2Cornice Definition: the overhang of a roof at the eave. Includes the fascia board, a soffit, and any moldings.Provides a finished connection between wall and roof.Put figure 13-1 in
3Rake Definition: Part of a roof that overhangs a gable. Projecting roof boards support trim for boxed rake section.Roof framing is extended when the rake projects a considerable distance.Figure 13-4
4Framing a Cornice Install ledger strip along wall Mark points with level that match up with bottem edges of raftersNail on the ledger stripCut the lookoutsToenail one end of the lookout to the ledger and nail the other end to the overhang of the rafterApply the soffit
5Prefabricated Cornice Materials Various systems availableEx. 3/8” laminated wood-fiber panelsFasten with 4d rust-resistant nails spaced about 6” along edges and intermediate supportsNail main supports first and then along edgesAlways leave space for expansionFig. 13-9
6Metal Soffit Material Provided in rolls and sheets in several widths Aluminum systems are suggestedWidths vary from 12 – 48”Edges are held in runner guides that are attached to fascia and wallsConsists of 3 basic units:Wall hanger strips (frieze strips)Soffit panelsFascia covers
7Hanging Metal SoffitSnap a chalk line along the side wall, level with the bottom edge of the fascia boardAttach metal U-shaped wall hanger strip along lineAttach hanger strip flush with the bottom fascia or nail the metal soffit panels to the bottom of the fascia board as panels are installedInsert the panelsCut metal or vinyl fascia cover to fit and install it
8Soffit (Cont.)If there is a way, put and in above boxes
9Horizontal wood siding One of the most common materialsUsually applied over a base of sheathing and a house wrapBevel siding is most commonAvailable in various widthsMade by sawing plain surface boards at an angleFig
10Wood Siding (Cont.) Channel Rustic siding has shiplap type joints Drop sidingusually has tongue-and-groove jointsheavier, has more structural strength
12Wall Sheathing and Flashing Siding can be applied over various sheathing materials.Solid wood, plywood, or nail-base fiberboard is nailed directly to the material at about 24” intervals.Gypsum board and regular fiberboard sheathing cannot be used as a nail base and the siding should be nailed through the sheathing and into the frame.
13Sheathing Substitutes An insulation board of rigid polystyrene (13-17) can take the place of sheathing and sheathing paperMetal flashings must be applied(13-18)First picture = 13-17, second picture = 13-18
14Installing Horizontal Siding (Preparing a Story Pole) Lay out the distance from soffit to 1” below top of foundation.Divide distance into spaces equal to the width of the siding minus the lap.Adjust the lap allowance so spaces are equal.Mark position of top of each siding board on the story pole when layout is complete.Figure 13-19
15Installing Horizontal Siding (Continued) Start application of bevel siding by first nailing a strip along the foundation line equal to the thin edge of the siding.Apply the first piece.Allow the butt edge to extend below the strip to form a drip edge.Inside corners can be formed with a square length of wood or metal corners. Outer corners are usually made of metal. Install.After the corner boards are in place, fit the siding tightly against them.Wood siding can be given a coat of water-repellent preservative before it is installed, or it can be brushed on after installation
16Nailing To fasten siding, noncorrosive nails are recommended. Horizontal siding should be face-nailed to each stud.For narrow siding, the nail is generally placed about ½” above the butt edge.Different types of wood siding require different nailing patterns. (Fig )Figure 13-26
17Estimating SidingIncrease the footage to make up for the difference between nominal and finished sizes.The net square footage of the wall surface to be covered should be multiplied by the factor in the chart to your left.Figure 13-28
18Vertical SidingCommonly used to set off entrances or gable ends. Also for main wall areas.May be plain-surfaced matched boards, pattern matched boards, or square-edge boards covered at the joint with a batten strip.Made from solid lumber, should be no more than 8” wide.
19Wood ShinglesSometimes used for wall covering, and a large selection of types is available.Very durable and can be applied in various ways to provide a variety of architectural effects.Most shingles are made in random widthsShingles in side walls are frequently laid in double coursingDouble coursing- when you use a lower grade shingle under the shingle exposed to the weather. The exposed single butt extends about ½” below the butt of the under course.
20Single Coursing of Side Walls Similar to roof application—difference is in the exposures employed.Present less weather-resistance problems than roofs.Weather exposure of shingles should never be greater than half the length of the shingle, minus ½”.Should have concealed nailing.Fig
21Shingle and Shake Panels Shingles and shakes for side wall application are available in panel form.Usually western red cedar.Standard size = 8’Applied by following the same basic precaution and procedures described for regular shingles. However, takes less time.Fig 13-37
22Plywood Siding Uses Must be made from exterior type plywood. Provides a vertical treatment to gable ends.Provides emphasis as fill-in panels above and below windows.Establish a continuous decorative band at various levels along an entire wall.Must be made from exterior type plywood.Most common- Douglas firPanel sizes are 48” wide by 8’,9’,10’ longBecause large sheets of plywood and hardboard siding provide tight, draft-free wall construction, it is important to have an effective vapor barrier. This should be between the insulation and the warm surface of the wall.
24Aluminum SidingFactory finished with baked on enamel and provides appearance that resembles wood sidingOffers low maintenance costsFor use on new or existing constructionCan be applied over structurally sound surfaces
25Vinyl SidingDefinition: a rigid polyvinyl chloride compound that is tough and durableInstalled with a backing or insulation boardPanels have interlocking joints that are waterproofNo movement during expansion or contractionFig
26Installing Vinyl Siding and Soffits (Preparing the old siding) Nail loose boards & trim-replace rotted boardsRemove old caulk from windows and doorsRemove downspouts, lighting fixtures and moldings that interfere with new sidingTie back shrubs and trees that can be damaged
27Installing Vinyl Siding and Soffits (Continued) Allow a ¼” expansion gap where siding meets accessories when cuttingDo not drive nails tight against the siding, leave a gap of about 1/8”See fig for Installing Starter Strips and TrimFig
28Installing Siding Panels The first siding panel snaps into the bottom of the starter strip.Work toward the front of the building, finishing each side before starting the nextAlways cover largest areas first; smaller panels can be used up on the smaller surfaces, such as dormersOverlap each panel 1”, face butt edge away from the main traffic areas.Fig
29StuccoBase consists of wood sheathing, sheathing paper, and metal lathApply second coat when first is dry to give a smoother “pebbled” finishTypically, the finished stucco wall is 7/8” thickFig bottom
30Exterior Insulation Finish Systems Definition: also called “synthetic stucco” and are similar in appearance to stucco.Available either as polymer-based (soft-coat systems, typically 1/8” thin) or polymer-modified (hard-coat systems, about ¼” and are mechanically attached.)Installation:Can be installed over wood, concrete, concrete block, and other substrates.Base coat should be at least 3/16” thick, apply two layersMesh is installed with laps offset from edges of openings, joint, grooves, and corners.If base coat is required before applying the finish coat, it should e applied in 2 thin layers (1/16” each)
31Brick or Stone VeneerVeneer Wall- masonry wall, a wall framed in wood or metal to which stone, brick, or even concrete bock—are attached rather than sidingFig , left
32Tools Trowel is the most used tool in the mason’s tool kit. Toe (or point) – pointed end of the trowelHeel – the wide end of the trowelMason’s level is also an important tool.Has both vertical and horizontal vials, read from either side.Aluminum or wood with metal edges.Two rules, 6’ folding with a 6” sliding scale the other a 10’ steel tapeJointers or jointing tools are used to compressA brick hammer is used to drive nails, strike chisels, and break or chip masonry units
33Masonry MaterialsBricks are structural units made to several sizes from clay or shale.Material mixed with water then dried in large kilnsBuilding or Common BrickA strong general purpose brick intended for use where strength is more important than appearanceThree grades:SW grade resists freezingMW grade is used where there may be exposure to below freezing temp. but in dry locationsNW grade is used to back up interior masonry
34Masonry Materials (Continued) Facing – used where appearance is important Three types:FBX is for general use in exposed interior or exterior walls or partitions. Color and size are uniformFBS is for general use in exposed exterior and interior walls and partitions where wider color variations and sizes are permittedFBA is used to produce architectural effects produced by lack of uniformity in size, color, and textureMortar is mostly portland cement with the addition of hydrated lime and sand.Designed to bond bricks and block into a strong, waterproof wall.
35Blinds and Shutters Installed at sides of window units Consist of frame assemblies with solid panes or louversUsed to protect the glass, provide security when locked. Serves decorative purpose nowAttached to exterior wall with screws or other fastenersFig