3 November 30, 2010 New Vocabulary List – back of spiral Title of new list – “Heredity”DNA -- a molecule found in cells that contains all the instructions for making new cells.CHROMOSOME --found inside the nucleus of a cell, this structure contains the DNAMITOSIS --occurs in eukaryotic cells, and is a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
4 Heredity -- The passing of traits from parents to offspring VocabularyHeredity -- The passing of traits from parents to offspringGenetics -- the study of how traits are passes on, or inherited.
5 Vocabulary (Heredity List) Prophase – the first phase of mitosis, when the nuclear membrane disappears.Metaphase – the second phase of mitosis, when replicated chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.Anaphase – the third phase of mitosis, when the chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell by spindle fibersTelophase – the fourth phase of mitosis, when the nuclear membranes reform, and the cell membrane starts to pinch in to divide the cells.
6 Vocabulary Interphase – Before mitosis begins, chromosomes are copied. Cytokinesis – after mitosis ends -- the division of cytoplasm of a cell.Chromatid - a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere.Centriole – paired cylindrical organelles, arranged at right angles to each other, located at the center of the spindle fibers.6
8 Prokaryotes Bacteria Single-celled organisms archaeaDefined as having no nucleus or membrane around the organellesMost have cell wallsContain a single circular chromosome in the nucleoid regionDivide through binary fissionCell splits into two partsEach cell has a copy of the DNAformed about 3.5 billion years agoBacteria
9 Eukaryotes The cells of protozoa, higher plants and animals highly structured -- complexTend to be larger than the cells of bacteriaCell division is in three stagesInterphaseMitosiscytokinesisSee Animation
10 The Cell Cycle This is how a eukaryotic cell divides and replicates Cells appear to be dividing at times, and then resting between divisionsInterphase is when a cell appears to be resting—but many important activities take place at this time.See AnimationSee Video