2 Codes! DNA contains codes Codons Sequence of amino acids = proteins 3 nucleotide bases = amino acidSequence of amino acids = proteinsDNA copied = mRNA (messenger RNA)
3 Transcription and Translation Creation/synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template strandTranslationRibosomes make proteins using the mRNA strand made by transcription
4 Transcription One strand of DNA is copied Creates mRNA mRNA travels OUT of the nucleus to the cytoplasm (where the ribosomes are)
5 mRNA Ribonucleic Acid Structurally similar to DNA U instead of TSingle-strandedUsed to create proteinsAUGACGGUU
6 Vocab Codon Amino Acid Basic unit of the genetic code Sequence of 3 adjacent neucleotides in DNA or mRNAAmino AcidRNA codon
7 Translation 3 Main Steps InitiationElongationTermination
8 Translation Steps Initiation Ribosomes attach to an mRNA strand
9 Translation Steps Elongation Translation begins at the AUG codonAUG means GO!
10 tRNA MoleculestRNARecognize both specific mRNA codons and the amino acids that match those codonsContains an “anti-codon” which attracts specific amino acidsSimilar to the complimentary base pairing rule
11 Translation Steps Elongation Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry anti-codonsThese anti-codons find complimentary codons and attach them to the ribosome and mRNA
12 Translation Steps Elongation The ribosome travels down the mRNA and reads the codons
13 Translation Steps Elongation The ribosome pauses at each codon and waits for the tRNA to bring the correct amino acidEach amino acid is bound together by a Peptide Bond!
14 Translation Steps Termination The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon
15 Translation Steps Termination Everything breaks apart! Final peptide bonds are created, the ribosome breaks apart, and the polypeptide (protein) is released
16 Translation Steps Termination The Protein (polypeptide) folds into its specific shape. Shape determines function!The Protein is ready to be used by the body!