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Protein Synthesis. Codes! DNA contains codes –Codons 3 nucleotide bases = amino acid –Sequence of amino acids = proteins –DNA copied = mRNA (messenger.

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Presentation on theme: "Protein Synthesis. Codes! DNA contains codes –Codons 3 nucleotide bases = amino acid –Sequence of amino acids = proteins –DNA copied = mRNA (messenger."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protein Synthesis

2 Codes! DNA contains codes –Codons 3 nucleotide bases = amino acid –Sequence of amino acids = proteins –DNA copied = mRNA (messenger RNA)

3 Transcription and Translation Transcription –Creation/synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template strand Translation –Ribosomes make proteins using the mRNA strand made by transcription

4 Transcription One strand of DNA is copied Creates mRNA –mRNA travels OUT of the nucleus to the cytoplasm (where the ribosomes are)

5 mRNA Ribonucleic Acid Structurally similar to DNA –U instead of T –Single-stranded Used to create proteins AUGACGGUU

6 Vocab Codon –Basic unit of the genetic code –Sequence of 3 adjacent neucleotides in DNA or mRNA Amino Acid –RNA codon

7 Translation 3 Main Steps 1.Initiation 2.Elongation 3.Termination

8 Translation Steps Initiation 1.Ribosomes attach to an mRNA strand

9 Translation Steps Elongation 2.Translation begins at the AUG codon AUG means GO!

10 tRNA Molecules tRNA –Recognize both specific mRNA codons and the amino acids that match those codons –Contains an anti-codon which attracts specific amino acids Similar to the complimentary base pairing rule

11 Translation Steps Elongation 3.Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry anti-codons These anti-codons find complimentary codons and attach them to the ribosome and mRNA

12 Translation Steps Elongation 4.The ribosome travels down the mRNA and reads the codons

13 Translation Steps Elongation 5.The ribosome pauses at each codon and waits for the tRNA to bring the correct amino acid 6.Each amino acid is bound together by a Peptide Bond!

14 Translation Steps Termination 7.The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon

15 Translation Steps Termination 8.Everything breaks apart! Final peptide bonds are created, the ribosome breaks apart, and the polypeptide (protein) is released

16 Translation Steps Termination 9.The Protein (polypeptide) folds into its specific shape. Shape determines function! 10.The Protein is ready to be used by the body!

17 64 codons code for 20 different amino acids


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