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Unifying Principles of Biology Biology Mr. Plazak.

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Presentation on theme: "Unifying Principles of Biology Biology Mr. Plazak."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unifying Principles of Biology Biology Mr. Plazak

2 What is Biology? Biology is the study of living things or LIFE! Biology is the study of living things or LIFE! What do all living things have in common? What do all living things have in common? Movement? DNA? Cells? Movement? DNA? Cells?

3 Commonalities All living things have 6 characteristics. All living things have 6 characteristics. These are found in all living things from baby to adult These are found in all living things from baby to adult

4 1 st Principle – Evolution Natural Selection- facilitator of evolution – characteristics most favorable – live on. Natural Selection- facilitator of evolution – characteristics most favorable – live on. ALL living things have evolved or are currently evolving. ALL living things have evolved or are currently evolving. These changes eventually lead to changes and different populations that have diverse characteristics. These changes eventually lead to changes and different populations that have diverse characteristics.

5 2 nd Principle - Homeostasis Ability of organisms to maintain an internal balance. Ability of organisms to maintain an internal balance. All organisms control their internal systems in response to their surroundings. All organisms control their internal systems in response to their surroundings. Examples: sweating, stomata, anoles, adrenaline, shivering. Examples: sweating, stomata, anoles, adrenaline, shivering.

6 3 rd Principle - Organization All living systems are highly organized forms of matter. All living systems are highly organized forms of matter. Most living things are made up of mostly just a few atoms – carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur Most living things are made up of mostly just a few atoms – carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur Cells- the basic structural unit of living matter. Cells- the basic structural unit of living matter.

7 contd Organization… All living things NEED energy! All living things NEED energy! Energy is needed to build and repair highly organized structures – cells! Energy is needed to build and repair highly organized structures – cells! Dead things have their organization broken down. Dead things have their organization broken down.

8 4 th Principle - Continuity The ability of an organism to transfer its DNA, and give it to its offspring – REPRODUCTION! The ability of an organism to transfer its DNA, and give it to its offspring – REPRODUCTION! Sexual or asexual. Sexual or asexual. Genetic information is carried/stored by DNA – a long and complex molecule. Genetic information is carried/stored by DNA – a long and complex molecule. DNA is just a rearrangement of the same pieces and parts – wardrobe ex. DNA is just a rearrangement of the same pieces and parts – wardrobe ex.

9 5 th Principle - Development The ability of an organism to grow and develop. The ability of an organism to grow and develop. Change of formation/function of structures. Change of formation/function of structures. Ex. – humans and plants, p. 126 Ex. – humans and plants, p. 126

10 6 th Principle - Ecology All living things interact in a web of life. All living things interact in a web of life. Some live in communities. Some live in communities. Some help each other, others hurt. Some help each other, others hurt. Interaction and Interdependence in living systems. Interaction and Interdependence in living systems.

11 Classification of Living Organisms

12 Naming Things Swede botanist Carolus Linnaeus is credited for the current system – in Latin. Swede botanist Carolus Linnaeus is credited for the current system – in Latin. The largest group will be the Kingdom – the 5 Kingdoms…ex. Animalia The largest group will be the Kingdom – the 5 Kingdoms…ex. Animalia The organism is then sub-divided into a phylum of that kingdom…ex. Chordata The organism is then sub-divided into a phylum of that kingdom…ex. Chordata

13 …contd Naming After a phylum – divided into a class with similar characteristics….ex. Mammalia After a phylum – divided into a class with similar characteristics….ex. Mammalia Class then divided into an order…ex. Carnivora Class then divided into an order…ex. Carnivora

14 More Naming Order then divided into a family….ex. Canidae Order then divided into a family….ex. Canidae Family then divided into a Genus…ex. Canis Family then divided into a Genus…ex. Canis Genus then sub divided into species…ex. familiaris Genus then sub divided into species…ex. familiaris

15 How to Remember KingKingdom KingKingdom Phillip Phylum Phillip Phylum CameClass CameClass OverOrder OverOrder ForFamily ForFamily GrapeGenus GrapeGenus SodaSpecies SodaSpecies


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