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© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved ISSUES IN FLIGHT DYNAMICS: COLLOCATION OPERATIONS & MISSION ANALYSIS A SUPPLIERS PERSPECTIVE Gonzalo Garcia, VP of Operations, USA Assaf Barnoy, Lead Flight Dynamics Engineer AIAA SOSTC 2008
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved AGENDA
© GMV, 2008 Introduction to GMV Introduction to focusSuite Introduction to Flight Dynamics and Collocation Analysis Collocation Assessment: Matool Collocation Operations: COLLOC, INICOL, and CLOSEAP Lessons Learned AGENDA 2008/04/16Page 3 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved INTRODUCTION TO GMV
© GMV, 2008 GLOBAL REACH, GLOBAL PRESENCE Global Locations GMV staff permanently located in 7 countries GMV systems deployed in 5 continents, 18 countries Pronounced world business US subsidiary (ITAR OK) Main Customers Space Agencies Industrial Primes Integrators Commercial Satellite operators Space App. Communities 2008/04/16Page 5 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 OUR OFFER Mission Analysis studies and mission analysis tools (station keeping, collocation, launch window analysis, …) Operational systems for satellite control (inc. on-station and LEOP): –Real-Time TM/TC M&C –Flight Dynamics –Mission Planning and Scheduling Special operational needs (e.g. collision prediction/analysis, rendezvous, interstellar) Satellite capacity management: –Satellite capacity management –Payload Reconfiguration –CFDP Operations support 2008/04/16Page 6 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved INTRODUCTION TO focusSuite
© GMV, 2008 focusSuite is an off-the-shelf product, which supports multi-mission, multi-satellite flight dynamics operations and mission analysis focusSuites benefits include functionality, reliability, flexibility and user friendliness focusSuite provides full lifecycle (assessment to launch to de-orbiting) flight dynamics operations support through a collection of flight proven mission independent and mission/spacecraft specific functionality focusSuite provides high degree of configurability allowing to provide custom solutions focusSuite also provides a generic framework that allows for extensibility of product development and evolution focusSuite includes an Open API which increases productivity, stability, and accessibility, including integration into a service oriented architecture (SOA) focus SUITE FLIGHT DYNAMICS: focusSuite PRODUCT LINE 2008/04/16Page 8 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 focusSuite: A COMPLETE PRODUCT LINE FDS product line –focusSuite: advanced multimission, multisatellite FD infrastructure providing core functions –focusGEO: GEO operations –focusLEOP: LEOP operations –focusLEO: LEO operations –focusCn: satellite constellations –and more –focusCloseap: collision risk prediction –COLLOC: Collocation Assessment –INICOL: Collocation Initialisation control –MATOOL: Station Keeping and collocation assessment Selected to operate over 120 satellites 2008/04/16Page 9 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Three-tier architecture, to promote flexibility and modularity, allow distribution and scalability: –1st Tier: Presentation (clients) –2nd Tier: Process management –3rd Tier: Data management / Computation. Normally includes legacy code based on reliable flight dynamics algorithms Advanced API for interaction with Process Manager –Operator Manual Access (GUI) –Automatic Procedures (Autofocus) –External Applications (including SOA) focusSuite Modules Data Manager Process Manager GUI focusGEO Modules focusLEO Modules focusCn Modules Autofocus focusAPI External App. focusSuite: ARCHITECTURE Event Manager COLLOCINICOLCLOSEAPMATOOL 2008/04/16Page 10 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved INTRODUCTION TO FLIGHT DYNAMICS AND COLLOCATION
© GMV, 2008 COLLOCATION OPERATIONS When planning to collocate spacecraft the following factors should be considered: The number of participating spacecraft The size of the control windows The duration/frequency of the station keeping control cycle Various other constraints on thruster design, such as the firing duration, minimum time between maneuvers, Sun-Earth angle, etc. All of which translate to direct effect on the operator: Benefit in added capacity Added redundancy More complex station-keeping operations 2008/04/16Page 12 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 COLLOCATION REQUIREMENTS There are two levels of requirements that must be considered: Mission Requirements –Keep the satellites inside the control box during their lifetime –Fit the geometrical configuration of the control strategies and fulfil their design requirements –Minimize the fuel consumption of each satellite Safety & interference criteria –The probability of an approach closer than a given threshold (safety margin) between any pair of satellites shall be negligible –The probability of disturbance on infra-red sensors, sun sensors, solar arrays or antennas shall be negligible 2008/04/16Page 13 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Complete Longitude Separation Partial Longitude Separation COLLOCATION STRATEGIES: Longitude Separation 2008/04/16Page 14 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS OR
© GMV, 2008 COLLOCATION STRATEGIES: Inclination/Eccentricity Separation Separation in Inclination Separation in Eccentricity Combined Inclination and Eccentricity separation 2008/04/16Page 15 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Collocation by eccentricity offset ensures that radial and tangential separation are never low at the same time. Radial Sep. = 0 Tangential sep. = max Radial Sep. = max Tangential Sep. = /04/16Page 16 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS COLLOCATION STRATEGIES: Inclination/Eccentricity Separation (cont)
© GMV, 2008 GMV offers two levels of collocation support: MATOOL: Mission Analysis Tool including Collocation, which analyzes collocation control to determine viability of collocation plan and proposes spacecraft operations control COLLOC, INICOL, and CLOSEAP: Operational functions (part of focusGEO), which allow operators to observe and control a spacecraft collocation group 2008/04/16Page 17 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS GMVs SOLUTION TO COLLOCATION
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved COLLOCATION ASSESSMENT : MATOOL
© GMV, 2008 WHAT IS MATOOL? MATOOL is geostationary satellites. Its main features include: Full station keeping analysis (including delta V and mass consumption) Extended simulation period (could span entire spacecraft lifetime) Study of multiple spacecraft orbits, including inclined Output is available in data files and plot format, and includes evolution data of orbital elements, manoeuvres, and inter-satellite variables for all satellite pairs a station keeping and collocation analysis tool for 2008/04/16Page 19 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: MISSION ANALYSIS SUPPORT Evaluation of the inclination control strategy (N/S) and the drift/eccentricity control strategy (E/W) The performance of those strategies is evaluated based on orbit determination errors and thrusters behavior (thrust efficiency and cross-coupling effects) Analysis and feasibility of the collocation strategy for several satellites, including safety constraints in terms of minimum inter-satellite distance and separation angles Verification of the restrictions associated with the window control Attitude constraints analysis Complete lifetime estimation 2008/04/16Page 20 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: EXECUTION MODES Collocation Parameters: The objective of this mode is to provide an initial estimate of the collocation control parameters for a cluster of satellites. Proximity Analysis: The objective of this mode is to perform proximity analysis for a collocation group. Complete Execution: The objective of this mode is to perform a long term simulation of the station-keeping strategy and collocation monitoring. This computes maneuver, orbit, and proximity evolution for all satellites. –Monte Carlo Analysis: A Monte Carlo analysis option is available from the Complete Execution mode. This method makes use of random numbers and probability statistics to investigate problems. 2008/04/16Page 21 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: FUNCTIONALITIES Maneuvers computation / orbit propagation / collocation analysis Free Inclination drift management (no inclination control strategy) Ionic/Chemical propulsion External Maneuvers File integration. Results from other tools can be easily integrated for analysis Generic Maneuver Calibration avoiding dependencies on a particular platform Safety parameters estimation 2008/04/16Page 22 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE Input Panel Users have access to input parameters to define the mission profile, including number of satellite, orbit plans, maneuver station keeping information, and more Tests Groups Users can create multiple test groups/scenarios to address different missions, operational concepts, and collocation profiles Analysis to Operations Input parameters are 100% compatible with focusSuite operational products (focusGEO), thereby allowing for simple transition from analysis to operations Analysis Output Detailed analysis output is available in detailed execution walkthrough, data tables, and graphical displays 2008/04/16Page 23 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE 2008/04/16Page 24 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Longitude / Latitude Histograms Show percentage of time spent within each subinterval within the box
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE 2008/04/16Page 25 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Eccentricity evolution Show evolution of eccentricity vector for all satellites in the collocation group. Both mean and osculating elements.
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE 2008/04/16Page 26 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Inclination evolution Show evolution of inclination vector for all satellites in the collocation group. Both mean and osculating elements.
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE 2008/04/16Page 27 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Delta of inclination and eccentricity Show separation in eccentricity and inclination vectors for all satellite pairs in the collocation group.
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: USER INTERFACE 2008/04/16Page 28 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Inters-satellite separation Show inter-satellite distance and angular separation for all satellite pairs in the collocation group.
© GMV, 2008 MATOOL: OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE EUTELSAT: –Mission analysis of the satellite fleet (20+ satellites), in particular for collocation analysis. Includes a collocation group of 5-6 satellites. ESA: –Goal to analyze the feasibility of cluster concept for a GEO mission –MATOOL used to assure a continuous inter-satellite link SS/LORAL: –Mission analysis study performed by GMV and proposed operational concept delivered in formal report to SS/LORAL Orbital Sciences Corporation: –Analysis tool for new GEO missions Other GEO operators: –Superbird –Worldspace –OPTUS –HISPASAT 2008/04/16Page 29 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved COLLOCATION OPERATIONS: COLLOC INICOL CLOSEAP
© GMV, 2008 Purpose: Performs a proximity check for satellites within a collocation group Used also to monitor collocation groups of satellites from different operators Options: Under/Over-performance of maneuvers – used to allow for thruster efficiency in collocated satellites Inter-satellites parameters (other satellites defined by Collocation File) Angular satellite separation based on specified station visibility Output: Complete statistical review of the collocation of all satellites in cluster If close approach is detected, a maneuver will be computed to avoid collision Detailed graphical displays indicating collocation status COLLOC: COLLOCATION ANALYSIS
© GMV, 2008 COLLOC: COLLOCATION ANALYSIS COLLOC Report: Single page printout includes orbit data for all participating satellites Inter-satellite distance and angular separation for all satellite-pairs Details about any avoidance manoeuvres needed, including improved collocation statistics COLLOC Plots: Orbit plots Collocation plots Latitude vs. Longitude plots Latitude/Longitude histograms Inter-satellite distance histogram
© GMV, 2008 INICOL: COLLOCATION CLUSTER INITIALIZATION 2008/04/16Page 33 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS Purpose: Compute the maneuvers needed for the collocation strategy initialization and extraction Options: Collocation control parameters Maneuver Mode: N/S, E/W (Drift & SK Initialization) and E/W (Only SK Initialization) Constraints on operations (e.g. Next operational Station Keeping maneuver) Output: Computed maneuver(s) to achieve desired target Collocation analysis with other spacecraft of proposed maneuver to determine close approaches
© GMV, 2008 Two Operation Modes: –Satellite Insertion: To insert a satellite in a new or existent cluster finding the nominal position in Eccentricity, Longitude & Inclination –Satellite Extraction: To extract a satellite from a shared cluster in a safe manner Proximity analysis is performed according to collocation data for all satellites in the cluster. Satellites defined by detailed orbital ephemeris (for controlled satellites) and longitude control boxes (for observed satellites). INICOL: COLLOCATION CLUSTER INITIALIZATION 2008/04/16Page 34 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 CLOSEAP: CLOSE APPROACH PREDICTION Purpose: Predict close approaches between the satellite and third party objects Options: Automatic download of latest TLE elements from SPACETRACK, including all observable objects Phased approach allows for consideration of many parameters in a short span of time Output: Computed close approach report with any object Probability of collision using covariance analysis Collocation and orbit plots with any nearby object Status messages sent by to selected users
© GMV, 2008 CLOSEAP: CLOSE APPROACH PREDICTION LEVEL 2: SPHERE LEVEL 3: ELLIPSOID LEVEL 1: BOX focusCloseAp Automatic processing Phased approach
© GMV, 2008 CLOSEAP: CLOSE APPROACH PREDICTION Output: Plots Separation plots between satellite and tracked objects Orbit plots showing evolution of satellite and tracked objects Avoidance manoeuvre
© GMV, 2008 OPERATIONAL COLLOCATION EXPERIENCE EUTELSAT: –Collocation group of 5-6 satellites has been operated with focusGEO successfully since 2001 HISPASAT: –At one point 4 satellites in collocation operated by focusGEO WorldSpace: –Asiastar closely monitors close approaches to a collocated satellite from another operator using CLOSEAP / COLLOC Soon: –Telenor and MEASAT will be monitoring collocated satellites with focusGEO 2008/04/16Page 38 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved LESSONS LEARNED
© GMV, 2008 LESSONS LEARNED A thorough detailed mission analysis study is necessary long before launch to define the optimal strategies that guarantee: –Minimum propellant consumption (= maximum life) –Fulfillment of separation constraints A good combined strategy can make a big difference in expected life of the satellites MATOOL is an excellent tool for that task. Used for different missions in the USA, Europe, Asia and Australia The operational implementation of a collocation strategy requires the use of a multi-satellite system capable of planning the maneuvers of all satellites consistently. focusGEO does the job. 2008/04/16Page 40 FLIGHT DYNAMICS COLLOCATION: ASSESSMENT AND OPERATIONS
© GMV, 2008 Property of GMV All rights reserved Thank you
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