Powers Systems of Government States Rights National Supremacy Grants-in-Aid and Mandates SCOTUS and Federalism $200 $400 $600 $800 $ $1000
Mandates Mandates An unfunded mandate is a statute that requires government or private parties to carry out specific actions, but does not appropriate any funds for that purpose.
Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988 The President on November 18 signed into law the Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988, which prohibits all municipal sewage sludge and industrial waste dumping into the ocean after December 31, 1991.
Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act Requires nearly all American business owners to make their business premises available to disabled customers, without providing any funds for the cost of reconstruction or additional interior space
Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act The ADA prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, requiring businesses to provide the disabled "equal access" and to make "reasonable accommodation" for employees.
The SCOTUS and Federalism McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 United States v. Lopez, 1995 Bush v. Gore, 2000
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 Chief Justice John Marshall Is a Bank Constitutional? Can a State TAX a National Institution?
Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 Chief Justice John Marshall Intrastate Commerce Interstate Commerce
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 Chief Justice Roger Taney Is Dred Scott a Free Man or a Slave? Missouri Compromise, 1820
United States v. Lopez, 1995 William Hubbs Rehnquist Gun-Free School Zones Act, 1990 Not an Economic Activity Devolution
Bush v. Gore, 2000 Sandra Day OConnor Hanging Chads Undervotes