Presentation on theme: "Character Education Ethical Choices"— Presentation transcript:
1Character Education Ethical Choices National OrganizationCharacter Counts!Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003
2True Education“The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically... Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education.” — Martin Luther King Jr., Nobel Prize-winning 20th-century American civil rights leader
3Real Character“The measure of a man's real character is what he would do if he knew he would never be found out.” — Baron Thomas Babington Macauley, early 19th-century English historian
4Education"To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." — Theodore Roosevelt, 19th/20th century American adventurer and politician, Nobel Prize-winning U.S. president
5Training"Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it." — Proverbs, 22:6
6What is it you want your students to be when they graduate from your high school? In groups of 3 discuss characteristics you think students should have when they graduate from your high school (3 minutes)Select a spokesperson to share these characteristics with the rest of the class (5 minutes)Compare the characteristics you have listed with those listed by fortune 500 companies.
7What is it that Employers Want. List skills from most wanted to least What is it that Employers Want? List skills from most wanted to least. (handout)Interpersonal SkillsLeadershipWritingTeamworkOral CommunicationReadingComputationProblem-SolvingListeningCreative Thinking
9SCANS (Handout) Secretaries Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills Foundational Skills (TAKS)Competency Skills (Life-Long Skills)Allocation of Resources – Team WorkAllocation of Information -Life-long Learning, Research, and CommunicationInterpersonal Skills – Six PillarsSystem Thinking – See the big picture (integration of real-world skills)Technology Skills
106 Pillars of Character Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Civic Duty (Citizenship)Trustworthiness
11Domains involved in the Development of Character CognitiveA Cognitive domain – intellectual abilities – Bloom’s TaxonomyRote memorizationKnowledge & ComprehensionApplicationSynthesisEvaluation & Judgment
12Domains involved in the Development of Character Domain for Creative & Critical ThinkingF7 Creative Thinking - Uses imagination freely, combines ideas or information in new ways, makes connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, and reshapes goals in ways that reveal new possibilities.
13Domains involved in the Development of Character F8 Decision Making - Specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives, considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative.Determine the decision to be madeGather information that will help make the decisionDetermine several options or choicesWeigh (evaluate) the options or choicesSelect and carry out one optionReflect on the results of your decision to help you in future decisions
14Domains involved in the Development of Character F9 Problem Solving - Recognizes that a problem exists (i.e., there is a discrepancy between what is and what should or could be); identifies possible reasons for the discrepancy; devises and implements a plan of action to resolve it; evaluates and monitors progress; and revises plan as indicated by findings.
15Domains involved in the Development of Character F10 Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye - Organizes and processes symbols, pictures, graphs, objects or other information; for example, sees a building from a blueprint, a system's operation from schematics, the flow of work activities from narrative descriptions, or the taste of food from reading a recipe.
16Domains involved in the Development of Character Fll Knowing How To Learn - Recognizes and can use learning techniques to apply and adapt new knowledge and skills in both familiar and changing situations and is aware of teaming tools such as personal teaming styles (visual, aural, etc.), formal learning strategies (note taking or clustering items that share some characteristics), and informal teaming strategies (awareness of unidentified false assumptions that may lead to faulty conclusions).
17Domains involved in the Development of Character Knowing how to Ask Questions, asking the right questions, Research Skills. Knowing how to determine when a topic has been adequately researched
18Domains involved in the Development of Character F12 Reasoning - Discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship between two or more objects and applies it in solving a problem; uses logic to draw conclusions from available information; extracts rules or principles from a set of objects or written text; applies rules and principles to a new situation or determines which conclusions are correct when given a set of facts and a set of conclusions. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed
19Domains involved in the Development of Character Psycho-motor Domain: physical skills and the new brain research which tie these together to improve reading and comprehension skills. Kinesthetic movement assists the brain in long-term memory. How many of you have ever been to Grand Canyon? Name a book you read in the fall of your third year in school.
20Domains involved in the Development of Character . Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development:which reflect Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.
21Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) –punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and “not getting caught by authority”.Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating.Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.
22Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) –punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and “not getting caught by authority”.Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating.Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.
23Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit)Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me.Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.
24Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit)Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me.Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.
25Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: As people mature, then hopefully we move to more CONVENTIONAL Moral values by performing good or right roles, in maintaining the conventional order, and in meeting others’ expectations
26Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage III (is call the “black & white” stageConcern about groups of people, and conformity to group norms.There is a two-way relationship (we are good to each other).Motive is to be a “nice guy or gal”, to be accepted.Affection plays a strong role. We will visit the Affective Domain Next.This stage becomes frustrating because we are always trying to follow everyone else’s rules and to please everyone…which of course, cannot be done.
27Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage IV Concern for order in society. Honor & duty come from keeping the rules of society.The focus is on preserving the society….not just obeying it.Being Dutiful plays a part here.During stage IV, the individual looks to rules, laws, or codes for guidance in dilemma situationsthe laws have wisdom and are the positive glue of society.
28Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: The final stages deal with a Basis of Judgment – Bloom’s uses this as his highest level of cognitive thinking.
29Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage V: Is characterized by Autonomy. It is called the social contract, legalistic orientation.What is right is what the whole society decides. There are no legal absolutes….everyone must agree …then it is OK.Changes are made in the law for reasons that suit the common or greatest good for the greatest number of people.This is the problem-solving stage. How to make it work for everyone.Reasoning at this level requires the ability to think abstractly (to view laws as a system of governance), to weigh competing claims, to take a stand and yet remain open in the future.This moral level may take place only when children can see more than one POINT OF VIEW..
30Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage VI: Universal ethical Principals – “Golden Rule”.What is right is a decision of one’s conscience, based on ideas about rightness that apply to everyone (all nations, all people)A higher law. “Thou shall not kill”.The most important ethical principles deal with justice, equality, and the dignity of all people.These principles are higher than any given law….and one has the right to disobey unjust laws.Saint Augustine said that, “an unjust law is no law at all” Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.
31Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Kohlberg describes the Golden rule has having two parts.1. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you and (2) love your neighbor as yourself
32Kohlberg’s Stages*****Note: None of these moral stages (1-6) are “wrong”……..at an appropriate age level …all people should move through each of these stages…Being “stuck” at a lower developmental stage while maturing in age, would be undesirable.
33Kohlberg’s StagesWe KNOW that lack of development in the Cognitive Domain or even the Physical domain is tragic.We must also see that lack of development is a tragedy in the Moral Development DOMAN.
34Kohlberg’s StagesInversely, one must be careful not to push children who are not cognitively ready into a stage of moral decision-making for which they are not ready.
35Kohlberg’s StagesIt is ridiculous to have small children arguing over moral dilemmas until they have developed a since of right and wrong.“One precaution,” said Plato, “is not to let students taste of arguments while they are young, the danger being that they would develop a taste for arguments rather than a taste for truth. Young minds, like young puppies, said Plato, would only “pull and tear at arguments”For Plato, it was much more important for young people to learn to love a virtue than to argue about it.
36Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Piaget and Kohlberg believe that social understanding leads to moral motivation
37Domain of the 7 Intelligences: · Verbal / Linguistic Logical / Mathematical Visual / Spatial· Body / Kinesthetic· Musical / Rhythmic· Intrapersonal (within one’s self – reflection, depth of thinking)· Interpersonal (cooperation, negotiation, collaboration – Six Pillars
38What Character is and What it is NOT Character is what you are when nobody is looking.Character is the result of values and beliefsCharacter is a habit that becomes second natureCharacter is not reputation or what others think about youCharacter is not how much better you are than othersCharacter is NOT RELATIVE
39Ethics – What it is and What it is NOT Ethics is not always what is done, but what OUGHT to be done.
40Knowing to do good Children are not born ethical giants They do not learn it by osmosis.Children learn more from what they see, than what they are told.Conflicting ethical values tend to reduce to the lowest common denominatorHigh expectations & Accountability are corner stones for ethical maturity.
41What Works WHAT WORKS? Social understanding comes through modeling, reinforcement,and an action plan for using education to steer ethical decisions.
42Social ContractAs people come to understand the possibilities and conditions of cooperation, they come to appreciate their part in supporting social arrangements that follow moral principals.
43Piaget & Kohlberg Believe that education overcomes prejudice,exposure to great minds (literature) fosters social responsibility,and travel (experiential social contact) assists in the broadening of the mind.Versus Vicarious Experiences of TV & Movies
44CAUTION: These findings tell us that moral judgment is not a matter of MEMORIZING special terminology,or of mastering certain tricks of argument,or of being able to drop the names of moral philosophers;
45Rather,Moral judgment reflects basic natural growth of a guided good conscience …if it is not halted by outside circumstances or forces.
46ResearchThe most fundamental research recognizes the way people naturally formulate their moral judgments has a lot to do with their underlying conceptions of cooperation in social settings.
47Real Character Development Students might pass a course by memorizing facts and learning empty academic games, but learning moral decision-making involves relating real behavior to decision making in a real-world setting.Integrated over multiple settings….over time
48Practice Makes Perfect Making good ethical choices is the key to becoming a moral person.Being allowed to make choices is essential then to becoming a person of character.
49Affective DomainWhat choices are made & how we FEEL after making those choices is a key feature of our last & final Domain.
50Affective DomainThe Final Domain we will discuss today is the Affective Domain.What is it we want our students to be when they leave our institutions of learning?Children must be taught character with consideration for the appropriate age and mental capacity.
51What is it that we want them to be able to do? How do we become known as the embodiment of a characteristic, virtue or trait?KindFairGraciousCaringTrustworthy
52The Affective Domain . RECEIVING (ATTENDING): A. Awareness B. WillingnessC. Controlled or Selected Attention2. RESPONDING: (Show some NEW behavior)A. AcquiescenceC. Satisfaction3. VALUING: (Show some definite INVOLVEMENT)A. AcceptanceB. PreferenceC. Commitment4. ORGANIZATION: (Value Clarification - Prioritize)A. ConceptualizationB. Organization5 CHARACTERIZATION (Consistently acting in agreement with a value)A. Generalized SetB. Value Complex
53Analyzing what we need to Become and setting Goals The Affective DomainAnalyzing what we need to Become and setting Goalsfor Ourselves.
54What does not work?Character education arises out of a concern for moral development and being a good person.It is about self-improvement and achieving personal worthiness.
55Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are: A False sense of self-esteem, which is concerned about how good one, feels about him regardless of how one performs or behaves. It over emphasizes the “feeling good” and ignores the importance of “being good”
56Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are: What must be remembered is that a genuine sense of self-esteem comes from doing good, and feeling of pride and confidence that follows the actions.Character education is concerned with adding virtues to one’s life.
57Issues that defeats character education . Some teachers think that by teaching ethics in an indirect manner that children will absorb good character. However, research and good educational practices have proven that children need to have concrete, real-world, direct approaches to new concepts and ideas.The “hands-on” approach with actual decision-making activities repeatedly over time integrated throughout the curriculum, home life and sports life is needed to fill the character education vacuum. DON’T BE SUBTLE!
58Modeling Is Costly!Children need teachers and parents to model and mentor them in good ethical decision-making.They LEARN by doing. They UNLEARN by watching!Visual cues, posters, incentives, awards, and stressing of the importance of character building must be pervasive.
59Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Children need to have habits instilled in them that reflect the virtuesVerbiage is Crucial!“Be Nice”“Be a Gentleman”“Straighten Up”“Keep Still”“Shhhhhhhhh”“Don’t”
60Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Direct instruction with clear messages is needed to develop thinking and problem-solving skills.Stolen Calculator StoryStealing Music from InternetStealing Projects
61Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choicesMentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.
62Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choicesMentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.
63Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg “The first step in raising a moral child is to treat a child morally”
6410 Steps that WorkMorality is respect. Teach children to respect themselves, others, and for all forms of life and the environment that sustains lifeKnow that children develop morality slowly and in stages … BE PATIENT…BE PERSISTANTTeach by example-- BE HONEST. Tell them that you are not perfect. That you make mistakes….we are all learning and we can learn together how to make a better society.Teach by telling the TRUTH and clarifying the TRUTH by using concrete examplesHelp children learn to think and think independently – Encourage reflection and encourage empathy
6510 Steps that Work Help children to take on real responsibilities Help children to feel valuable – that they make a difference in society – TEACH THEM TO SERVE OTHERSBalance independence and control – guided practice & debriefing – Help children to “grow” a good conscience instead of anesthetizing their conscience with rationalizations. Remember that we have some very powerful instincts...to do what we think is best for ourselves, pursuing self-interest, happiness, health, love, sex, security, wealth, status, power – these are natural preoccupations of most people. They must be tempered with self-discipline, tenacity, and courage to do what is right.
6610 Steps that WorkLove children and help them develop a positive self-concept – this will affect their attitude … and attitude is everything – it is one’s personal commitment to do what is right, good and proper. Ultimately, ethics is an action concept; it is about conduct and behavior….coming from an inward conviction of what is right & wrong.Explain, explain, explain, teach, teach, teach, every act of misbehavior is a learning event and opportunity. What you permit you condone. What you condone you encourage; what you prohibit you condemn, what you condemn you discourage.
67Remember! Be OPEN. Tell kids what you think is important, BE HONEST, Tell them when you make mistakes…MENTOR BY EXAMPLE…no one is perfect…we are all struggling to become better all our lives….no one “has arrived” at perfection…help them to understand that a person of good character works their entire life at building a quality character.
68Remember!THINK OUTLOUD….help children hear what a person of character thinks about while trying to make a good decision.MODEL Reflection – not only thinking about the past and how to learn from it….but also about future behavior – Olympic Athletes visualize performing each movement for a successful execution and performance
69Remember! MOTIVATE & ENCOURAGE MANAGE behavior…don’t ignore it. Help students to learn self-management techniques …gain independence …and self respect.
70The Josephson Institute Nonpartisan Aspen Coalition300 teachers, counselors, ministers, clergymen, psychiatrists, coaches, social workers.Non-negotiablesReduced to lowest set of ideals6 Pillars of Character
72RESPECTThe essence of respect is to show solemn regard for the worth of people, including oneself.The ethical duty is to treat everyone with respect – not to respect everyone in the sense that we admire them.
73RESPECTTreating people with respect means letting them know that their safety, and happiness matter, that they are important and worthy simply because they are fellow human beings.Lubemire
74RESPECTOur duty to be respectful requires that we treat others with courtesy and considerationIt means we behave according to accepted notions of taste, propriety, and decency.It means we honor traditions, customs, and beliefs important to others.People are not things
75RESPECT All of us have a basic right to be treated with dignity The well-being of all people is important; no person should be used simply as an instrument of another’s needs.
76RESPECT Live by the Golden Rule Respect other’s dignity, privacy, freedom, and possessionsBe Courteous and PoliteBe Tolerant and Accepting of DifferencesRespect the autonomy of others
77RESPECT DOES NOT Use or manipulate others Abuse, demean or mistreat anyonePre-judge or discriminate against others
78RULE of RESPECTAll individuals are important and the well-being of each is a moral end in itself; never treat others as simply the means for your own gain or gratification.
79Respect is Given NOT demanded How do we demonstrate Respect? (T Chart) RULE of RESPECTRespect is Given NOT demandedHow do we demonstrate Respect? (T Chart)To Friends?To Parents?To Teachers?To Strangers?
80Characteristics of RESPECT ToleranceAcceptanceAutonomyPrivacyNonviolenceCourteousPoliteConcerned
81Famous Quotes about RESPECT “The honor we receive from those that fear us, is not honor” Montaigne Essays ( )“Respect gained by fear is not real; it is only an empty pretense that turns to contempt the moment the threat disappears” Michael Josephson“Respect, like love, has value only when it is given freely and out of genuine feelings.”“Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” Jesus Christ
82Rule of UniversalityDo only those acts which you are willing to allow to become universal standards of behavior applicable to all people in similar situations.Ask yourself, “If everyone did it would it be a good thing?”
83Application“I will treat you like a gentleman, not because you are one, but because I am one”
84Build a T Chart --- “Teachers Respect to Students” ApplicationIn Groups of 4Build a T Chart --- “Teachers Respect to Students”Label 1 side “What it does not look like”Label 2 side “What it does look like”
85ResponsibilityLife is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.
86ResponsibilityResponsibility requires us to recognize that what we do—and what we don’t do– matters, and that we are morally responsible for the consequences of our choices.
87ResponsibilityResponsibility means being accountable for what we do and who we are.Everyone is responsible for the development of his or her personal character.
88ResponsibilityWe can’t choose whether we are good looking, smart or athletic. We can’t choose our parents or the circumstances in which we grow up.But all of us choose how to deal with the outrages and opportunities of life.From these choices, our character is formed
89Responsibility Choosing NOT to choose is a choice. Some of our choices are conscious and some are not.We choose whether to be conscious and concerned about the consequences of what we say and do, including the choice to be willfully blind.
90Responsibility Do Your Duty Be Accountable Pursue Excellence Exercise Self-ControlAcknowledge and meet your legal and moral obligations
91ResponsibilityLife is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.
93Responsibility Everything we do makes a difference What we do and what we say starts a chain reaction that affects the lives of othersDecisions Activity.
94Responsibility Work Ethic There is an ethical dimension to good work habits – the work ethic – when others depend on us to show up on time, prepared and ready to do our work and dedicated to stick with the job unit it is done.
95Dimensions of Responsibility Accountability. Our ability to reason and freedom to choose makes us morally autonomous and, therefore, accountable for our choices.
96ResponsibilityDuty. We are bound by principles of morality to make choices that honor rather than degrade universal ethical obligations to be trustworthy, respectful, responsible, fair, caring, and good citizensNuremburg Trials.9/11 and Student
97Responsibility Don’t blame others Don’t buy into being a victim Pursue excellence and take pride in everything you doDo the best you can with what you have. No excuses.
98Look Out for Excuses“That’s just the way I am” We are what we choose to be, nothing less and nothing more.“It’s not my fault” Could I have done something that would have mattered?
99Responsibility“It’s not my job” Our moral duties often go beyond specific job responsibilities.“It was legal” Legal does not always mean morally correct.
100Responsibility“Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you as by the attitude you bring to life; not so much by what happens to you as by the way your mind looks at what happens.” -- John Homer Miller
101We are responsible for our attitudes. ResponsibilityWe are responsible for our attitudes.
102ResponsibilityOur attitudes propel us forward towards our victories or bog us down in defeat. They are what others see most of the personality within us; they describe us and define us, projecting the image we present to the world.
103ResponsibilityOur attitudes make us rich or poor, happy or unhappy, fulfilled or incomplete. They are the single most determining factor in every action we will ever make. We and our attitudes are inextricably combined. We are our attitudes and our attitudes are us.--Shad Helmstetter
104ResponsibilityBlaming the wolf would not help the sheep much. The sheep must learn not to fall into the clutches of the wolf. – Mahatma GandhiThe buck stops here – Harry Truman
105ResponsibilityDuty is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more. You should never wish to do less. -- Robert E. Lee
106ResponsibilityLet us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it. -- Abraham Lincoln
107ResponsibilityTo ignore evil is to become an accomplice to it. -- Martin Luther King, Jr.Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice; it is not a thing to be waited for it is a thing to be achieved.– William Jennings Bryan
108ResponsibilityIf you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem. The price of greatness is responsibility. – Winston ChurchillKnowledge is power. Knowledge plus character is super power. – Houston police officer
109Civic Duty -- Citizenship Civic virtues refer to conduct that is desirable and praiseworthy but not morally mandated.Citizenship are the duties, rights, conduct and responsibilities of the citizen of a state.Respecting the rules, laws, and property of the state and doing your share to preserve them is your honest share in citizenship.
110Civic Duty -- Citizenship What is a veteran?Words to Star Spangled Banner and God Bless AmericaDiscussing the words in the Pledge of AllegianceService Projects
111Civic Duty -- Citizenship Civic duty implies obligations to contribute to the overall public good. It refers to ethical obligations, standards of conduct that establish minimal requirements of ethical citizenshipPlaying by the rules, obeying the law, and paying all taxesParticipating in the democratic process by voting, serving on a jury, reporting crimes, and testifying as a witness.
112Civic Duty – Doing Your Share Protect the environment by conserving resources and minimizing waste and pollution.Being a good citizen and a good neighbor.Care about and pursue the common good.Be a volunteer – help your school and community be better, cleaner and saferParticipating, voting, sharing your opinion, serving on committees, reporting wrongdoing, and paying taxes.
113Civic Duty – Obeying the Law The Vital Social Contract that makes a democracy work is the agreement that we will be governed by laws.Rules of Engagement – “running naked in the woods”Each of us gives up some personal freedom in order to achieve collective benefits of orderliness, economic stability, personal safety, and justice.
114Civic Duty – Obeying the Law In a democracy we deal with unwise or unpleasant rules by changing the rules, not by disobedient conduct.Compliance to immoral laws? – universal standards – walk through the six pillars, then act
115Civic Duty -- Citizenship Enforcement policies do NOT determine the validity of the law – if no one sees you, its OK.Just because you have ACCESS, does NOT give you the right to STEAL.What about Downloading Music from the Internet?.
116Civic Duty -- Citizenship Running for office, accepting appointments to office, working for candidates or issues.Giving time and / or money to charitable and other social causes.
117Civic Duty -- Citizenship Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country.--John Fitzgerald Kennedy
118FairnessFirst of ALL: “It is much more difficult to know what is fair than what is unfair. A just person is never knowingly unfair”—Michael JosephsonBeing Fair is a moral obligationTreat ALL people fairlyListen to others & try to understand what they are feeling and saying.Rushing judgment is UNFAIR.
119FairnessUnfortunately, one man’s justice is another man’s injustice; one man’s beauty another’s ugliness; one man’s wisdom another’s folly”--Ralph Waldo Emerson
120FairnessConsider all the facts, including opposing views, before making decisionsMake impartial decisions, using the same criteria, rules, or standards for everyoneCorrect your mistakes in judgment
121UNFairnessDon’t take advantage of other people’s mistakes or ignoranceDon’t take more than your fair shareDon’t let personal preferences, prejudice or other feelings improperly interfere with decisions which should be based on merit.
122FairnessMaturity is the ability to analyze & evaluate fairly after listening to all the facts & differing points of view.
123Fairness 3 Volunteers Job Interview What is your name? What is your favorite color?Do you have a pet?What color are your eyes?Can you type?
124FairnessRewarding or Punishing indiscriminately is unfair and causes prejudice in society.What does Fairness & Unfairness Sound Like / Look LikeActivity: Build a T ChartSounds like / looks likeWait let me hear the whole story from both of youEveryone must go by the same rulesIf I make a mistake on your grade, I’ll certainly correct itUNFAIRI don’t like you that’s whyIf you give me candy I willThat’s the grade I gave you ---so it’s just too badSince your mother is my friend I won’t tell on youYou took more than YOUR share!
125PERSPECTIVES ON JUSTICE Small fish --- “There is NO justice”Medium fish – “There is SOME justice”Big fish – “The world IS JUST.”The innocent love justice, everyone else prefers mercy Michael Josephson
126Fairness All virtue is summed up in dealing justly – Aristotle To receive instruction in wise behavior, Righteousness, justice and equity; Bible, Prov 1:3Learn to do good; Seek justice; Bible, Isa 1:17
127Fairness“It is not what a lawyer tells me I may do; but what humanity, reason and justice tell me I ought to do.”Sounds like / looks likeWait let me hear the whole story from both of youEveryone must go by the same rulesIf I make a mistake on your grade, I’ll certainly correct itUNFAIRI don’t like you that’s whyIf you give me candy I willThat’s the grade I gave you ---so it’s just too badSince your mother is my friend I won’t tell on youYou took more than YOUR share!--Edmund Burke
128Basic Rules of UNFairness It is unfair to impose punishment that is disproportionate to the offence.Motives are important. Intentional violations and unintentional mistakes should be considered differentlyIt is unfair to handle similar matters inconsistently. When possible extenuating factors should be explicitly acknowledged as part of the statement of policy.Sounds like / looks likeWait let me hear the whole story from both of youEveryone must go by the same rulesIf I make a mistake on your grade, I’ll certainly correct itUNFAIRI don’t like you that’s whyIf you give me candy I willThat’s the grade I gave you ---so it’s just too badSince your mother is my friend I won’t tell on youYou took more than YOUR share!
129Basic Rules of UNFairness Legally Mandated Favoritism. Sometimes these are mandated to correct historic patterns, but whenever possible there should be equality among ALL people.It is unfair to make a judgment that favors or discriminates against individuals based on improper factors.Nepotism. Criteria for employment or promotion should be applied to everyone alike.Sounds like / looks likeWait let me hear the whole story from both of youEveryone must go by the same rulesIf I make a mistake on your grade, I’ll certainly correct itUNFAIRI don’t like you that’s whyIf you give me candy I willThat’s the grade I gave you ---so it’s just too badSince your mother is my friend I won’t tell on youYou took more than YOUR share!
130Basic Rules of UNFairness So many factors can go into the notion of a fair judgment, that oftentimes, we do not know what is truly fair. We do, however, know what is unfair, and our first obligation is to avoid being unfair.Sounds like / looks likeWait let me hear the whole story from both of youEveryone must go by the same rulesIf I make a mistake on your grade, I’ll certainly correct itUNFAIRI don’t like you that’s whyIf you give me candy I willThat’s the grade I gave you ---so it’s just too badSince your mother is my friend I won’t tell on youYou took more than YOUR share!
131Establishing Fairness in the Classroom Respect SelfRespect Others (privacy, possessions, humanity, differences)Respect EducationRespect the EnvironmentDon’t pollute my air, listen to music with headphonesRespect Resources (If you teach it, you can grade it)Breaking pencils, erasers, throwing paper clips, staplesPlaying games on computer instead of being productive
132Six Theories of Substantive Fairness MeritNeedMightEqualitySeniorityEffort
133Theories of FairnessEFFORT – a person is entitled to more if he/she tries harder irrespective of talent, ability, or needSENIORITY – a person is entitled to more if he/she has been there longer irrespective of merit, need, power, or effortEQUALITY – a person is entitled to an equal share irrespective of merit, need, power, or effort
134Theories of FairnessMIGHT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can acquire irrespective of merit, need, or effort. Power determines what a person deserves; might makes right.NEED – a person is entitled to whatever he/she needs. In a just system, everyone will have what they need. Excess above needs can be distributed by any other theory of justice.
135Theories of FairnessMERIT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can earn or acquire based on skill, talent, and /or hard work.Persons with little skill, talent or hard work are not “entitled” to anything except what they need.
1363 Rules to Fair Decisions First, since disagreement and criticism are inevitable, we must content ourselves with reaching fair decisions based on personal conscience and ethical justifiable standards.If you need to be liked or approved of by everyone, avoid accepting responsibility that requires tough choices. Charges of unfairness come with the territory.
1373 Rules to Fair Decisions SECOND, we should be clear in our own minds about the CRITERIA used for making judgments. It is ONLY FAIR if EVERYONE knows the criteria beforehand.THIRD, the PROCEDURES used to weigh a decision must be and appear to be fair. These procedures should be a matter of record. (Common knowledge)
138FairnessThe wide variety of approaches to fairness means that for every decision there will be people who will claim it is unfair.
139Procedural Fairness Fair Notice Impartiality Gather of the Facts Fair Hearing
140Fair NoticeHave the rules been posted? Has the person been given fair warning? Is the person unaware of the rule?
141Impartiality Is the judgment based on the CRITERIA ? Have conclusion be made based on facts and clear evidence?Has all the information been considered?Are the conclusion clear?
142Gather FactsHas judgment been suspended until all the opposing sides have been given time to give their statements?Have you gathered facts without undo embarrassment or disclosing your suspicions to others?Are there ambiguities that can be clarified?
143Fair HearingHas everyone been given time and due process for a fair disclosure of their side of the story?Has “right of confrontation” been given to the accusedHas everyone been allowed to explain, listen, and understand?
144Decision-MakingDecisions should be made and should appear to be made, carefully, honestly and objectively, with the knowledge that even a process of the greatest integrity does not always produce certainty.PROCESS & RESULTS must be FAIR
145Decision-MakingEven though the underlying concepts of fairness and justice are simple, almost intuitive, applying them in real life proves very difficultDiscussions among students on the Definitions, Process, and Results will help them to better understand both the importance and the effort needed in practicing FAIRNESS
146Decision-MakingYou are an employer who for budget reasons has to let go of one employee. What is FAIR?Who do you let go?
147Decision-MakingAble, your newest employee who is young and unmarried is your best producer. He gets more work done effectively than any other employeeNettie is a competent worker of four years, a single mother with 3 small children at home, she needs the job mostOldham has worked for the company for the longest, for 18 years and is two years away from retirementTryhard is a good producer with terrific attitude and the hardest worker you haveNepo, a competent employee is the son of one of the owners of the company.
148Caring Caring is the “GLUE” of society Without CARING we are less than moral beings
149Caring Caring is the “GLUE” of society Without CARING we are less than moral beingsCompassionKindnessConsiderationCharity
150Caring Caring takes TIME & ACTION Teach children to love their family, friends, and community. Separate the person from the behavior or choices the person has made.ACTIVITY: Draw a picture of caring.
151CaringA person of character is empathetic, helpful, considerate, and compassionate.A caring person is one who strives to make life better for ALL peopleA caring person helps people in needIs NOT mean, critical, hurtful or insensitive
152CaringMake a list of things a caring person might do
153TrustworthinessIntegrity = “wholeness”, predictable, consistent in thoughts, words, and actions, not “two faced”.Honesty = sincerity, real, not hypocriticalPromise Keeping = accountable to promises that have been made
154TrustworthinessLoyalty = benefit of the doubt to those who you have a relationship with.Sincerity = not trying to trap or make fun of others honest feelings. Essential for meaningful personal relationships that are rewarding & enduring & successful associations in school, social activities & workplace.
155TrustworthinessFrom your own experience:What kinds of words or actions build or undermine trust?
156TrustworthinessPeople of character understand the importance of trust and pursue a life that makes them worthy of trust.Even small lies & deceptions can topple towers of trust.Towers of trust are built stone by stone, yet no tower is so tall or so strong that it can stand when lies & deception undermine its base.Integrity is moral wholeness demonstrated by a consistency of thoughts, words, deed, and duties.
157TrustworthinessBeliefs: People with integrity listen to their conscienceWords: Have the courage to say what is right or wrongActions: Don’t do anything they think is wrong.
158TrustworthinessMoral Obligations – are not hypocrites. Their sense of duty to what is good.A person of integrity has a wholeness like a whole number --- it is undivided, complete. There are not dark pieces hiding out of sight.Integrity requires a discerning conscience that acts with good character regardless of personal cost, proclaiming openly the reason you act is on your understanding of right from wrong. There are no hidden agendas, to forked tongue, and not looking to judge.
159TrustworthinessIntegrity requires both being true to oneself & living up to one’s highest and best personal values with courage and self discipline.How does one always act with integrity?A person with integrity is not reflex oriented. They are self-reflection oriented so they have thought clearly and act accordingly.A person of integrity consistently behaves according to firm convictions about right & wrong.
160TrustworthinessLiving up to good principles means that we always do what is right even when doing so will not get us something we want or will keep us our of trouble.It is right to do right even if no one else is doing it.Ethics is not for wimps! It takes moral courage to hold onto important values even in the face of criticism, embarrassment or pressure to do otherwise.
161TrustworthinessHonesty requires that one looks at all the facts. Communication & Conduct are the two keystones of honesty. Communication requires that one does not stay willingly blind. Candor, openness, and truthfulness lead to understanding. Understanding leads to conduct that is becoming of an honest person. Cheating, stealing, sneaky behavior, deceitfulness are acts that demean one character. An honest person will not keep silent when silence is intended to cause another person to believe something that is not true.
162Trustworthiness A lie has speed, but the truth has endurance. To a liar the lie is a means to manipulate.To one being lied to a lie is a manipulation.Promise Keeping: Do not make promises that you cannot or should not keep. The lack of promise keeping will make you loose respect for yourself. Good work habits demand reliability. Do not over book yourself so that you have to break good habits or destroy someone’s trust in you.
163TrustworthinessLoyalty: to stand by the relationships that you have made.Give examples of Moral Dilemmas using "Trustworthiness".
164Trustworthiness Self Quiz How do you rate yourself? 1. Tell the truth even when it may cost me. Yes No2. Being sincere -- not being deceptive, tricky or sneaky. Yes No3. Being candid and forthright, volunteering information others need or want to know. Yes No4. Honoring another's property (not stealing). Never taking what is not mine. Yes No
165TEACHING CHARACTER “If you TEACH it, you can GRADE it” “What gets Rewarded, gets Repeated”“How do you reward RESPECT in your school?”If praising virtues and condemning vices does not take place – you will betray one and encourage the other.
166TEACHING CHARACTER“It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing -delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards.It takes COURAGE to do the right thing.Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.
167TEACHING CHARACTER“It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing -delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards.It takes COURAGE to do the right thing.Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.
168TEACHING CHARACTERMust distinguish between the human being and the behavior.Child can fail math and still be a valuable personWhen a person has a clear sense of dignity and self value, they can respect and care for others.Teachers must avoid “shaming” techniques when addressing behavior management.