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Practical application of Systems Engineering fundamentals to aircraft design – What should our TC do? Armand J. Chaput -Adjunct Professor, Unmanned Air.

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Presentation on theme: "Practical application of Systems Engineering fundamentals to aircraft design – What should our TC do? Armand J. Chaput -Adjunct Professor, Unmanned Air."— Presentation transcript:

1 Practical application of Systems Engineering fundamentals to aircraft design – What should our TC do? Armand J. Chaput -Adjunct Professor, Unmanned Air System (UAS) Design, University of Texas at Austin -Emeritus, Senior Tech Fellow, LM Aero 15 April 2011 Armand J. Chaput 2011

2 Somewhere around mid-career I finally got it - System Engineering had value for design engineers I started carrying Mil-Std 499 around in my design notebook and advocated SE as something that my design engineers needed to know Armand J. Chaput 2011

3 Somewhere south of mid-career Systems Engineering took off in another direction The MIL-STD 499 focus on engineering principles drifted off into territory that had more in common with program and business principles – hard-nosed engineering lost focus at the system level Armand J. Chaput 2011

4 About the same time Aerospace and Defense (A&D) program performance started going south And we have to at least consider the possibility that loss of engineering discipline at the system level was a contributor Armand J. Chaput 2011

5 Because we are a well-documented contributor to the problem And Aerospace Engineering does not get an exemption Armand J. Chaput 2011

6 A systems engineering perspective 1 Systems engineering (SE) enhances P Success but P Failure remains uncomfortably high 1 From Figure 1: Project Performance Versus Systems Engineering Capability, Executive Summary, A Survey of Systems Engineering Effectiveness - Initial Results, SPECIAL REPORT, Revision 1, CMU/SEI-2007-SR-014 November 2007 Armand J. Chaput 2011

7 More data behind the Issue From Figure 59: Relationship Between Overall Systems Engineering Capability and Project Performance (Perf Versus SEC) controlled by Project Challenge (PC), Executive Summary, A Survey of Systems Engineering Effectiveness - Initial Results, SPECIAL REPORT, Revision 1, CMU/SEI-2007-SR-014 November 2007 Too many High Challenge aerospace and defense (A&D) projects perform poorly and the cause is not SE capability Armand J. Chaput 2011

8 Systemic issues Most assessments focus on programmatic issues, e.g. 2 –Move Forward Without Proper Knowledge of Requirements, Technology, Design, and Manufacturing Processes –Dont Match Product Requirements with Resources –Move into System Demonstration and Production without Achieving Design Stability –Enter Production without Demonstrating Acceptable Manufacturing Processes and Weapon System Performance –Absence of Disciplined Systems Engineering Practices –Unexecutable Business Cases, etc. I think there is something else – an educational deficiency –Too many Design Engineers dont understand SE –Too many SEs dont understand Design Engineering –Too many design engineers lack multi-discipline knowledge 2 Michael J. Sullivan, Director Acquisition and Sourcing Management, GAO, April 2008 Armand J. Chaput 2011 If so and if we dont bridge the educational gaps, A&D Project Performance will stay in the cellar

9 Personal assessment – Most AE graduates are clueless about Systems Engineering Not part of most curricula - Most professors dont teach it - Most professors dont understand it AE undergraduates get top-level exposure -Pictures (SE V, etc.) and buzzwords -Little substance - like how you technically deal with and manage requirements; the difference between Test and Evaluation and the euphoria of first flight AE graduate programs arent much better - Most leave with little more understanding of SE than they had as undergraduates When graduates report to work, many go straight to projects -The days when entry level engineers went to functional groups to learn the ropes are gone (from my experience) -What they used to learn about SE from Engineering Chiefs and mentors is now packaged as compliance training Armand J. Chaput 2011

10 Example – SE integrated with air vehicle design (2 semester approach) Systems Engineering fundamentals (basic knowledge) - Requirements - development, documentation and management -System integration - Configuration control, Interface definition, Trade studies, Risk assessment - Test and Evaluation - Flight test planning, flight testing and data analysis - Technical management - Program planning, task/schedule assignment and tracking, budget management and tracking, technical decision making Air Vehicle Design fundamentals (deeper knowledge) - Vehicle requirements - Parametric design/analysis - Aero - Propulsion -Mass properties -Airframe structures Armand J. Chaput 2011 -Stability and control -Configuration design and integration - Vehicle performance - Trade studies and vehicle optimization

11 Example – SE integrated with air vehicle design System Design fundamentals (basic knowledge) - System requirements - Overall system architecture -Mission design and analysis -Sortie rate assessment -Sensor sizing and performance -Communication sizing and performance - Air vehicle integration (from system perspective) -Trade studies and system optimization -Reliability (requirements) and Maintainability (e.g. MMH/FH) -Overall system performance (P success ) Other ? Armand J. Chaput 2011 - How would you (or your organization) rate the importance of in these subjects for entry level AEs? - Whats missing

12 What could TC members do? Work academia (advisory boards, design review feedback, etc) - What industry and government thinks AE graduates should know about SE before they graduate - Academia is a supplier of one of your most important products, a well-educated future workforce Work evaluators (ABET) - Their evaluations include a laundry list of things students are expected to know about system design but no mention of SE Work your employers - What they should expect to be included in todays list of required engineering fundamentals - Encourage them to push back if they arent getting the skills needed for a competitive future workforce Work other AIAA TCs - What could/should be done to include knowledge of fundamental SE principles in design competitions (DBF, etc) Armand J. Chaput 2011

13 What else TC members could do Support DDRE/UT Initiative on Systems Engineering Design – An Educational Imperative for Development of the Future Aerospace and Defense Workforce -A comprehensive educational initiative for teaching the basic principles of SE as a part of capstone design -Starts with Aerospace with plans to expand across engineering disciplines Will include surveys and critical reviews of proposed approaches Armand J. Chaput 2011


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