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VIRUSES, BACTERIA, AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES Produced by Kelly Somerlot, M.S. Terry L. Derting, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "VIRUSES, BACTERIA, AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES Produced by Kelly Somerlot, M.S. Terry L. Derting, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 VIRUSES, BACTERIA, AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES Produced by Kelly Somerlot, M.S. Terry L. Derting, Ph.D.


3 A. INTRODUCTION The Common Cold: What causes it? A common cold is an illness caused by a virus infection located in the nose.

4 B. Virus Characteristics Human Influenza Rabies Virus HIV DNA inside Chicken Pox 1. STRUCTURE

5 2. Two Types of Viruses

6 a.Virulent Lytic Cycle of a Virulent Virus Infectious Diseases: Viral Infection --Causes disease immediately

7 b. Temperate Lysogenic Cycle of a Temperate Virus Remains in cell Activated to produce new viruses --Does not cause disease immediately

8 3. Are viruses living? What are all living things made of? What do all living things need? How does environment affect living things? How do living things reproduce? How do characteristics of viruses compare to that of living organisms?

9 4. Virus Reproduction Process a.Absorption b.Entry c.Replication d.Release View Animation

10 C. Virologist 1. Growing cells in a controlled medium: ________________ 2. Serology 3. _____________is used to separate fragments of molecules based on charge and size. d. Studies bacteriophages. Tissue culture - study of biological fluids used to determine antibody response Electrophoresis

11 D. Diseases 1.___________________ * 200 kinds of Viruses Symptoms include nasal discharge, obstruction of nasal breathing, swelling of the sinus membranes, sneezing, sore throat, cough, and headache. Common Cold

12 2. ________________ Poliomyelitis is a crippling disease of spinal nerve cells caused by poliovirus infection. The disease can strike non-immune persons of any age but affects mainly children under the age of three, and causes paralysis in one case of every 200 to 1000 infections. Preventable by vaccination. Polio

13 3. ______________________ Symptoms induced can include mosaic, mottling, necrosis, stunting, leaf curling, and yellowing of plant tissues. Tobacco Mosaic

14 4. ___________ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. HIV destroys the body's ability to fight infections by attacking cells of the immune system. STD AIDS

15 5. ______________ The vast majority of cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) each year occur in wild animals like raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. Infects the central nervous system, causing encephalopathy and ultimately death. Rabies

16 6. ______________ (Herpes simplex ) Between 50 - 80% of all people possess this virus and is spread through direct contact with an infected individual. Once the virus has entered the body, it cannot be removed. Only 10% of HSV1 infected people ever develop a sore. Cold Sore

17 7. _____________ It usually occurs during adulthood after exposure to chicken pox in childhood. The chicken pox virus remains dormant in the body. An acute infection caused by a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, which also causes chicken pox. Shingles

18 8. _____________ Most infected children will have a rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and watery eyes. For every 1,000 children who get it, 1 or 2 will die from it Spreads so easily that any child who is not immunized will probably get it, either now or later in life. Measles

19 9. ___________ Non-cancerous skin growths caused by a viral infection in the top layer of the skin. Viruses that cause them are called human papillomavirus (HPV). STD Warts

20 10. _______________ HSV-2 usually produces only mild symptoms or signs or no symptoms at all. However, HSV-2 can cause recurrent painful genital sores in many adults, and HSV-2 infection can be severe in people with suppressed immune systems. Regardless of severity of symptoms, genital herpes frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected. STD Herpes

21 11. _____________ The most common serious liver infection in the world. It is caused by the HBV virus that attacks the liver. HBV is 100 times more infectious than the AIDS virus. Yet, can be prevented with a safe and effective vaccine. Hepatitis B

22 E. Treatment/Prevention 1. Vaccine 2. Interferon Vaccine Given Anitbodies Produced Guard/Fight Real Disease

23 II. Bacteria

24 A. Bacteria Characteristics 1. Kingdom _________________ MONERA

25 2. Prokaryotic What is absent in this cell?

26 3. ________________ How big are bacteria?How big are bacteria? 4. Where do they live? Microscopic

27 5. What shape are they? a._______________ b._______________ c._______________ a. b. c. Spherical Spiral Rod

28 6. Groups a. _________________: forms clusters b. _________________: forms filaments or chains Staphylococcus Streptococcus Staphylo Strepto

29 7. Have Cell Walls 8. Form Endospores in Harsh Conditions -Some are rigid, Some flexible

30 10. Nutrition 9. Movement Movement HETEROTROPHS VS. AUTOTROPHS _____________: Take nutrition from other living organisms ____________: feed on dead and/or decaying matter _____________: use the sunlight as a source of energy _____________: use energy that results from a chemical reaction Parasitic Saprophyte Photo- Autotrophs Chemo- Autotrophs flagella

31 11. Respiration in Bacteria a. ____________- cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. b. ____________- can live with or without oxygen. c. ____________- cannot survive without the presence of oxygen. Obligate Anaerobes Facultative Anaerobes Obligate Aerobes

32 12. Reproduction a. __________________: (asexual reproduction) one cell splits into two cells. b. __________________: (sexual reproduction) exchange of genetic material between two bacteria. Binary Fission Binary FissionConjugation

33 B. Harmful Bacteria 1. _________________:an organism that causes disease 2. _________________:poisonous substance that disrupts the metabolism of the infected organism a.Endotoxin b.Exotoxin PATHOGEN TOXIN

34 3. Disease a. AnthraxAnthrax Cutaneous Inhalation

35 b. Tuberculosis

36 c. Typhoid fever

37 d. Diphtheria

38 e. Botulism

39 f. Tetanus

40 g. Gonorrhea STD

41 h. Syphilis STD

42 i. Chlamydia STD

43 a.Inhibit growth of some bacteria b.________________________ - product of fungus c.Bacteria can _______________to become resistant to antibiotics 4. Treatments ANTIBIOTICS Penicillium mutate

44 C. Helpful Bacteria Make milk into yogurt! Make antibiotics! Treat Wastewater! Aid Digestion! Pesticide Control! © Eric MacDicken Also-- Decomposers/ Natural Cycle! Bioremediation! Food/Preservatives!

45 D. Bacteriology

46 III. Infectious Diseases

47 A.Pathogens 2. Virus 4. Bacteria 1.Fungus Athletes Foot 5. Invertebrates Trichonosis 3. Protozoan Malaria Malaria 3Malaria 4

48 B. Toxins 1.Chemical substances harmful to the normal functioning of cells 2._______________- disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses. Neurotoxins

49 1.Air 2.Water 3.Human Contact 4.Arthropods C. Transmission

50 D. Defense 1. First Level of Response:

51 2. Phagocytosis

52 3. Fever 4. Interferon 5. Antigen 6. Immunity

53 E. AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 1. Caused a. Virus: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus ) b. Disruption of the proper functioning of immune system HIV

54 2. Transmission a. Sexual Contact b. Needles/Syringes c. Mother to Infant blood semen vaginal fluid breast milk other body fluids containing blood

55 3. Viral Action

56 4. Effects on Immune Disruption a.Virus enters bloodstream b.Phagocytes try to destroy virus c.T4 cells attack virus but virus enters T4 cell unharmed d.Antibodies attack virus but virus is unharmed e.May remain dormant up to 10 Years in T4 cells f.Becomes ActiveLytic Cycle and spreads to other T4 cells

57 5. Risk and Prevention Source : American Assciation for World Helath Who is at risk?Who is at risk? What can be done to prevent the spread of the disease? What can be done to prevent the spread of the disease?


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