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Protein Synthesis.

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Presentation on theme: "Protein Synthesis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protein Synthesis

2 Codes! DNA contains codes Codons Sequence of amino acids = proteins
3 nucleotide bases = amino acid Sequence of amino acids = proteins DNA copied = mRNA (messenger RNA)

3 Transcription and Translation
Creation/synthesis of mRNA from a DNA template strand Translation Ribosomes make proteins using the mRNA strand made by transcription

4 Transcription One strand of DNA is copied Creates mRNA
mRNA travels OUT of the nucleus to the cytoplasm (where the ribosomes are)

5 mRNA Ribonucleic Acid Structurally similar to DNA
U instead of T Single-stranded Used to create proteins AUGACGGUU

6 Vocab Codon Amino Acid Basic unit of the genetic code
Sequence of 3 adjacent neucleotides in DNA or mRNA Amino Acid RNA codon

7 Translation 3 Main Steps
Initiation Elongation Termination

8 Translation Steps Initiation
Ribosomes attach to an mRNA strand

9 Translation Steps Elongation
Translation begins at the AUG codon AUG means GO!

10 tRNA Molecules tRNA Recognize both specific mRNA codons and the amino acids that match those codons Contains an “anti-codon” which attracts specific amino acids Similar to the complimentary base pairing rule

11 Translation Steps Elongation
Transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry anti-codons These anti-codons find complimentary codons and attach them to the ribosome and mRNA

12 Translation Steps Elongation
The ribosome travels down the mRNA and reads the codons

13 Translation Steps Elongation
The ribosome pauses at each codon and waits for the tRNA to bring the correct amino acid Each amino acid is bound together by a Peptide Bond!

14 Translation Steps Termination
The process continues until the ribosome reaches a stop codon

15 Translation Steps Termination
Everything breaks apart! Final peptide bonds are created, the ribosome breaks apart, and the polypeptide (protein) is released

16 Translation Steps Termination
The Protein (polypeptide) folds into its specific shape. Shape determines function! The Protein is ready to be used by the body!

17 64 codons code for 20 different amino acids

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