Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

2/13/2014 1 Engineering & Technology Management Group The Delta Forum 2004 Designing & Integrating 21 st Century Systems Sponsored by the AIAA Engineering.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "2/13/2014 1 Engineering & Technology Management Group The Delta Forum 2004 Designing & Integrating 21 st Century Systems Sponsored by the AIAA Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 2/13/2014 1 Engineering & Technology Management Group The Delta Forum 2004 Designing & Integrating 21 st Century Systems Sponsored by the AIAA Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Systems Engineering ManagementHistory Society Legal Aspects Economics LogisticsSupply Chain Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development

2 2/13/2014 2 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Introduction – What is the Delta Forum Our Groups TCs examine the issues affecting the aerospace industry in the areas of Engineering and Technology Management The Delta Forum looks at a single topic of interest to the industry, from the various perspectives of our TCs –Aeronautics R&D Funding –Aerospace in the New Economy –The Risk-Averse Aerospace Industry Our panel will take your questions at the end of the session Economics History Legal Aspects Logistics Management Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Product Development Risk Management Societal Aspects Supply Chain Management Systems Engineering Technical Information

3 2/13/2014 3 Engineering & Technology Management Group Society as a System What are the Needs? Tim Howard AIAA Society & Aerospace Technology TC

4 2/13/2014 4 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Overview Is Society a System? –Historical perspectives –General System Theory –Society as an individual need What does a social system need? –Maslow & the needs of Society What does this mean for Aerospace? –Aerospace & Societys needs –Aerospace & individual needs

5 2/13/2014 5 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Greek View of Systems Water Wind or Air Fire Earth

6 2/13/2014 6 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Greek Perspective Separate elements postulated by separate people over time Together, the elements compose the Earth system Aristotle pulled them together, as elements, not integrated –Set the stage for 1500 years of conventional science Atomos theory – grew out of element theory –Lost for centuries (Aristotle disagreed and tried to suppress it); resurfaced in 1890s Relationship and interaction is the key concept

7 2/13/2014 7 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Chinese View of Systems Tao Te Ching (Way of Integrity) –300-500 BC –Tao = the system; Te = the members –About how things, including man and nature, should be –Differentiation & integration (Yin and Yang) –Process continues indefinitely The Tao begot one, One begot two, Two begot three. The three begot the ten thousand things. The ten thousand things embrace Yin and express Yang. Harmony is achieved by combining these forces.

8 2/13/2014 8 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development General System Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy, German biologist –Frustrated by separation of science disciplines that resulted from Aristotles presentation of the elements –Looking for general way to describe organized complexity of living organisms –Proposed General System Theory in the 1940s General Systems Theory –A system is composed of elements in standing relationship –The relationship between the elements is a component of the system GST evolved into Complex System Theory

9 2/13/2014 9 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development General System Theory & Society Talcott Parsons, U.S. Sociologist Attempted to integrate sociology theories Believed Society had 4 functional imperatives –Adaptation – society adapts to physical and political environment –Attainment – society defines primary goals and enlists individuals to accept and strive for these goals –Integration – society is coordinated into cohesive whole –Latentcy – maintain and revitalized individuals to meet social expectations

10 2/13/2014 10 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development General System Theory & Society Niklas Luhman, sociologist, studied under Parsons & then broke from Parsons Applies System theory to society as a living organism Concept of autopoeisis – self creation –Comes from biology – refers to dynamics of non- equilibrium structures –The living system will create what it needs from within itself, while maintaining its structure – the biological cell –In contrast, an allopoietic system, such as a car factory, uses raw materials (components) to generate a car (an organised structure) which is something other than itself (a factory) The Society creates itself through its communications; individuals are part of the system environment

11 2/13/2014 11 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development General System Theory & Society Jurgen Habermas, German sociologist Sought to construct social theory that is also non-oppressive and inclusive universalist moral framework – critical theory Incorporates just about everyone, from Kant to Marx Conflict with Luhmann over role of individual in society; closer to Parsons All speech acts – communications – have an inherent goal of mutual understanding Human beings possess communicative competence to bring about such understanding

12 2/13/2014 12 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Characteristics of Complex Systems Emergence – behaviors and patterns emerge from the relationship patterns Relationships are short-range – information exchanged between near neighbors Relationships are non-linear – small stimulus may have no, small, or large effect Relationships contain feedback loops – supports constant adaptation; effects of an agents actions can change future behavior (learn from error) Complex systems are open – appear stable, but in constant change; energy and information move across system boundaries The parts cannot contain the whole – elements can not know what is happening in the entire system Complex systems have a history – small changes in circumstances can lead to large deviations Complex systems are nested – components are complex systems themselves Boundaries are difficult to determine – based on observer needs and prejudices vice intrinsic property of the system

13 2/13/2014 13 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Society as an Individual Need Abraham Maslow, U.S. psychologist Proposed Hierarchy of Needs in 1960s –Applied to individuals in an organization –We operate across all levels as we mature to next level Relationship is the need that drives us to form societies –Individuals form communities –Communities form societies Self-actualization is why we work Transcendence is ultimate goal Survival Safety Relationship Prestige SelfActualization Knowledge & Aesthetics Trans-cendence Security

14 2/13/2014 14 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Characteristics of the Society System Society is a system of individual people at various points in the hierarchy at any given time Complex system integrated with its environment Individuals within Society exist in relationship to each other Communication & interaction is the venue to maintain the relationship Societys needs mirror its elements –Survival, safety, security, relationship are basic needs –Prestige, knowledge, self-actualization, transcendence are higher order –Changes happen fast Success comes in meeting the needs of societys components – the individual

15 2/13/2014 15 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development What Does this Mean for Aerospace? Internal and External perspective –Aerospace industry is a society in itself –Aerospace industry part of larger societies of nations and the world Aerospace must be able to respond to fluidity of changes in the larger system, often due to factors beyond its control –Cost to build new airplanes vs inflation or changes in market –Cost per kg to place objects or people in orbit Aerospace must also be able to meet the needs of societys individuals, in and out of the industry –Workforce issues are key to future success of industry When designing systems for society, need to design the individual into the mix; account for communications

16 2/13/2014 16 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Aerospace & the Needs of Society NeedThreatAerospace Contribution Survival Air and Water pollution Overpopulation & scarcity of food Depletion of ozone layer Asteroid impact Remote sensing systems Asteroid monitoring Planetary Defense Safety Natural disasters Disease & Epidemic Weather Systems Security Terrorism Weapons of Mass Destruction Intelligence & Surveillance Systems Defense Systems Relationship Prejudice Tribal warfare International Partners & Competitors Prestige Lack of success, lack of something to take pride in Planetary exploration – Moon, Mars Knowledge & Aesthetics Illiteracy Lack of access to resources Satellite communications systems Self Actualization Oppression of free expression Poor economic conditions Contribution to national economic security Transcendence Lack of systems view – how we fit into the Earth system Mission to Planet Earth

17 2/13/2014 17 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development What Society Needs from Aerospace Society needs systems that strengthen the communication & interaction critical to survival and growth These systems need to be: –Safe –Secure –Reliable –Environmentally positive –Economically sound

18 2/13/2014 18 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Aerospace & the Needs of the Individual NeedThreatAerospace Contribution Survival Industry consolidation/contraction Establish stability within industry to allow planning for individual growth and movement Stabilize government funding levels Safety Hazardous materials in workplace Complexity of systems challenges maintainability Emphasize programs to improve work conditions Emphasize programs to improve survivability of systems Security Economic conditions of company Establish stability within organization Stabilize & commit to programs over multiple budget years Relationship Lack of interest by manager/leader Lack of cohesion within team or organization Organize into coherent teams Take active interest in team and individual activities Quickly move out the negatives Prestige Lack of recognition for contributions – higher salary not always the answer Lack of successful endeavors Unethical behavior Recognize & reward contributions and other activities Commit to project/program success Commit to ethical comport Knowledge & Aesthetics Lack of R&D funding Lack of organized training Commit to stable funding Commit to professional development Self Actualization Lack of integration of work and family Develop programs to support family & personal interest activities TranscendenceLack of integration with community Lack of Higher Purpose Commit to community projects Establish and commit to Higher Purpose

19 2/13/2014 19 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Aerospace Economics Aerospace Company Revenues ($ millions) # of Employees Global 500 Fortune 500 (US only) 100 Best (US only) Most Admired (Global 50) Boeing54,069.0165,0004315-43 EADS28,269.5103,967139N/A - United Technologies 28,212.0155,00014149-- Lockheed Martin26,806.0125,00015356-- Honeywell Intl22,274.0108,00019778-- Northrup Grumman 17,837.0117,30026099-- Raytheon16,962.076,400280105-- Bombardier15,115.970,411329N/A - General Dynamics 13,863.054,000357137-- BAE Systems12,135.468,100417N/A - Textron10,658.049,000472174-- Thales Group10,499.160,662480N/A - Source: Fortune Magazine, www.fortune.comwww.fortune.com Information based on 2003 data

20 2/13/2014 20 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development The Best Companies CompanyRevenues ($ millions) # of Employees Global 500 Fortune 500 (US only) 100 Best (US only) Most Admired (Global 50) JM Smucker1,312.02585--1- Alston & Bird314.01450--2- Container Store271.01832--3- Edward Jones2,270.027092--4- Republic Bancorp340.01360--5- Adobe Systems1,153.02368--6- TDIndustries217.01393--7- SAS Institute1,180.04927--8- Wegmans Food Markets 2,836.028561--9- Xilinx1,100.02037--10-

21 2/13/2014 21 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Change our Systems Paradigm Fritjof Capra – The Tao of Physics: Change our paradigm Old Paradigm: World as mechanical in nature; Body as machine; Life as competitive struggle; unlimited progress will come through economic and technological growth Capras Approach –1. Shift from parts to whole – can only understand the parts from the dynamics of the whole –2. Shift from structure to process – every structure is a manifestation of an underlying process –3. Shift from objective to epistemiologic science – understand the process through knowledge –4. Shift from building to network as a metaphor of knowledge – replace knowledge is power with the power of shared knowledge –5. Shift from truth to approximate description – most decisions made within 10 minutes with incomplete information & intuition Need a different social and economic structure from the one we have used since the beginning of our industry –Move from manufacturing to knowledge (net-centric) –Recognize the needs of the system components – issue of loyalty among the workforce points out the need to socialize –Why arent we the best companies to work for?

22 2/13/2014 22 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Where are We Now? Dominant model of competition now giving way to collaboration –Competition has a role; it meets the need for prestige, and helps extend knowledge; needs to be better managed Quantum physics shows that the classical system model does not hold true at certain levels, and as we move out from centerline Eastern approach brings a sense of integration & synergy –When we focus on the differences instead of the similarities, we keep the system from forming Growing recognition that process is at the heart of the system Replace the concept of opposites with the concept of complements –The opposite of perfect vision is blindness; most of us have neither so we complement what we have with another element of our visual system –How do we work to strengthen the complement of management and labor (arent we all engaged in some sort of labor?) –Did we need 2 JSFs or 1 really good JSF? Do we need to revisit antitrust laws?

23 2/13/2014 23 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development What Aerospace Needs to Do Define our Higher Purpose – the settlement of the Solar System by our grandchildren –Tie to the needs of Society for survival, knowledge, transcendence Organize for self-actualization of our members –Invest to meet the needs of the workforce –Put our companies in the Admired category Focus on systems to stabilize the industry & eliminate the cycle of downsizing –Proactive analysis of market demands –Go for the long haul, vice the quarterly numbers Cant build systems of systems if we ignore the basic component – the individual (designer, integrator, end user)

24 2/13/2014 24 Engineering & Technology Management Group Engineering Technology Management Tracking the Constant of Change Management History Society Legal Aspects LogisticsSupply Chain Systems Engineering Economics Risk Technical Information Multidiscipline Design Product Development Final Thought We are dealing with emergent realities; no longer with isolated groups of men, but with a systematically interdependent global community. It is this level of [reality] which we must keep before our eyes if we are able to inspire large- scale action designed to ensure our collective and hence our individual survival Ludwig von Bertalanffy, General System Theory


Download ppt "2/13/2014 1 Engineering & Technology Management Group The Delta Forum 2004 Designing & Integrating 21 st Century Systems Sponsored by the AIAA Engineering."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google