Transcription and Translation Transcription –Creation/synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template strand Translation –Ribosomes make proteins using the mRNA strand made by transcription
Transcription One strand of DNA is copied Creates mRNA –mRNA travels OUT of the nucleus to the cytoplasm (where the ribosomes are)
mRNA Ribonucleic Acid Structurally similar to DNA –U instead of T –Single-stranded Used to create proteins AUGACGGUU
Vocab Codon –Basic unit of the genetic code –Sequence of 3 adjacent neucleotides in DNA or mRNA Amino Acid –RNA codon
Translation 3 Main Steps 1.Initiation 2.Elongation 3.Termination
Translation Steps Initiation 1.Ribosomes attach to an mRNA strand
Translation Steps Elongation 2.Translation begins at the AUG codon AUG means GO!
tRNA Molecules tRNA –Recognize both specific mRNA codons and the amino acids that match those codons –Contains an anti-codon which attracts specific amino acids Similar to the complimentary base pairing rule
Translation Steps Elongation 3.Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry anti-codons These anti-codons find complimentary codons and attach them to the ribosome and mRNA
Translation Steps Elongation 4.The ribosome travels down the mRNA and reads the codons
Translation Steps Elongation 5.The ribosome pauses at each codon and waits for the tRNA to bring the correct amino acid 6.Each amino acid is bound together by a Peptide Bond!
Translation Steps Termination 7.The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon
Translation Steps Termination 8.Everything breaks apart! Final peptide bonds are created, the ribosome breaks apart, and the polypeptide (protein) is released
Translation Steps Termination 9.The Protein (polypeptide) folds into its specific shape. Shape determines function! 10.The Protein is ready to be used by the body!