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APG 1 st Semester Exam Review. Political Culture Shared! Democracy Individual Liberty Political Equality Equality of Opportunity/ Not Result Legal Equality.

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Presentation on theme: "APG 1 st Semester Exam Review. Political Culture Shared! Democracy Individual Liberty Political Equality Equality of Opportunity/ Not Result Legal Equality."— Presentation transcript:

1 APG 1 st Semester Exam Review

2 Political Culture Shared! Democracy Individual Liberty Political Equality Equality of Opportunity/ Not Result Legal Equality

3 Political Ideology Differences Liberal vs. Conservative Government involvement Economically Government involvement in Personal Conduct

4 Political Ideology Liberals Conservatives Libertarians Communitarians Ds, Rs, and Is Today

5 Elections in the United States Congressional/ Midterm Off-Year

6 Likely Voters Higher Levels of Education (SES) White Older Married Church Goers Strong Party ID

7 Non-Voters Young (18-24) Low Education Non-White

8 Federalist #10 Publius, Madison Extended Republic Argument Factions will occur (inevitable) Ambition Check Ambition Public Weal Representative Government

9 Federalist #51 Publius, Madison Men are not angels (nor gals) Those governing are not angels Separation of Powers Federalism Checks and Balances

10 Evolution of the Nominating Process King Caucus National Nominating Convention Primary and Caucus

11 Framers Distrust of Public Opinion Representative Democracy Electoral College Extended Republic Separation of Powers Federalism

12 Controlling the White House (1968 – Present) 1968 1972 1980 1984 1976 1992 1996 2008 1988 2000 2004

13 Changes in Party Organization (1968 – 1972) Highly Organized Well Funded Computer Mailings Advice and Information Fragmented In-Fighting Traditional versus New Democrats

14 Democratic Party Has Lost Voters Catholics Unions Southerners Women African- Americans Jews

15 Direct Democracy in the U.S. Initiative Referendum Recall 17 th Amendment New England Town meeting Direct Primary

16 Expansion of Sufferage 15 th Amendment 17 th Amendment 19 th Amendment 23 rd Amendment 24 th Amendment 26 th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965 Poll taxes Literacy tests White primaries Grandfather Clause

17 Voting Reform/ End of Fraudulent Voting Repeaters and floaters WVA turnout of 108% (1888) Australian Ballot Residency Requirements Strict Voter Registration

18 Political Participation U.S.- voter turnout lower, participation in other ways higher (compared to European nations) Conventional vs. Unconventional Direct Action Supporting vs. Influencing Behavior

19 Unconventional Participation Lack of Trust Increased Political Efficacy Strong Sense of Group Consciousness

20 Political Socialization Family Schooling and Information Religion Peers and Occupation Spouse

21 Voter Turnout, U.S. vs. Others No automatic registration No compulsory voting laws Two-step process (w/ registration) Cost of Registering Amount of elections in the U.S. Voter Fatigue

22 Crosscutting Cleavage and Voting in the U.S. Race Ethnicity Gender Religion Region * Socioeconomic Status (SES)

23 Political Ideology: Conservatives Individual Responsibility Rugged Individualism Lassiez Faire (Business) Market Driven Economy Regulation of Community Standards

24 Political Ideology: Liberals Government remedy of social injustices Government regulation of economy Affirmative Action Separation of Church and state

25 Types of Votes Majority Simple majority Super Majority Plurality

26 U.S. Political Parties Two Major Parties (single-winner) Minor Parties Bolter Economic Protest Ideological Single-Issue Political Machines

27 Patronage Informal Welfare System Pendleton Act Social Security Act Laws Reducing Voter Fraud

28 Natural Rights John Locke Thomas Jefferson Property! Life Liberty Property Pursuit of Happiness

29 United States Constitution Separation of Powers Federal System Strong National Government Checks and Balances Congress- Commerce and Taxation Delegated Powers Implied Powers Bicameral Legislature

30 Critical Elections Two Types Party Realignment 1860, 1896, 1932 Also, 1800 and 1824

31 The Electoral College 538 Total Votes Votes per State Majority (270) to Win General and Electoral Elections Twelfth Amendment Role of the House (1800, 1824)

32 Key Elections 1800 1824 1860 1896 1912 1932 2000

33 Weaknesses of the Articles Inability to tax Inability to regulate commerce No Executive or Judiciary Unicameral House Equal representation

34 Success Under the Articles Land Ordinance of 1785 Northwest Ordinance of 1787

35 Rights Imbedded in the Constitution Habeas Corpus Ex Post Facto Bill of Attainder Trial by Jury No Religious Test for Office

36 Federalism Amendment Process Election Laws Points of Access Diversity of Public Policy

37 Federal Elections Direct Election House of Representatives Senate (17 th Amendment) Indirect Election Presidency Nomination and Confirmation The Federal Judiciary

38 Compromises in Philadelphia Great Compromise Three-fifths Compromise Slavery Compromises Executive Compromises Commerce Compromises

39 Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Veto/ Override Impeachment Process Bicameral Legislature Marbury v. Madison (1803) Appointments/ Treaties

40 Civil Rights Black Codes Literacy Tests Poll Taxes White Primaries Jim Crow Laws Brown v. B.O.E. Topeka (1954)

41 Road to Philadelphia Articles of Confederation Mt. Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Shays Rebellion Philadelphia Convention

42 Functions of Political Parties Sponsor/Nominate Candidates Structure the Voting Choice Propose Alternative Programs Coordinate Governing Process

43 Devolution Revolution Nixon- New Federalism= Block Grants Reagan- New Federalism (also) Rehnquist Court= Lopez Case (1995) AFDC TANF (1996)

44 New Deal Coalition Liberals Unions Catholics Jews European Ethnics Urban Workers City Dwellers Southern Whites (Solid South)

45 The Amendment Process Proposal 2/3 Vote Both House and Senate Conventional called at request of 2/3 of the States Ratification 3/4 Vote State Legislatures Specially called Conventions in each State

46 Weakening of Political Parties Pendleton Act (1883) The End of Fraudulent Voting Social Security Act (1935) Rise of the Primary Rise of the Candidate-Centered Campaign House members Bill of Rights (1970s)

47 Political Campaigns (Pre-1968) Nominating Conventions Party Controlled Smoke-Filled Backrooms Shorter Campaigns Money Less Important Media Played Small Role

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