2Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— scientific method to improve productivity,optimizing tasks,simplifying jobs,SpecializingTime Studies – most efficient way to perform a jobinitiatives and incentives increase productivityReorganized from the bottom up (task to manager)
3Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— 4 PrinciplesReplace rule of thumb work with task studiesScientifically train & develop workerCooperate with workers to ensure efficiencyDivide work equally between managers & workers so managers could plan as workers worked
4Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management— DrawbacksIncrease in monotony of workMissing from job – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedbackDehumanizing
5Machine Theory Fayol – Administrative Theory Reorganized from the top-downFormalized studies general guidelines for the workerHierarchical pyramid structure of controlSuperiors and subordinates—chain of commandDepartmentalization groups related by process, purpose, or placeOrganization is a machine to produce a product as efficient as possible.
6Machine Theory Max Weber (1900) Bureaucracy Theory Ideal bureaucracy has hierarchyImpersonalWritten rules of conductPromotion based on achievementDivision of labor for efficiencyGoal orientedDraw back relied on benevolence of superiors
7HR & Motivational Theories Elton MayoHawthorne StudiesWork is a group activityNeed for recognition, security and sense of belongingComplaints revolve around sense of statusGroup collaboration must be planned and developed to develop cohesion to resist disruptionsOrganization is a social group or work team
8HR & Motivational Theories Abraham Maslow (1940s)5 NeedsPhysiologicalSafetyLoveEsteemSelf-actualization or self-fulfillmentThe urge to create, produce, for job satisfactionManagement should meet the upper needs
9HR & Motivational Theories Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y)Theory X AssumptionsHumans have a dislike for work – must be controlled or threatened to do workMost people want direction, dislike responsibility, desires security above all elseMost people need to know what is expected of them and be held accountable.
10HR & Motivational Theories Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y)Theory Y AssumptionsWork is a natural state for humansMan can direct his own steps if he is committed to the goals of the organization—if explained fully & grasps visionIf the job is satisfying, people will be committedMost men seek responsibilityCreativity and ingenuity can be used by employees to solve problemsMost people have a lot more potential than they are given the opportunity to use.
11HR & Motivational Theories Frederick Herzberg2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation TheoryHygiene TheoryJob environment, the company, policies, administration, kind of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, and security
12HR & Motivational Theories Frederick Herzberg2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation TheoryMotivation TheoryJob Opportunities – achievement, recognition, growth / advancementInterest in the jobBoth approaches must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can ANDUse them in jobs where they can achieve and grow
13HR & Motivational Theories Lewins – Informal groups
14Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) Political struggle between rational and irrational
15Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) Chester Bernard (1938)The Functions of the ExecutiveRecycled Spencer’s Organismic PerspectiveOrganizations exist by cooperation, willingness of workers, contributions toward a common purposeManagement creates the goals & Moral Imperative that binds workers to collective good
16Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) Philip Selznick & InstitutionalismResurrects Machine Theory with a twistOrganization strikes bargains with its environment that change the present objectivesOrganization has such personality that reflects social needs and pressures (adaptation) from the environmentOperative Goals – what it doesProfessed Goals – what it says it does (preparing students for the future)
17Selznick (1996)Organizations seek “legitimacy” to justify what they do.They tend to seek similarity for legitimacyCoercive Isomorphism—forced to act a certain way by either another organization (TEA) or cultural expectations – my school had doors & windowsMimetic Isomorphism—copy each other when they are uncertain what to doNormative Isomorphism—everyone takes the same training and interact professionally
18Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) Ralph Stogdill (1948) -Tautological124 Characteristics of LeadersCapacity (intelligence, alertness)Achievement (scholarship, knowledge)Responsibility (dependable, initiative)Participation (active, social, cooperative)Status (socio-economic, position, popularity)Situation (mental level, status, skills)
19Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s) McCall & Lombardo (1983) Anti-TraitsInsensitive to others (abrasive, bully)Cold, aloof, arrogantBetrayal of trustOverly ambitious: thinking of next job,Specific performance problemsOver-managing – unable to delegateUnable to think strategicallyUnable to adaptOver-dependent on a mentor
20Open-System Theory Katz & Kahn(1978) Organization’s adaptive interaction with changing environment emphasized: goal is survivalOrganization is active system=InputThroughputoutputOrganization is a living organism
21Open Systems (1960s)Open systems are made up of subsystems that create homeostatsis for the organism. Mapping the environment requires sensing and assigning meaning to symbolic InformationImprints parts of the environment onto the organization.Symbolic Motivation & CommunicationFeedback allows system to change goals “on the fly”
22Open Systems (1960s) Harold Leavitt (1964) 4 subsystems Tasks—processes performed in systemStructure—organization, governedTechnology—type of equipment, knowledge, methodsHumans—skills, attitudes, roles, motivators
23Open Systems (1960s) Daniel Katz & Robert Kahn(1966) 5 subsystems Technology—productionManagerialSupportive –interact with environment for influx of energyMaintenance—forces of stabilityAdaptive—forces devoted to change
24Open Systems (1960s) John Seiler’s (1967) Forces in the environment InternalInputsOutputsActual behaviors
25Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed Environment CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, ValuesSocial System (school)GroupsIndividualInterdependencies personalitiesRole expectationNeedsSchool’s Response
26Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed Carol Shakeshaft & Irene Nowell (1984) argued that GG Model did not describe the reality of the feminine experience – especially with role expectations “keepers of the private realm”
27Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed Environment CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, ValuesSocial System (school)GroupsIndividualInterdependencies personalitiesRole expectationNeedsSchool’s Response
28Open Systems (1960s)Process Theoryinteractive processes that underlie motivationVroom’s Expectancy TheoryValency=Effort + Expectancy +Choice
29Flow of Information Machine Theory – bottom up Bureaucracy Theory – top downHR – horizontal and vertical inside organizationStructuralism – depending on leadership traitsOpen systems – horizontal & vertical both inside and outside the organization, loop-backsJ.G. Miller’s Information Overload
30Flow of InformationJ.G. Miller’s Information OverloadResults inOmissionErrorQueuingFilteringApproximationSiemen’s Connectivists Theory of hyper processing & multitasking.
31Contingency Theory Positivistic Nomothetic—law-like regularities Methodologically positivistic – empirical research (measures variables & statistical analysis)Structure measured by material factors rather than idealistic factorsDeterministic –required responsesConsciously scientific style
32Contingency Theory (1960-70s) Generalizable relationship between organizational and environmental contingencies, organizational structure, and leadership.Organizational contingencies include size, task structure, environmental factors – usually uncertaintyThe leader’s job is to alter the organizational structure to keep the system in sync with environmental contingenciesLawrence & Lorsch (1967)
33Contingency Theory (1960-70s) Lawrence & Lorsch (1967)Differentiation ofspecialistsPredictable environments foster stable craftsmenGeneralists are required for unstable environmentsSpace – depts in different locationsStructure /Leadership StylesSize
34Contingency Theory (1960-70s) Structure /Leadership Styles
37Innovation, Diffusion, Change Theory Hargreaves & Fullen (1996) change is “messy”Everett Rogers:Process of distributing innovation through a social system – communication-based modelCommunity of Teachers (not learners) seem to share superficial tricks or tips but not deep investigations into issues of teaching, learning and the profession.
38Diffusion formal & Informal Communities Everett Rogers (1995) Diffusion of InnovationsExample: Self-organizing virtual learning communities versus the processes in bounded learning communities4-Elements PresentThe new idea – innovationCommunication channelsTimeSocial System engaged in joint problem solving activities to accomplish goals
39Diffusion Theory - Rogers Innovations as perceived by individualsRelative advantage – better than what we are doing?Compatibility-consistent with existing values, needsComplexity—difficult to understand or use?Trialability –is it used on a limited basisObservability – do we see results?Support – time, energy, resources, political backing
40Diffusion Process -- Rogers E.M. Rogers(1995) Diffusion of Innovations5-Step Adoption ProcessAwareness --knowledgeInterest--persuasionDecision—engages in activityTrial /ImplementationConfirmation -- Adoption
41Diffusion Process Rate of Adoption Perceived attributes of innovation Type of innovation-decisionCommunication channelsNature of the social systemExtent of change agents’ promotion efforts
42Tipping PointThe concept of the tipping point is the build-up of small changes that effect a big changeStickiness Factor –staying power of an innovation –keeping one’s attentionInternet’s greatest economy is in fact, attention.
43Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform fails in Schools Faulty ‘Change Maps” – to be unique is not a good reason for changeComplex ProblemsSymbols over substance – adopt external innovations with only symbolic benefit – CC! Not enough grass-roots supportImpatient and Superficial SolutionsMisunderstanding Resistance –may be a learning curve issueAttrition of Pockets of successMisuse of Knowledge of Change Process
44Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform succeeds in Schools Change is learningChange is a journey not a blueprint – planning is continuousProblems are our friends—assertive problem-solving must take placeChange is Resource Hungery—time & $$Change requires Power to manageChange is Systemic – interrelational, structure, policy, cultureImplemented locally—cannot happen from a distance
45Fullen & Miles (1992) other reasons reform succeeds in Schools Common language,Conceptual picture—of change process and goalsMultiple stakeholders at different levels participate in reform processCulture is a priority – relationships must improve to create conditions to share ideasSharing of successes and failuresChange is inevitable and we must learn to live with it.
46Berkman’s UOID Theory Influenced by Rogers Berkmans User-Oriented Instructional Designers theoryIdentify the potential adopterMeasure the potential adopters perceptionsDesign & develop a user-friendly productInform the potential adopterProvide post adoption support(Burkman in Gagne, 1987, pp 440-1) – this was our model for the TARGET grant –Line Coaches—relationship between developer & adopter was critical
47Rogers (1962, 1995) Adoption Categories explored Innovators Early adopters—visionary users, project oriented, risk takers, self-sufficient, cross-curricular communication can integrateEarly majority—pragmatic users, process oriented, may require support, departmentalLate majorityLaggards
48Concerns-based Adoption Model (CBAM) --Hall & Hord Hall & Hord (1987) macro level theory of diffusionBottom-up, systemic changeFramework includes “stages of concern”7-Stages
497 Stages Hord Awareness –TCEA, Research, Vendors Informational—Like to know morePersonal –how will it affect them?Management—processes & tasks (information & resources)Consequence – impact students?Collaboration—teachers cooperate with others in implementing innovationRefocusing—thinking of additional alternatives that might work better ready to move on
50Strategies Addressing Concerns Clarify problem, arouse interest, let them generate possible solutionsGive clear info about change, show how change is similar or diff from currentValidate and legitimize concerns, reinforce, connect to supportsBreak the change into manageable steps, “how to”, give practical solutions to logistical problems
51Strategies Addressing Concerns 5. Arrange visits to places that use the change, provide positive feedback & dialog6. Monitor --Provide encouragement, help refine ideas7.Develop PR campaigns, broadcast or market innovation--conferences
52J.M.Keller’s Motivation Model for Instructional Design ARCS ModelATTENTION – arouse & sustain learner’s curiosityRelevance – Need to relate Instruction to Learner’s NeedsConfidence – Need to Match Learner’s Challenges to Learner’s CapabilitiesSatisfaction—Need to provide learner with Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
53Resistance TheoryMichael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy”Rests on a “change agent”Creating Knowledge with stakeholders builds Relationships which is criticalIntegrating TechnologyMoral purpose
54Resistance TheoryMichael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy”Six-point Strategic model of transforming leadershipReshape Culture by building a community of professional learners – capacity buildingChange the context, then you can change behavior – move from one grade or subjectMutual Vision – high expectationsDisciplined Inquiry – data-driven decision makingMoral purpose—desire to do the right thing & the wish to make a differenceResponsibility – teacher – leaders & collaborators
55Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process Establish a sense of urgencyOpportunities /crisis demand change NOWCreate a Guiding Teamgather change agents with credibility, skills, authority to assist in the changeDevelop a vision & StrategyClear uplifting statement of goal & planCommunicate the Change VisionClear, uplifting, repeated messages
56Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process Empower Organizational MembersRemove obstacles, change structuresReward new ideas & risk-takingGenerate Short-term WinsEarly success is criticalCelebrate & reward peopleConsolidate Gains & Continue ChangeDon’t let up!Anchor New Ways into the CultureMake change stick
57Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing Diagnose need for change, status quo no longer acceptablePrepare people & plan changeMovingImplement changesOvercome resistanceRefreezingInstitutionalize new ways
58Structural Adaptation to Regain Fit Donaldson’s SARFIT Model ( )5 StagesAn organization is in fitThere is a contingency changeThe organization is in misfit & performance suffersThe organization does structural adaptationThe organization achieves a new fit and performance recovers
59Change Quotes“A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices” – William James“Life is change. Growth is optional. Choose wisely” Karen Kaiser Clark“I can’t understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I’m afraid of the old ones.” John Cage“All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem” Martin Luther King, Jr.
60Change Quotes“It isn’t that they can’t see the solution. It is that they can’t see the problem.” G.K. Chesterton“I never give them hell. I just tell the truth and they think its hell.” Harry S. Truman“You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” Gandhi“Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it’s the only thing” Albert Schweitzer
61Change Quotes“I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” Woodrow Wilson“You can’t jump a twenty-foot chasm in two ten-foot leaps” American Proverb“We have to get everybody in the organization involved. If we do that, the best ideas rise to the top.” Jack Welch