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APG Review Session #1 Good Evening, Troops!. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Inability to Tax Inability to Regulate Commerce 1 Branch: Unicameral.

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Presentation on theme: "APG Review Session #1 Good Evening, Troops!. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Inability to Tax Inability to Regulate Commerce 1 Branch: Unicameral."— Presentation transcript:

1 APG Review Session #1 Good Evening, Troops!

2 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Inability to Tax Inability to Regulate Commerce 1 Branch: Unicameral Legislature Equal Representation 9 of 13- Law 13 of 13- Amend

3 Road to Philadelphia Mount Vernon (1785) Annapolis Convention (1786) Philadelphia Constitutional Convention

4 Constitutional Compromises Great Compromise Three-fifths Compromise Commerce Compromises Executive Compromises Slavery Compromises

5 Federalsit #10 Publius, Madison Extended Republic Argument Factions will occur Ambition Check Ambition Public Weal Representative Government

6 Federalsit #51 Publius, Madison Men are not angels (nor gals) Those governing are not angels Separation of Powers Federalism Checks and Balances

7

8 The Amendment Process Proposal 2/3 Vote Both House and Senate Conventional called at request of 2/3 of the States Ratification 3/4 Vote State Legislatures Specially called Conventions in each State

9 Framers Distrust of Public Opinion Representative Democracy Electoral College Extended Republic Separation of Powers Federalism Amendment Process

10 National and State Powers Delegated, Enumerated, Expressed Implied (Elastic Powers) Reserved Powers (Amendment X) Denied Powers Concurrent Powers

11 Federalsim Dual federalism Delegated Powers Limited Government Amendment X Cooperative Federalism Artcile 1, Section 8, Clause 18

12 Grant in Aid/ Conditions of Aid Categorical Formula (entitlement) Project (competitive) Block Grants Revenue Sharing (ended in 1986)

13 Devolution Revolution Nixon- New Federalism= Block Grants Reagan- New Federalism (also) Rehnquist Court= Lopez Case (1995) AFDC TANF (1996)

14 Unfunded Mandates State/local government must comply with federal rules. Clean Air and Clean Water Standards Americans with Disabilities Act (1991)

15 Preemption No Child Left Behind Act National government overriding state/ local actions Class Size, accountability testing 10 th Amendment/ Reserved Powers?

16 Direct Democracy in the U.S. Initiative Referendum Recall 17 th Amendment New England Town meeting

17 Majoritarian Democracy Does what a MAJORITY of the folks want Delegates Trustees Politicos

18 Elitist Theories on Democracy Negative Views Karl Mark- Bourgeoisie C. Wright Mills- The Power Elite Max Weber- Bureaucracy

19 Pluralist Democracy Madisons Public Weal Argument Many Publics Extended Republic Hyper Pluralism and Gridlock

20 Political Ideology Liberals Conservatives Libertarians Communtarians

21 Political Ideology: Conservatives Individual Responsibility Rugged Individualism Lassiez Faire (Business) Market Driven Economy Regulation of Community Standards

22 Political Ideology: Liberals Government remedy of social injustices Government regulation of economy Affirmative Action Separation of Church and state

23 Political Socialization Family Schooling and Information Community Peers

24 Cleavage in Opinion and Voting in the U.S. Race Ethnicity Gender Religion Region * Socioeconomic Status (SES)

25 Reapportionment and the Decennial Census Size of House (435) # of reps each state # of People per District Shape of District

26 Controlling the White House (1968 – Present)

27 Democratic Party Has Lost Voters Catholics Unions Southerners

28 Direct Democracy in the U.S. Initiative Referendum Recall 17 th Amendment New England Town meeting

29 Linkage Institutions Policy Making Institutions

30 The Media Gatekeeper Scorekeeper Watchdog Visuals Spots BOMFOG (Rockefeller) Slips Trial Balloon Spin Doctor Raise and Frame Issues Press Conferences Bully Pulpit

31 Political Participation U.S.- voter turnout lower, participation in other ways higher (compared to European nations) Conventional vs. Unconventional Direct Action Supporting vs. Influencing Behavior

32 Interest Group Tactics Direct Lobbying Testifying Donating $ (PAC) Endorsing Socializing Propaganda Rallying support Class Action Amicus Briefs Literature

33 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause

34 Non-Voters Non-white *Socioeconomic Status Young (18-24) Little education

35 Likely Voters Higher levels of education White Older (35+) Married Church Goers

36 Functions of Political Parties Nominate candidates Organize diverse Interests Propose Alternative Programs Coordinate Governing Process

37 Political Campaings (Pre-1968) Party Controlled Nominating Conventions Smoke-Filled Backrooms Shorter Campaigns Money Less Important Media Played Small Role

38 Political Campaings (Post-1968) Candidate Centered Campaign Personal Following Primaries!- Party Becomes Weaker Money is Very Important (FEC) Media is Very Important- Spots, Visuals

39 Federal Election Commission Buckley v. Valeo (1976) Individual- $2,300 (BCFRA) PAC- $5,000 PAC- 50 members PAC- to at least 5 candidates Hard$ v. Soft $ McCain-Feingold (BCFRA) 2002

40 Evolution of the Nominating Process King Caucus National Nominating Convention Primary and Caucus

41 Changes in Party Organization (1968 – 1972) Highly Organized Well Funded Computer Mailings Advice and Information Fragmented In-Fighting Traditional versus New Democrats

42 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause

43 Weakening of Political Parties Pendleton Act (1883) The End of Fraudulent Voting Social security Act (1935) Rise of the Primary Rise of the Candidate-Centered Campaign House members Bill of Rights (1970s)

44 Voting Reform/ End of Fraudulent Voting Repeaters and floaters WVA turnout of 108% (1888) Australian Ballot Residency Requirements Strict Voter Registration

45 Low Voter Turnout in the U.S. No automatic registration No compulsory voting laws Two-step process (w/ registration) Cost of Registering Amount of elections in the U.S.

46 New Deal Coalition Liberals Unions Catholics Jews African American Urban Workers City Dwellers Southern Whites

47 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause

48 Non-Voters Non-white *Socioeconomic Status Young (18-24) Little education

49 Likely Voters Higher levels of education White Older (35+) Married Church Goers

50 Functions of Political Parties Nominate candidates Organize diverse Interests Propose Alternative Programs Coordinate Governing Process

51 Political Campaings (Pre-1968) Party Controlled Nominating Conventions Smoke-Filled Backrooms Shorter Campaigns Money Less Important Media Played Small Role

52 Political Campaings (Post-1968) Candidate Centered Campaign Personal Following Primaries!- Party Becomes Weaker Money is Very Important (FEC) Media is Very Important- Spots, Visuals

53 Federal Election Commission Buckley v. Valeo (1976) Individual- $2,300 (BCFRA) PAC- $5,000 PAC- 50 members PAC- to at least 5 candidates Hard$ v. Soft $ McCain-Feingold (BCFRA) 2002

54 Evolution of the Nominating Process King Caucus National Nominating Convention Primary and Caucus

55 Changes in Party Organization (1968 – 1972) Highly Organized Well Funded Computer Mailings Advice and Information Fragmented In-Fighting Traditional versus New Democrats

56 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause

57 Weakening of Political Parties Pendleton Act (1883) The End of Fraudulent Voting Social security Act (1935) Rise of the Primary Rise of the Candidate-Centered Campaign House members Bill of Rights (1970s)

58 Voting Reform/ End of Fraudulent Voting Repeaters and floaters WVA turnout of 108% (1888) Australian Ballot Residency Requirements Strict Voter Registration

59 Low Voter Turnout in the U.S. No automatic registration No compulsory voting laws Two-step process (w/ registration) Cost of Registering Amount of elections in the U.S.

60 New Deal Coalition Liberals Unions Catholics Jews African American Urban Workers City Dwellers Southern Whites


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