Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Roots of the Cold War. Student Response Describe a time in your life when you had an adversary, or enemy, with whom you later became friendly. What.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Roots of the Cold War. Student Response Describe a time in your life when you had an adversary, or enemy, with whom you later became friendly. What."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Roots of the Cold War

2 Student Response Describe a time in your life when you had an adversary, or enemy, with whom you later became friendly. What caused you to be adversaries? What changed that allowed you to become friendly?Describe a time in your life when you had an adversary, or enemy, with whom you later became friendly. What caused you to be adversaries? What changed that allowed you to become friendly?

3 Stalin and Hitler as Brief Allies Following the Russian Revolution Stalin ruled the USSR as an island of communism.Following the Russian Revolution Stalin ruled the USSR as an island of communism. After Britain and France allowed Hitler to take over Czechoslovakia Stalin worried they would not prevent a German invasion of the USSR.After Britain and France allowed Hitler to take over Czechoslovakia Stalin worried they would not prevent a German invasion of the USSR.

4 As a result in 1939 Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler, agreeing to let Germany invade Poland.As a result in 1939 Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Hitler, agreeing to let Germany invade Poland. –Confirmed American distrust of both Nazis and Soviets The principle difference between Mr. Hitler and Mr. Stalin is the size of their respective mustaches. -WSJThe principle difference between Mr. Hitler and Mr. Stalin is the size of their respective mustaches. -WSJ

5 An Unlikely Alliance The adversarial relationship changed after Hitler invaded the USSR in 1941The adversarial relationship changed after Hitler invaded the USSR in 1941 –Stalin immediately switched alliances United by the urgency to defeat Hitler the Allies welcomed Stalin, putting their ideological differences aside…temporarilyUnited by the urgency to defeat Hitler the Allies welcomed Stalin, putting their ideological differences aside…temporarily Although the U.S. and Britain were happy to have the Soviets on their side, ideological differences still lurked within…Although the U.S. and Britain were happy to have the Soviets on their side, ideological differences still lurked within…

6 An Uneasy Alliance Though allied, disagreements over how the fight the war emergedThough allied, disagreements over how the fight the war emerged –The USSR bore the brunt of the war More casualties than the U.S., France, and Britain combined!More casualties than the U.S., France, and Britain combined! Stalin resented the slow pace the allies chose to invade France…not until 1944.Stalin resented the slow pace the allies chose to invade France…not until –But allies contend they sent ample support to Russia

7 Soviet and America Soldiers Meet April 1945 American soldiers move in to Germany from the West and Soviets move in from the East meeting at the Elbe River.April 1945 American soldiers move in to Germany from the West and Soviets move in from the East meeting at the Elbe River. –Cries rang out, American Tovarishi! (American comrades)

8 The Emergence of Two Superpowers After the war some nations (i.e. England) had lost prestigeAfter the war some nations (i.e. England) had lost prestige Two new world powers rose as superbly powerful nations….Two new world powers rose as superbly powerful nations…. –U.S. –U.S.S.R Despite the alliance during WWII, differences led to struggles for world leadershipDespite the alliance during WWII, differences led to struggles for world leadership

9 U.S. ValuesU.S. Values –Capitalism –Democracy –Individualism U.S. AimsU.S. Aims –Encourage democracy in other countries to help prevent the rise of Communist governments –Gain access to raw materials and markets to fuel booming industries –Rebuild European governments to promote stability and create new markets for U.S. goods –Reunite Germany to stabilize it and increase the security of Europe Soviet Values –Socialism –One-party rule –Goal of equality Soviet Aims –Encourage communism in other countries as part of a world wide workers revolution –Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europes industrial equipment and raw materials –Control Eastern Europe to protect Soviet borders and balance the U.S. influence in Western Europe –Keep Germany divided to prevent its waging war again

10 A Divided Europe Near wars end the Big Three meet at YaltaNear wars end the Big Three meet at Yalta –Agreed n a military plan to end the war and a joint occupation of Germany At the end of WWII:At the end of WWII: –U.S. remained in W. European nations long enough to stabilize –Soviets, attempt to create buffer zone in E. Europe…never leave.

11 Potsdam Conference: Truman and Stalin had agreed to allow Poland to hold free elections in the futurePotsdam Conference: Truman and Stalin had agreed to allow Poland to hold free elections in the future Stalin est. Soviet-satellite nations in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, CzechoslovakiaStalin est. Soviet-satellite nations in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia Became evident that postwar Europe would be divided into two spheres of influenceBecame evident that postwar Europe would be divided into two spheres of influence

12 From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lies all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…All these famous cities and the populations around them lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.Winston ChurchillFrom Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lies all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe…All these famous cities and the populations around them lie in the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and increasing measure of control from Moscow.Winston Churchill

13 The Marshall Plan Soviet control began to strengthen in E. EuropeSoviet control began to strengthen in E. Europe –Truman fears domino theory 1947: U.S. issues Marshall Plan1947: U.S. issues Marshall Plan –17 billion in economic aid to Western Europe –Soviets viewed as a plan to strengthen the American economy SU refused to allow E. Europe to accept loansSU refused to allow E. Europe to accept loans In response the SU issues the Molotov PlanIn response the SU issues the Molotov Plan –Provided economic assistance to E. Europe

14 The Cold War Hostilities between the SU and U.S. was elevated in the postwar eraHostilities between the SU and U.S. was elevated in the postwar era –Journalist Walter Lippman first used the term Cold War to describe the constant war of nerves between the U.S. and SU Throughout the proceeding four decades two countries came close to fighting each other directlyThroughout the proceeding four decades two countries came close to fighting each other directly –First near war flare up occurred ironically in Germany

15 The Allies Divide Germany After WWII Germany and Berlin divided among super powersAfter WWII Germany and Berlin divided among super powers Germany: East (SU), South (US), NW (Britain), France shared WestGermany: East (SU), South (US), NW (Britain), France shared West Berlin (Located in the East): Divided into quadrantsBerlin (Located in the East): Divided into quadrants –Stalin disapproved but the US and GB wouldnt back down

16 The Superpowers Disagree About the Future of Germany Both did agree to permanently disband German militaryBoth did agree to permanently disband German military SU insisted Germany pay reparationsSU insisted Germany pay reparations The US resisted issuing reparations for fear that a poor Germany would fall to CommunismThe US resisted issuing reparations for fear that a poor Germany would fall to Communism This dispute ignited the first battle of the Cold WarThis dispute ignited the first battle of the Cold War

17 The Berlin Blockade Due to differences concerning the German economy the SU began to believe the US was creating a West hostile to communismDue to differences concerning the German economy the SU began to believe the US was creating a West hostile to communism March 1948: Western powers announced a new more stable currency in GermanyMarch 1948: Western powers announced a new more stable currency in Germany Because the SU was not consulted they withdrew from the Allied Control Council and instituted a formal blockade in June 1948Because the SU was not consulted they withdrew from the Allied Control Council and instituted a formal blockade in June 1948 –W. Berliners cut off from necessary supplies

18 The Berlin Airlift American response to the Berlin BlockadeAmerican response to the Berlin Blockade –US dropped supplies to west Berliners in August ,000 tons of food and fuel dropped each day13,000 tons of food and fuel dropped each day World community held negative perception of the SUWorld community held negative perception of the SU Stalin reopened Berlin in May 1949Stalin reopened Berlin in May the SU built Berlin wall permanently separating the two sides1961 the SU built Berlin wall permanently separating the two sides

19 The Arms Race Begins The Atomic BombThe Atomic Bomb –US was first to use in WWII Use of the bomb increased tensions leading to nuclear arms raceUse of the bomb increased tensions leading to nuclear arms race

20 Nuclear Diplomacy After 1945 the superpowers began using the threat of nuclear war as a diplomatic tacticAfter 1945 the superpowers began using the threat of nuclear war as a diplomatic tactic Truman informed Stalin of the US nuclear capability to which Stalin responded…Truman informed Stalin of the US nuclear capability to which Stalin responded… –Atomic bombs are used to frighten those with weak nerves.-Stalin Foreshadowed Soviet development of atomic weaponsForeshadowed Soviet development of atomic weapons

21 The Soviet Bomb 1949 the SU began development of an A-Bomb1949 the SU began development of an A-Bomb US scientists predicted it would take them 7-10 years, but it only took 5.US scientists predicted it would take them 7-10 years, but it only took …the SU exploded their first A-bomb1953…the SU exploded their first A-bomb 1955: the SU dropped the first H-bomb1955: the SU dropped the first H-bomb

22 Superpower Competition in Europe Since the era of the Cold War included possible nuclear devastation the US and SU refused to risk direct military conflictSince the era of the Cold War included possible nuclear devastation the US and SU refused to risk direct military conflict Instead, they fought the Cold War to expand their spheres of influenceInstead, they fought the Cold War to expand their spheres of influence –Marshall Plan and NATO (Western influence) –Molotov Plan and Warsaw Pact (Eastern influence) –Regional wars supported by both sides in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East


Download ppt "The Roots of the Cold War. Student Response Describe a time in your life when you had an adversary, or enemy, with whom you later became friendly. What."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google