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Organizational Change Theories

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Presentation on theme: "Organizational Change Theories"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organizational Change Theories
Closed Systems Structuralism Open Systems Contingency Theories Conflict Theories Critical Theories Resistance Theories Diffusion Theories Connectivism Theories Chaos Theories

2 Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—
scientific method to improve productivity, optimizing tasks, simplifying jobs, Specializing Time Studies – most efficient way to perform a job initiatives and incentives increase productivity Reorganized from the bottom up (task to manager)

3 Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—
4 Principles Replace rule of thumb work with task studies Scientifically train & develop worker Cooperate with workers to ensure efficiency Divide work equally between managers & workers so managers could plan as workers worked

4 Machine Theory Frederick Taylor “Principals of Scientific Management—
Drawbacks Increase in monotony of work Missing from job – skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback Dehumanizing

5 Machine Theory Fayol – Administrative Theory
Reorganized from the top-down Formalized studies general guidelines for the worker Hierarchical pyramid structure of control Superiors and subordinates—chain of command Departmentalization groups related by process, purpose, or place Organization is a machine to produce a product as efficient as possible.

6 Machine Theory Max Weber (1900) Bureaucracy Theory
Ideal bureaucracy has hierarchy Impersonal Written rules of conduct Promotion based on achievement Division of labor for efficiency Goal oriented Draw back  relied on benevolence of superiors

7 HR & Motivational Theories
Elton Mayo Hawthorne Studies Work is a group activity Need for recognition, security and sense of belonging Complaints revolve around sense of status Group collaboration must be planned and developed to develop cohesion to resist disruptions Organization is a social group or work team

8 HR & Motivational Theories
Abraham Maslow (1940s) 5 Needs Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-actualization or self-fulfillment The urge to create, produce, for job satisfaction Management should meet the upper needs

9 HR & Motivational Theories
Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y) Theory X Assumptions Humans have a dislike for work – must be controlled or threatened to do work Most people want direction, dislike responsibility, desires security above all else Most people need to know what is expected of them and be held accountable.

10 HR & Motivational Theories
Douglas McGregor “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) 2 types of managerial assumptions (Theory X & Y) Theory Y Assumptions Work is a natural state for humans Man can direct his own steps if he is committed to the goals of the organization—if explained fully & grasps vision If the job is satisfying, people will be committed Most men seek responsibility Creativity and ingenuity can be used by employees to solve problems Most people have a lot more potential than they are given the opportunity to use.

11 HR & Motivational Theories
Frederick Herzberg 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory Hygiene Theory Job environment, the company, policies, administration, kind of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, and security

12 HR & Motivational Theories
Frederick Herzberg 2 Factor Hygiene & Motivation Theory Motivation Theory Job Opportunities – achievement, recognition, growth / advancement Interest in the job Both approaches must be done simultaneously. Treat people as best you can AND Use them in jobs where they can achieve and grow

13 HR & Motivational Theories
Lewins – Informal groups

14 Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)
Political struggle between rational and irrational

15 Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)
Chester Bernard (1938) The Functions of the Executive Recycled Spencer’s Organismic Perspective Organizations exist by cooperation, willingness of workers, contributions toward a common purpose Management creates the goals & Moral Imperative that binds workers to collective good

16 Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)
Philip Selznick & Institutionalism Resurrects Machine Theory with a twist Organization strikes bargains with its environment that change the present objectives Organization has such personality that reflects social needs and pressures (adaptation) from the environment Operative Goals – what it does Professed Goals – what it says it does (preparing students for the future)

17 Selznick (1996) Organizations seek “legitimacy” to justify what they do. They tend to seek similarity for legitimacy Coercive Isomorphism—forced to act a certain way by either another organization (TEA) or cultural expectations – my school had doors & windows Mimetic Isomorphism—copy each other when they are uncertain what to do Normative Isomorphism—everyone takes the same training and interact professionally

18 Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)
Ralph Stogdill (1948) -Tautological 124 Characteristics of Leaders Capacity (intelligence, alertness) Achievement (scholarship, knowledge) Responsibility (dependable, initiative) Participation (active, social, cooperative) Status (socio-economic, position, popularity) Situation (mental level, status, skills)

19 Structuralism – Bridge between Open & Closed Systems (1930-70s)
McCall & Lombardo (1983) Anti-Traits Insensitive to others (abrasive, bully) Cold, aloof, arrogant Betrayal of trust Overly ambitious: thinking of next job, Specific performance problems Over-managing – unable to delegate Unable to think strategically Unable to adapt Over-dependent on a mentor

20 Open-System Theory Katz & Kahn(1978)
Organization’s adaptive interaction with changing environment emphasized: goal is survival Organization is active system= Input Throughput output Organization is a living organism

21 Open Systems (1960s) Open systems are made up of subsystems that create homeostatsis for the organism. Mapping the environment requires sensing and assigning meaning to symbolic Information Imprints parts of the environment onto the organization. Symbolic  Motivation & Communication Feedback allows system to change goals “on the fly”

22 Open Systems (1960s) Harold Leavitt (1964) 4 subsystems
Tasks—processes performed in system Structure—organization, governed Technology—type of equipment, knowledge, methods Humans—skills, attitudes, roles, motivators

23 Open Systems (1960s) Daniel Katz & Robert Kahn(1966) 5 subsystems
Technology—production Managerial Supportive –interact with environment for influx of energy Maintenance—forces of stability Adaptive—forces devoted to change

24 Open Systems (1960s) John Seiler’s (1967) Forces in the environment
Internal Inputs Outputs Actual behaviors

25 Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed Environment
CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values Social System (school) GroupsIndividual Interdependencies  personalities Role expectationNeeds School’s Response

26 Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed
Carol Shakeshaft & Irene Nowell (1984) argued that GG Model did not describe the reality of the feminine experience – especially with role expectations “keepers of the private realm”

27 Open Systems (1960s) Getzel-Guba Model morphed Environment
CommunitiesCollectivesNorms, Values Social System (school) GroupsIndividual Interdependencies  personalities Role expectationNeeds School’s Response

28 Open Systems (1960s) Process Theoryinteractive processes that underlie motivation Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Valency=Effort + Expectancy +Choice

29 Flow of Information Machine Theory – bottom up
Bureaucracy Theory – top down HR – horizontal and vertical inside organization Structuralism – depending on leadership traits Open systems – horizontal & vertical both inside and outside the organization, loop-backs J.G. Miller’s Information Overload

30 Flow of Information J.G. Miller’s Information Overload Results in Omission Error Queuing Filtering Approximation Siemen’s Connectivists Theory of hyper processing & multitasking.

31 Contingency Theory Positivistic Nomothetic—law-like regularities
Methodologically positivistic – empirical research (measures variables & statistical analysis) Structure measured by material factors rather than idealistic factors Deterministic –required responses Consciously scientific style

32 Contingency Theory (1960-70s)
Generalizable relationship between organizational and environmental contingencies, organizational structure, and leadership. Organizational contingencies include size, task structure, environmental factors – usually uncertainty The leader’s job is to alter the organizational structure to keep the system in sync with environmental contingencies Lawrence & Lorsch (1967)

33 Contingency Theory (1960-70s)
Lawrence & Lorsch (1967) Differentiation of specialists Predictable environments foster stable craftsmen Generalists are required for unstable environments Space – depts in different locations Structure /Leadership Styles Size

34 Contingency Theory (1960-70s)
Structure /Leadership Styles

35 Conflict Theory

36 Critical Theory

37 Innovation, Diffusion, Change Theory
Hargreaves & Fullen (1996) change is “messy” Everett Rogers: Process of distributing innovation through a social system – communication-based model Community of Teachers (not learners) seem to share superficial tricks or tips but not deep investigations into issues of teaching, learning and the profession.

38 Diffusion formal & Informal Communities
Everett Rogers (1995) Diffusion of Innovations Example: Self-organizing virtual learning communities versus the processes in bounded learning communities 4-Elements Present The new idea – innovation Communication channels Time Social System engaged in joint problem solving activities to accomplish goals

39 Diffusion Theory - Rogers
Innovations as perceived by individuals Relative advantage – better than what we are doing? Compatibility-consistent with existing values, needs Complexity—difficult to understand or use? Trialability –is it used on a limited basis Observability – do we see results? Support – time, energy, resources, political backing

40 Diffusion Process -- Rogers
E.M. Rogers(1995) Diffusion of Innovations 5-Step Adoption Process Awareness --knowledge Interest--persuasion Decision—engages in activity Trial /Implementation Confirmation -- Adoption

41 Diffusion Process Rate of Adoption Perceived attributes of innovation
Type of innovation-decision Communication channels Nature of the social system Extent of change agents’ promotion efforts

42 Tipping Point The concept of the tipping point is the build-up of small changes that effect a big change Stickiness Factor –staying power of an innovation –keeping one’s attention Internet’s greatest economy is in fact, attention.

43 Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform fails in Schools
Faulty ‘Change Maps” – to be unique is not a good reason for change Complex Problems Symbols over substance – adopt external innovations with only symbolic benefit – CC! Not enough grass-roots support Impatient and Superficial Solutions Misunderstanding Resistance –may be a learning curve issue Attrition of Pockets of success Misuse of Knowledge of Change Process

44 Fullen & Miles (1992) 7 reasons reform succeeds in Schools
Change is learning Change is a journey not a blueprint – planning is continuous Problems are our friends—assertive problem-solving must take place Change is Resource Hungery—time & $$ Change requires Power to manage Change is Systemic – interrelational, structure, policy, culture Implemented locally—cannot happen from a distance

45 Fullen & Miles (1992) other reasons reform succeeds in Schools
Common language, Conceptual picture—of change process and goals Multiple stakeholders at different levels participate in reform process Culture is a priority – relationships must improve to create conditions to share ideas Sharing of successes and failures Change is inevitable and we must learn to live with it.

46 Berkman’s UOID Theory Influenced by Rogers
Berkmans User-Oriented Instructional Designers theory Identify the potential adopter Measure the potential adopters perceptions Design & develop a user-friendly product Inform the potential adopter Provide post adoption support (Burkman in Gagne, 1987, pp 440-1) – this was our model for the TARGET grant –Line Coaches—relationship between developer & adopter was critical

47 Rogers (1962, 1995) Adoption Categories explored Innovators
Early adopters—visionary users, project oriented, risk takers, self-sufficient, cross-curricular communication can integrate Early majority—pragmatic users, process oriented, may require support, departmental Late majority Laggards

48 Concerns-based Adoption Model (CBAM) --Hall & Hord
Hall & Hord (1987) macro level theory of diffusion Bottom-up, systemic change Framework includes “stages of concern” 7-Stages

49 7 Stages Hord Awareness –TCEA, Research, Vendors
Informational—Like to know more Personal –how will it affect them? Management—processes & tasks (information & resources) Consequence – impact students? Collaboration—teachers cooperate with others in implementing innovation Refocusing—thinking of additional alternatives that might work better ready to move on

50 Strategies Addressing Concerns
Clarify problem, arouse interest, let them generate possible solutions Give clear info about change, show how change is similar or diff from current Validate and legitimize concerns, reinforce, connect to supports Break the change into manageable steps, “how to”, give practical solutions to logistical problems

51 Strategies Addressing Concerns
5. Arrange visits to places that use the change, provide positive feedback & dialog 6. Monitor --Provide encouragement, help refine ideas 7.Develop PR campaigns, broadcast or market innovation--conferences

52 J.M.Keller’s Motivation Model for Instructional Design
ARCS Model ATTENTION – arouse & sustain learner’s curiosity Relevance – Need to relate Instruction to Learner’s Needs Confidence – Need to Match Learner’s Challenges to Learner’s Capabilities Satisfaction—Need to provide learner with Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards

53 Resistance Theory Michael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy” Rests on a “change agent” Creating Knowledge with stakeholders builds Relationships which is critical Integrating Technology Moral purpose

54 Resistance Theory Michael Fullen’s (2003) “The moral imperative of school leadership” change is “messy” Six-point Strategic model of transforming leadership Reshape Culture by building a community of professional learners – capacity building Change the context, then you can change behavior – move from one grade or subject Mutual Vision – high expectations Disciplined Inquiry – data-driven decision making Moral purpose—desire to do the right thing & the wish to make a difference Responsibility – teacher – leaders & collaborators

55 Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process
Establish a sense of urgency Opportunities /crisis demand change NOW Create a Guiding Team gather change agents with credibility, skills, authority to assist in the change Develop a vision & Strategy Clear uplifting statement of goal & plan Communicate the Change Vision Clear, uplifting, repeated messages

56 Kotter’s 8 Stage Change Process
Empower Organizational Members Remove obstacles, change structures Reward new ideas & risk-taking Generate Short-term Wins Early success is critical Celebrate & reward people Consolidate Gains & Continue Change Don’t let up! Anchor New Ways into the Culture Make change stick

57 Lewin’s Change Model Unfreezing Moving Refreezing
Diagnose need for change, status quo no longer acceptable Prepare people & plan change Moving Implement changes Overcome resistance Refreezing Institutionalize new ways

58 Structural Adaptation to Regain Fit
Donaldson’s SARFIT Model ( ) 5 Stages An organization is in fit There is a contingency change The organization is in misfit & performance suffers The organization does structural adaptation The organization achieves a new fit and performance recovers

59 Change Quotes “A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices” – William James “Life is change. Growth is optional. Choose wisely” Karen Kaiser Clark “I can’t understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I’m afraid of the old ones.” John Cage “All progress is precarious, and the solution of one problem brings us face to face with another problem” Martin Luther King, Jr.

60 Change Quotes “It isn’t that they can’t see the solution. It is that they can’t see the problem.” G.K. Chesterton “I never give them hell. I just tell the truth and they think its hell.” Harry S. Truman “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” Gandhi “Example is not the main thing in influencing others, it’s the only thing” Albert Schweitzer

61 Change Quotes “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” Woodrow Wilson “You can’t jump a twenty-foot chasm in two ten-foot leaps” American Proverb “We have to get everybody in the organization involved. If we do that, the best ideas rise to the top.” Jack Welch

62 Chaos Theory

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