Presentation on theme: "Overview Introduction to the FAA Background/Problem Statement"— Presentation transcript:
0 Spaceflight Management in the NAS Integrating Space Operations Into The National Airspace SystemIMPROVING SPACE OPERATIONS WORKSHOPNOAA Satellite Operations FacilitySuitland, MDAlan J. HayesFAA Spaceflight Management Program ManagerApril 16, 2008V. 4.1Federal AviationAdministrationAs I hope you’ll see shortly, this effort finds its initial application in a response by the FAA to a particular event, but at the same time it addresses larger safety challenges for the National Airspace System with implications for the Next Generation Air Traffic System.
1 Overview Introduction to the FAA Background/Problem Statement Current FAA Risk Mitigation StrategySpace and Air Traffic Management System (SATMS) ConceptSpace Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC) ToolSpaceTrax and the Spaceflight Integration ToolVirtual Spaceflight Center KXASCurrent & Future Spaceflight Management ArchitecturesConclusionsQuestionsOver the course of the next few minutes:I’m going to describe the hazards to aircraft from space flight operations and the concept of space and air traffic managementI’m going to identify the ways in which space and air traffic management is being performed todayI’m going to introduce you to concepts we are proposing for management of future space and air traffic operations and tools we are developing to support those operations
2 Introduction to the FAA The FAA is responsible for the safety of civil aviation. The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 created the agency under the name Federal Aviation Agency. We adopted our present name in 1967 when we became a part of the Department of Transportation. Our major roles include:Regulating civil aviation to promote safetyEncouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technologyDeveloping and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraftResearching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronauticsDeveloping and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviationRegulating U.S. commercial space transportation
4 The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) The Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) was established in 1984 as the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) in the Office of the Secretary of Transportation within the Department of Transportation. AST was transferred to the FAA in November The Office of Commercial Space Transportation:Regulates the commercial space transportation industry, to ensure compliance with international obligations of the United States and to protect the public health and safety, safety of property, and national security and foreign policy interests of the United States;Encourages, facilitates, and promotes commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector;Recommends appropriate changes in Federal statutes, treaties, regulations, policies, plans, and procedures; andFacilitates the strengthening and expansion of the United States space transportation infrastructure.AST issues FAA licenses for commercial launches of orbital rockets and suborbital rockets.
5 Air Traffic Organization (ATO) System Operations Services The primary service of the Air Traffic Organization is to move air traffic safely and efficiently. Air Traffic Organization (ATO) System Operations Service Unit provides overall national guidance for air traffic procedures and airspace issues, traffic flow management for the National Airspace System (NAS), requirements for weather observation and reporting standards, and the focal point for interface with Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) regarding air transportation security issues.Offices with Spaceflight responsibilities include:Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC)Airspace & Aeronautical Information Management (AAIM)Spaceflight Management ProgramSafetySecurity
6 BackgroundThe FAA expects unprecedented demands on the National Airspace System and the nation’s Air Traffic Control system over the next 10 years:Doubling of air traffic operationsIncrease in space operationsR & D: Blue Origin, Armadillo AerospaceSpace Tourism: Virgin Galactic, Rocketplane, etc.Prizes: X Prize Cup, America’s Space Prize, NASA Centennial ChallengesNASA: Space Shuttle, OrionNASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services: SpaceXAs we all know, the NAS is getting more crowded and we expect that trend to increase at a significant rate into the foreseeable future.The NAS is a shared resource and spacecraft are NAS users too.We are expecting sharp increases in commercial space flight operations as research and development efforts open the doors to space tourism and commercial re-supply of the International Space Station.These spacecraft will have to transition through the NAS on their way to and from space, creating a potential hazard for air traffic
7 Background The NAS was not designed to handle high-speed spacecraft. (continued)The NAS was not designed to handle high-speed spacecraft.Different tools, processes, and procedures will be necessary to minimize the impact of space operations in the NAS.FL4000Class E AirspaceFL600Spaceflight Operations are handled manually, as an exception to normal Air Traffic Operations (ATO). The NAS was not designed to handle high-speed space vehicles. As the number of spaceflight operations continued to increase, the existing processes and procedures will be unable to accommodate it. Different tools, processes, and procedures will be necessary to minimize the impact of space operations in the NAS.7
8 Background – The Columbia Accident Prior to the Columbia accident, FAA Air Traffic procedures for supporting Space Shuttle operations did not take into account the potential debris hazard to aircraft during a Shuttle reentryDebris FootprintDFWNAfter the Shuttle Columbia accident in February of 2003, the subsequent investigation cast a spotlight on a number of safety issues with regard to space flight, very little attention seemed to be given to the risk that this accident presented to the aircraft operating in the area.What you see here in this figure is a top-down view of the Shuttle debris field on ground with the flight paths of several aircraft in the area superimposed on top of it. These aircraft didn’t just fly over the debris - they flew through it.8
9 Problem StatementThe FAA needs to safely accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the National Airspace System (NAS).To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under the current and future FAA Air Traffic infrastructure.
10 Current FAA Risk Mitigation Strategy Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs)Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs)Special Use Airspace (SUA)Restricted AreasWarning AreasCentral Altitude Reservation Function (CARF)Altitude Reservation (ALTRV)Command Center Advisories (CCA)Traffic Situation DisplayManual Entry of Lat/Long prior to and during Shuttle Landing to create Flow Evaluation Areas (FEAs)So, how are space and air traffic operations currently handled? Up to this point, the FAA has relied on Notices to Airmen and Special Use Airspace.NOTAMs are issued in conjunction with all space flight operations taking place in the NAS.14 CFR Part 91 describes the current regulations in place to accommodate space operationsAll Manual Processes
11 Current FAA Risk Mitigation Strategy (continued)ImpactsExisting Special Use Airspace (SUA) is sized for the largest vehicles that may use them, with fixed boundariesTypically activated for extended periods of timeSpaceflight Operations are handled as an exception to normal NAS operations (i.e. no Flight Plans, ATO flight tracking is handled manually, etc.)Require extensive advanced coordination with various Air Traffic entitiesCan be difficult to accommodate launch/landing delays and scrubsGoalsReduce the amount of airspace that is restricted for each launch/landing and the amount of time that the restriction needs to be in effectSchedule the restriction so as to accommodate conventional air traffic while still achieving the safety and space mission objectivesAccommodate launch/landing delays, scrubs, and incidentsSo why not continue along this route?Space operations shouldn’t impact any more airspace than necessary. What airspace they do have to impact should not be impacted for any longer than necessary.Space operations are often unpredictable. Weather delays, equipment availability, and mission objectives make them quite difficult to schedule. They are also usually big, complex operations involving a number of entities and facilities.Make a distinction between what the FAA/ATO is doing with regard to flight tracking today and what other entities are doing. For instance, for launches from Federal ranges, flight tracking is very much automated, using multiple radars and telemetry streams.
12 The SATMS Concept & Toolkit The FAA has developed a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for a future Space and Air Traffic Management System (SATMS). This concept:Represents a framework for seamlessly integrating space vehicles on their way to and from space with more traditional air traffic operationsCalls for assured separation between space and air trafficWill require new space and air traffic management tools and enhanced communications, navigation, and surveillance servicesThe SATMS Toolkit is currently under development by the FAA. It consists of:The legacy Space Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC)The SpaceTrax trajectory tool, andThe Spaceflight-wide Interactive Flight Tool (SWIFT)Seamless integration maximizes safety and efficiency while it minimizes potential hazards and operational impactsAssured separation will probably take on different meanings as space traffic increases and space vehicles demonstrate higher levels of reliability and more tools become available with which to more accurately model their potential hazards.The SATMS Toolkit, which includes the legacy Space Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC), the PC-based SpaceTrax trajectory tool, and the Server-based Spaceflight-wide Interactive Flight Tool (SWIFT), are being developed to meet this need. The development of this toolset is being managed by the Spaceflight Management Program (SMP) Office in ATO-R (System Operations), in cooperation with the ATCSCC and the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), for implementation and operation in the NAS beginning in FY08.12
13 Space Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC) Tool The Space Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC) tool was developed by AST to identify hazard areas of potential debris produced by the Space Shuttle should a breakup occur during re-entry. Designed to reduce FAA dependence on NASA and increase FAA capabilities by replicating functionality of the existing NASA tool.SHAAC CapabilitiesUtilizing complex algorithms and modeling techniques, SHAAC:Utilizing trajectory data from NASA, to identify potentially affected airspace in advance of a Shuttle reentry to increase air traffic control situational awarenessIn the event of an accident, determines the extent of the effected airspaceServes as a Proof-of-Concept for SpaceTrax and the Spaceflight-wide Interactive Flight Tool (SWIFT)The SHAAC tool was first used at the Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) in FY08 to support Shuttle Flight STS-120.Shuttle-only tool13
14 Space Shuttle Hazard Area to Aircraft Computation (SHAAC) Tool (continued)Output & Display FeaturesGenerates file of latitude/longitude coordinates of hazard area corners in same format as data previously provided by NASA.Graphical depictions of hazard areas plotted on maps with political and airspace boundariesLatitude/longitude coordinates of hazard areas manually entered into the Traffic Situational DisplayPC-based (Thick Client) application
15 SpaceTrax and SWIFT Tools SpaceTrax and SWIFT are being developed by the FAA (ATO-R) to assist air traffic controllers in managing airspace and the risk to aircraft from space operations, by providing improved situational awareness.Capabilities of Both Tools:Track spacecraft movement within the NASCreate and file ICAO Flight Plans for spaceflight operationsShould an incident occur:Identifies potentially affected airspaceIdentifies affected airways, sectors, and airports.Generate NOTAMs and Command Center AdvisoriesThese tools will15
16 SpaceTraxUtilizes Trajectory Files from NASA and Output Files from SHAAC/Others, SpaceTrax will:Display the planned trajectory (Launch/Landing) as received from NASAIdentify Entry Points (Time, Altitude, and Velocity) into Controlled Airspace, ARTCC, and Political Boundaries for plan and actual dataDisplay graphical depictions and reports of hazard areas plotted on maps with political and airspace boundariesProvide a 2D and 3D display capabilityGenerate Latitude/Longitude, Altitude, and Speed data for entry into an ICAO Flight PlanAutomatically Generate Reports currently being prepared manuallyProcess real-time data and provides Latitude/Longitude information every 30 seconds (adjustable) for manual entry into the TSDPC-based (Thick Client) Application
18 SWIFTPlanning ModeIdentify the airspace restriction requirements, potential impacts to other NAS users, and options to mitigate those impactsAllow decision makers to make informed risk reduction decisionsGraphical depictions of hazard areas plotted on maps with political and airspace boundaries.Generate ReportsWeb-Based (Thin Client) ApplicationThe SATMS tool would operate in two modes: a planning mode and a real-time mode.An initial set of requirements for a Space and Air Traffic Management Decision Support Tool have been developed that would consolidate and automate these proceduresAutomation and consolidation will significantly reduce the resource impact of each mission, while at the same time expediting the process and eliminating the potential for errors from the large number of repetitive, manual operations currently required to take the raw data and get it to the controller’s displayIn addition it will provide increased insight into the hazards, more flexibility in planning and operations support, and most importantly, increased response time in the event of an accident
19 SWIFT(continued)Real-time ModeDisplay the space vehicle’s trajectory and estimates of the potentially hazardous airspace against current air traffic dataIn the event of an accident, provide information to Air Traffic Controllers identifying potential hazardous airspace due to falling debrisInput Real-Time Data from space carrier conducting spaceflight operations following an FAA-defined Interface Requirements Document (IRD)Compute rectangular hazard areas that bound the locations of potential debris and outputs their latitude/longitude coordinates and space vehicle real-time location directly to TFM-M for display on the Traffic Situational Display (TSD)File ICAO Flight Plans with HCS/ERAM/ETMSGenerates TFR NOTAMs and Command Center AdvisoriesUtilizes Web Services for Data TransferSWIM and NextGen Compliant
21 Virtual Spaceflight “Center” - KXAS To support SpaceTrax and the Spaceflight-wide Interactive Flight Tool (SWIFT), a virtual Spaceflight Center is being created that will:Issue all Spaceflight-related Flight Plans. All Spaceflight Operations will have a flight plan automatically created for themIssue Modifications to existing Spaceflight-related Flight PlansSend Position Reports to ETMS/TFM-MIssue Spaceflight-related NOTAM messagesIssue Command Center AdvisoriesSend and Receive Service B MessagesProvide Spaceflight-related information to FAA and Commercial Users.Link all spaceflight - related activities together under KXAS
24 SATMS Phase 2/3 Architecture DSRReal-TimeTrajectoryDataSpaceTrax& SWIFT(at ATCSCC)Virtual “Spaceflight” Center KXASPlan & ActualFlight Display(SpaceTrax)ATCSCCPlannedTrajectoryFilesDraftNOTAMMessagesARTCCsCommand Center Advisories (CCA), Flight Movement Messages, and TSD Adaptations(Phase 3)AltitudeRequests(Phase 3)Flight PlanMessages(Phase 3)DraftNOTAMMessagesNOTAMEntry (NES)CARFAISRTSD / WSDDisplayFlightPlansATCSCCAdvisoryFlight Plans &Aircraft PositionReportsNOTAMsFNSPublishedNOTAMMessagesHCS/ERAMETMSTFM-M
25 FY08 – FY12 ImplementationSATMS Toolkit will be implemented over the next 3-5 years:Year 1 (FY2008)SpaceTrax 1.0SWIFT Proof-of-ConceptYear 2 (FY2009)SWIFT 1.0SpaceTrax 2.0Real-Time Data Interface 1.0TFM-M Interface PrototypeYear 3 (FY2010)SWIFT 2.0SpaceTrax 3.0Real-Time Data Interface 2.0TFM-M Interface 1.0Year 4+ (FY2011 and later)Satellite Orbit/Re-entry TrackingContinuing updates to the Toolkit
26 ConclusionsSpace operations will continue to increase, as will the challenges of accommodating operations safely in the NAS.Experience gained in support of Shuttle reentries has helped to identify and refine SpaceTrax and SWIFT requirements and implementation strategies.The toolset and associated Air Traffic procedures will enhance situational awareness for Controllers and help them identify airspace restrictions, while providing mitigation options for potential impacts.The Shuttle is going to continue to fly above and through the NAS, and it will soon be joined by other commercial space vehicles.Although many of the concepts that underlie the procedures I’ve described have been proposed and talked about in the past, the Shuttle reentries represent the first time that the majority of them have been applied in this manner operationally. The experience we gain puts us in a better position with each mission we support. At the same time, it presents a clearer picture of a broader space and air traffic management system, capable of addressing the hazards to aircraft from a wide variety of space vehicle operationsIn that regard, this effort presents a unique opportunity for FAA to build on a considerable amount of momentum and better prepare for the new challenges that commercial space flight present.The SATMS tool has been identified as a means for the FAA to position itself for success in this new era of routine space transportation, providing the means by which we can continue to maintain the levels of safety and efficiency that the air traveling public has come to expect from us.
27 For More Information Please Contact: Alan Hayes, FAA Program ManagerTelephone: (202)Thank You!