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Evidence of Evolutionary Change

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Presentation on theme: "Evidence of Evolutionary Change"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evidence of Evolutionary Change

2 Comparing Fossils Evidence for Evolution
Shows that Living Systems change Change is STILL happening

3 Galapagos Archipelago
Isolated Island used for scientific study Biologists observed 2 species of birds: Medium Ground Finch Cactus Finch

4 Galapagos Islands Bird Experiment 12 year period Took measurements of:
Size of bodies Thickness of beaks 2 severe dry spells caused many bird fatalities

5 Galapagos Island Bird Experiment Results
Avg. characteristics of the surviving populations changed Larger sized birds Thicker beaks

6 Galapagos Island Bird Experiment Analysis Biological change
Influenced by natural circumstances Passed on from generation to generation Species change gradually Small changes add up to significant differences

7 Comparative Anatomy Branch of biology that concentrates on the similarities and differences in anatomical features of different species

8 Comparative Anatomy Look for structural similarities/differences
Similar characteristics may suggest evolutionary relatedness Book pg 107 **Good Graphic**

9 Homologous Structure Characteristic that is similar among different organisms because they evolved from a common ancestor Ex. Forearm Structure Consistent similarities Develop same way in young Different functions

10 Vestigial Structure Structures that are functional in some species, but seemingly useless in others “Vestige”—a remnant of Ex. Tails Most mammals have tails Humans/Apes Tail represented by last 3-5 bones of the backbone Tail-moving muscles also present

11 Genetic Information DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid Genetic “Blueprint” Allows Scientists to determine how closely related 2 organisms are

12 % of DNA that is the Same as Human DNA
Genetic Information Animal % of DNA that is the Same as Human DNA Monkey (old world primate) 93% Gibbon (lesser ape) 95% Chimpanzee (great ape) 98+%

13 Genetic Information Scientists can also show which organisms ARE NOT closely related Bacterium interpreted as an entirely different organism

14 Charles Darwin HMS Beagle 5 year journey
Mission: chart sections of the S. American Coast

15 Darwin Deserted mission and spent time collecting specimen and recording observations Questioned the geographical distribution of the organisms that he observed

16 Darwin Organisms similar to those in Europe, but very distinct
Organisms in mild S. America climates more similar to organisms in tropical S. America than to organisms in mild European climates Organisms perfect for their environment

17 Darwin Returned to England and spent 20 years analyzing data
On the Origin of the Species (1859) Word “evolution” not used “descent with modification” Evolution by Natural Selection

18 Darwin Only published b/c realized that other scientists were thinking the same Alfred Russel Wallace Integrity

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