideshow

52 3. Fever 4. Interferon 5. Antigen 6. Immunity
3. Fever- kills some pathogens 4. Interferon- a protein which inhibits the reproduction of viruses 5 Antigen- causes an antibody to be produced on antibody reaction- very specific 6. Immunity- resistance to a specific pathogen –Allergic reaction to the antigen a Natural Immunity- present at birth b Acquired Immunity- after birth 1 vaccination 2. antibiotics

53 E. AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
1. Caused Virus: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus ) Disruption of the proper functioning of immune system Video will appear in black box on its own – be patient. You will need sound. HIV

54 other body fluids containing blood
2. Transmission a. Sexual Contact b. Needles/Syringes c. Mother to Infant blood semen vaginal fluid breast milk other body fluids containing blood

55 3. Viral Action 3. Viral Action
Virus enters bloodstream to get into body Phagocytes try to destroy virus but don’t harm T4 cells attach virus, but virus enters T4 cell unharmed Antibodies attack virus but virus is unharmed May remain dormant for up to 10 years in T4 cells Becomes active and goes through lytic cycle – Lysis occurs and it spreads to other T4 cells animation of cycle

56 4. Effects on Immune Disruption
Virus enters bloodstream Phagocytes try to destroy virus T4 cells attack virus but virus enters T4 cell unharmed Antibodies attack virus but virus is unharmed May remain dormant up to 10 Years in T4 cells Becomes Active—Lytic Cycle and spreads to other T4 cells

57 “What can be done to prevent the spread of the disease?”
5. Risk and Prevention “Who is at risk?” “What can be done to prevent the spread of the disease?” Click on What can be done… for a short video You need to download Real One Player – free from the web- in order to play that video. Click on internet site to take a quiz to see how much students know about risk and prevention Source : American Assciation for World Helath

58 Video will start on its own when you click the middle bottom picture.


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