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Character Education Ethical Choices National Organization Character Counts! Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003.

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Character Education Ethical Choices National Organization Character Counts! Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003.

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1 Character Education Ethical Choices National Organization Character Counts! Complied by: Joy Rousseau, 2003

2 True Education The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically... Intelligence plus character – that is the goal of true education. Martin Luther King Jr., Nobel Prize- winning 20th-century American civil rights leader

3 Real Character The measure of a man's real character is what he would do if he knew he would never be found out. Baron Thomas Babington Macauley, early 19th-century English historian

4 Education "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." Theodore Roosevelt, 19th/20th century American adventurer and politician, Nobel Prize-winning U.S. president

5 Training "Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it." Proverbs, 22:6

6 What is it you want your students to be when they graduate from your high school? In groups of 3 discuss characteristics you think students should have when they graduate from your high school (3 minutes) Select a spokesperson to share these characteristics with the rest of the class (5 minutes) Compare the characteristics you have listed with those listed by fortune 500 companies.

7 What is it that Employers Want? List skills from most wanted to least. (handout) Interpersonal Skills Leadership Writing Teamwork Oral Communication Reading Computation Problem-Solving Listening Creative Thinking

8 Answers Teamwork (SCANS) Problem-solving (TAKS & SCANS) Interpersonal Skills (SCANS) Oral Communication (SCANS) Listening (SCANS) Creative Thinking (SCANS) Leadership (SCANS) Writing (TAKS) Reading (TAKS)

9 SCANS (Handout) Secretaries Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills Foundational Skills (TAKS) Competency Skills (Life-Long Skills) – Allocation of Resources – Team Work – Allocation of Information -Life-long Learning, Research, and Communication – Interpersonal Skills – Six Pillars – System Thinking – See the big picture (integration of real- world skills) – Technology Skills

10 6 Pillars of Character Respect Responsibility Fairness Caring Civic Duty (Citizenship) Trustworthiness

11 Domains involved in the Development of Character Cognitive – A Cognitive domain – intellectual abilities – Blooms Taxonomy – Rote memorization – Knowledge & Comprehension – Application – Synthesis – Evaluation & Judgment

12 Domains involved in the Development of Character A. Domain for Creative & Critical Thinking – F7 Creative Thinking - Uses imagination freely, combines ideas or information in new ways, makes connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, and reshapes goals in ways that reveal new possibilities. –

13 Domains involved in the Development of Character F8 Decision Making - Specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives, considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative. – Determine the decision to be made – Gather information that will help make the decision – Determine several options or choices – Weigh (evaluate) the options or choices – Select and carry out one option – Reflect on the results of your decision to help you in future decisions

14 Domains involved in the Development of Character F9 Problem Solving - Recognizes that a problem exists (i.e., there is a discrepancy between what is and what should or could be); identifies possible reasons for the discrepancy; devises and implements a plan of action to resolve it; evaluates and monitors progress; and revises plan as indicated by findings.

15 Domains involved in the Development of Character F10 Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye - Organizes and processes symbols, pictures, graphs, objects or other information; for example, sees a building from a blueprint, a system's operation from schematics, the flow of work activities from narrative descriptions, or the taste of food from reading a recipe.

16 Domains involved in the Development of Character Fll Knowing How To Learn - Recognizes and can use learning techniques to apply and adapt new knowledge and skills in both familiar and changing situations and is aware of teaming tools such as personal teaming styles (visual, aural, etc.), formal learning strategies (note taking or clustering items that share some characteristics), and informal teaming strategies (awareness of unidentified false assumptions that may lead to faulty conclusions).

17 Domains involved in the Development of Character Knowing how to Ask Questions, asking the right questions, Research Skills. Knowing how to determine when a topic has been adequately researched

18 Domains involved in the Development of Character F12 Reasoning - Discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship between two or more objects and applies it in solving a problem; uses logic to draw conclusions from available information; extracts rules or principles from a set of objects or written text; applies rules and principles to a new situation or determines which conclusions are correct when given a set of facts and a set of conclusions. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed

19 Domains involved in the Development of Character Psycho-motor Domain: physical skills and the new brain research which tie these together to improve reading and comprehension skills. Kinesthetic movement assists the brain in long-term memory. How many of you have ever been to Grand Canyon? Name a book you read in the fall of your third year in school.

20 Domains involved in the Development of Character. Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: which reflect Blooms cognitive taxonomy.

21 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) – – punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and not getting caught by authority. – Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating. – Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.

22 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 1 Pre-conventional Phase (Egocentric Stage age 4) – – punishment & obedience phase where you are only concerned about yourself and not getting caught by authority. – Fear of punishment dominates motives. One sees outside forces as being dominating. – Actions are judged in terms of their physical consequences….spankings, time in a corner, loss of money….not in terms of right or wrong.

23 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit) – Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me. – Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- you scratch my back and Ill scratch yours – Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.

24 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage 2 (Unquestioning Obedience K-5) One-way concern about another person (how I act so that I will benefit) – Looking out for #1.The basic motive is to satisfy my own needs. I do not consider the needs of others, unless I THINK IT will benefit me. – Sometimes called instrumental/relativist ---- you scratch my back and Ill scratch yours – Motive is to just to STAY OUT OF trouble.

25 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: As people mature, then hopefully we move to more CONVENTIONAL Moral values by performing good or right roles, in maintaining the conventional order, and in meeting others expectations

26 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage III (is call the black & white stage – Concern about groups of people, and conformity to group norms. – There is a two-way relationship (we are good to each other). – Motive is to be a nice guy or gal, to be accepted. – Affection plays a strong role. We will visit the Affective Domain Next. – This stage becomes frustrating because we are always trying to follow everyone elses rules and to please everyone…which of course, cannot be done.

27 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage IV Concern for order in society. Honor & duty come from keeping the rules of society. – The focus is on preserving the society….not just obeying it. – Being Dutiful plays a part here. – During stage IV, the individual looks to rules, laws, or codes for guidance in dilemma situations – the laws have wisdom and are the positive glue of society.

28 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: The final stages deal with a Basis of Judgment – Blooms uses this as his highest level of cognitive thinking.

29 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage V: Is characterized by Autonomy. It is called the social contract, legalistic orientation. – What is right is what the whole society decides. There are no legal absolutes….everyone must agree …then it is OK. – Changes are made in the law for reasons that suit the common or greatest good for the greatest number of people. – This is the problem-solving stage. How to make it work for everyone. – Reasoning at this level requires the ability to think abstractly (to view laws as a system of governance), to weigh competing claims, to take a stand and yet remain open in the future. – This moral level may take place only when children can see more than one POINT OF VIEW..

30 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Stage VI: Universal ethical Principals – Golden Rule. – What is right is a decision of ones conscience, based on ideas about rightness that apply to everyone (all nations, all people) – A higher law. Thou shall not kill. – The most important ethical principles deal with justice, equality, and the dignity of all people. – These principles are higher than any given law….and one has the right to disobey unjust laws. – Saint Augustine said that, an unjust law is no law at all Any law that degrades human personality is unjust.

31 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Kohlberg describes the Golden rule has having two parts. 1. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you and (2) love your neighbor as yourself

32 Kohlbergs Stages *****Note: None of these moral stages (1- 6) are wrong…… an appropriate age level …all people should move through each of these stages… Being stuck at a lower developmental stage while maturing in age, would be undesirable.

33 Kohlbergs Stages We KNOW that lack of development in the Cognitive Domain or even the Physical domain is tragic. We must also see that lack of development is a tragedy in the Moral Development DOMAN.

34 Kohlbergs Stages Inversely, one must be careful not to push children who are not cognitively ready into a stage of moral decision-making for which they are not ready.

35 Kohlbergs Stages It is ridiculous to have small children arguing over moral dilemmas until they have developed a since of right and wrong. One precaution, said Plato, is not to let students taste of arguments while they are young, the danger being that they would develop a taste for arguments rather than a taste for truth. Young minds, like young puppies, said Plato, would only pull and tear at arguments For Plato, it was much more important for young people to learn to love a virtue than to argue about it.

36 Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development: Piaget and Kohlberg believe that social understanding leads to moral motivation

37 Domain of the 7 Intelligences: · Verbal / Linguistic Logical / Mathematical Visual / Spatial · Body / Kinesthetic · Musical / Rhythmic · Intrapersonal (within ones self – reflection, depth of thinking) · Interpersonal (cooperation, negotiation, collaboration – Six Pillars

38 What Character is and What it is NOT Character is what you are when nobody is looking. Character is the result of values and beliefs Character is a habit that becomes second nature Character is not reputation or what others think about you Character is not how much better you are than others Character is NOT RELATIVE

39 Ethics – What it is and What it is NOT Ethics is not always what is done, but what OUGHT to be done.

40 Knowing to do good Children are not born ethical giants They do not learn it by osmosis. Children learn more from what they see, than what they are told. Conflicting ethical values tend to reduce to the lowest common denominator High expectations & Accountability are corner stones for ethical maturity.

41 What Works WHAT WORKS? Social understanding comes through – modeling, – reinforcement, – and an action plan for using education to steer ethical decisions.

42 Social Contract As people come to understand the possibilities and conditions of cooperation, they come to appreciate their part in supporting social arrangements that follow moral principals.

43 Piaget & Kohlberg Believe that education overcomes prejudice, exposure to great minds (literature) fosters social responsibility, and travel (experiential social contact) assists in the broadening of the mind. – Versus Vicarious Experiences of TV & Movies

44 CAUTION: These findings tell us that moral judgment is not a matter of MEMORIZING special terminology, or of mastering certain tricks of argument, or of being able to drop the names of moral philosophers;

45 Rather, Moral judgment reflects basic natural growth of a guided good conscience …if it is not halted by outside circumstances or forces.

46 Research The most fundamental research recognizes the way people naturally formulate their moral judgments has a lot to do with their underlying conceptions of cooperation in social settings.

47 Real Character Development Students might pass a course by memorizing facts and learning empty academic games, but learning moral decision-making involves relating real behavior to decision making in a real- world setting. Integrated over multiple settings….over time

48 Practice Makes Perfect Making good ethical choices is the key to becoming a moral person. Being allowed to make choices is essential then to becoming a person of character.

49 Affective Domain What choices are made & how we FEEL after making those choices is a key feature of our last & final Domain.

50 Affective Domain The Final Domain we will discuss today is the Affective Domain. What is it we want our students to be when they leave our institutions of learning? Children must be taught character with consideration for the appropriate age and mental capacity.

51 What is it that we want them to be able to do? How do we become known as the embodiment of a characteristic, virtue or trait? – Kind – Fair – Gracious – Caring – Trustworthy

52 The Affective Domain. RECEIVING (ATTENDING): A. Awareness B. Willingness C. Controlled or Selected Attention 2. RESPONDING: (Show some NEW behavior) A. Acquiescence B. Willingness C. Satisfaction 3. VALUING: (Show some definite INVOLVEMENT) A. Acceptance B. Preference C. Commitment 4. ORGANIZATION: (Value Clarification - Prioritize) A. Conceptualization B. Organization 5 CHARACTERIZATION (Consistently acting in agreement with a value) A. Generalized Set B. Value Complex

53 The Affective Domain Analyzing what we need to Become and setting Goals for Ourselves.

54 What does not work? Character education arises out of a concern for moral development and being a good person. It is about self-improvement and achieving personal worthiness.

55 Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are: A False sense of self-esteem, which is concerned about how good one, feels about him regardless of how one performs or behaves. It over emphasizes the feeling good and ignores the importance of being good

56 Some issues that defeat a realistic sense of self-improvement are: – What must be remembered is that a genuine sense of self-esteem comes from doing good, and feeling of pride and confidence that follows the actions. – Character education is concerned with adding virtues to ones life.

57 Issues that defeats character education. Some teachers think that by teaching ethics in an indirect manner that children will absorb good character. However, research and good educational practices have proven that children need to have concrete, real-world, direct approaches to new concepts and ideas. The hands-on approach with actual decision- making activities repeatedly over time integrated throughout the curriculum, home life and sports life is needed to fill the character education vacuum. DONT BE SUBTLE!

58 Modeling Is Costly! Children need teachers and parents to model and mentor them in good ethical decision-making. They LEARN by doing. They UNLEARN by watching! – Visual cues, posters, incentives, awards, and stressing of the importance of character building must be pervasive.

59 Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Children need to have habits instilled in them that reflect the virtues – Verbiage is Crucial! Be Nice Be a Gentleman Straighten Up Keep Still Shhhhhhhhh Dont

60 Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Direct instruction with clear messages is needed to develop thinking and problem- solving skills. Stolen Calculator Story Stealing Music from Internet Stealing Projects

61 Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choices Mentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.

62 Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Encouragements and punishments -- consequences must be felt for bad choices Mentoring through teacher, parents, grandparents, employers, coaches, church family, nurturing and directing without fail…. will build convictions and inspire children to have moral ambitions.

63 Talk the Talk & Walk the Talk Dr. Lawrence Kohlberg The first step in raising a moral child is to treat a child morally

64 10 Steps that Work 1. Morality is respect. Teach children to respect themselves, others, and for all forms of life and the environment that sustains life 2. Know that children develop morality slowly and in stages … BE PATIENT…BE PERSISTANT 3. Teach by example-- BE HONEST. Tell them that you are not perfect. That you make mistakes….we are all learning and we can learn together how to make a better society. 4. Teach by telling the TRUTH and clarifying the TRUTH by using concrete examples 5. Help children learn to think and think independently – Encourage reflection and encourage empathy

65 10 Steps that Work 6. Help children to take on real responsibilities 7. Help children to feel valuable – that they make a difference in society – TEACH THEM TO SERVE OTHERS 8. Balance independence and control – guided practice & debriefing – Help children to grow a good conscience instead of anesthetizing their conscience with rationalizations. Remember that we have some very powerful do what we think is best for ourselves, pursuing self- interest, happiness, health, love, sex, security, wealth, status, power – these are natural preoccupations of most people. They must be tempered with self-discipline, tenacity, and courage to do what is right.

66 10 Steps that Work 9. Love children and help them develop a positive self-concept – this will affect their attitude … and attitude is everything – it is ones personal commitment to do what is right, good and proper. Ultimately, ethics is an action concept; it is about conduct and behavior….coming from an inward conviction of what is right & wrong. 10. Explain, explain, explain, teach, teach, teach, every act of misbehavior is a learning event and opportunity. What you permit you condone. What you condone you encourage; what you prohibit you condemn, what you condemn you discourage.

67 Remember! – Be OPEN. Tell kids what you think is important, – BE HONEST, Tell them when you make mistakes… – MENTOR BY EXAMPLE…no one is perfect…we are all struggling to become better all our lives….no one has arrived at perfection…help them to understand that a person of good character works their entire life at building a quality character.

68 Remember! THINK OUTLOUD….help children hear what a person of character thinks about while trying to make a good decision. MODEL Reflection – not only thinking about the past and how to learn from it….but also about future behavior – Olympic Athletes visualize performing each movement for a successful execution and performance

69 Remember! – MOTIVATE & ENCOURAGE – MANAGE behavior…dont ignore it. – Help students to learn self- management techniques …gain independence …and self respect.

70 The Josephson Institute Nonpartisan Aspen Coalition 300 teachers, counselors, ministers, clergymen, psychiatrists, coaches, social workers. Non-negotiables Reduced to lowest set of ideals 6 Pillars of Character

71 6 Pillars Respect Responsibility Citizenship – Civic Duty Fairness Caring Trustworthiness

72 RESPECT The essence of respect is to show solemn regard for the worth of people, including oneself. The ethical duty is to treat everyone with respect – not to respect everyone in the sense that we admire them.

73 RESPECT Treating people with respect means letting them know that their safety, and happiness matter, that they are important and worthy simply because they are fellow human beings. Lubemire

74 RESPECT Our duty to be respectful requires that we treat others with courtesy and consideration It means we behave according to accepted notions of taste, propriety, and decency. It means we honor traditions, customs, and beliefs important to others. People are not things

75 RESPECT All of us have a basic right to be treated with dignity The well-being of all people is important; no person should be used simply as an instrument of anothers needs.

76 RESPECT Live by the Golden Rule Respect others dignity, privacy, freedom, and possessions Be Courteous and Polite Be Tolerant and Accepting of Differences Respect the autonomy of others

77 RESPECT DOES NOT Use or manipulate others Abuse, demean or mistreat anyone Pre-judge or discriminate against others

78 RULE of RESPECT All individuals are important and the well-being of each is a moral end in itself; never treat others as simply the means for your own gain or gratification.

79 RULE of RESPECT Respect is Given NOT demanded How do we demonstrate Respect? (T Chart) – To Friends? – To Parents? – To Teachers? – To Strangers?

80 Characteristics of RESPECT Tolerance Acceptance Autonomy Privacy Nonviolence Courteous Polite Concerned

81 Famous Quotes about RESPECT The honor we receive from those that fear us, is not honor Montaigne Essays ( ) Respect gained by fear is not real; it is only an empty pretense that turns to contempt the moment the threat disappears Michael Josephson Respect, like love, has value only when it is given freely and out of genuine feelings. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you Jesus Christ

82 Rule of Universality Do only those acts which you are willing to allow to become universal standards of behavior applicable to all people in similar situations. Ask yourself, If everyone did it would it be a good thing?

83 Application I will treat you like a gentleman, not because you are one, but because I am one

84 Application In Groups of 4 Build a T Chart --- Teachers Respect to Students Label 1 side What it does not look like Label 2 side What it does look like

85 Responsibility Life is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.

86 Responsibility Responsibility requires us to recognize that what we doand what we dont do– matters, and that we are morally responsible for the consequences of our choices.

87 Responsibility Responsibility means being accountable for what we do and who we are. Everyone is responsible for the development of his or her personal character.

88 Responsibility We cant choose whether we are good looking, smart or athletic. We cant choose our parents or the circumstances in which we grow up. But all of us choose how to deal with the outrages and opportunities of life. From these choices, our character is formed

89 Responsibility Choosing NOT to choose is a choice. Some of our choices are conscious and some are not. We choose whether to be conscious and concerned about the consequences of what we say and do, including the choice to be willfully blind.

90 Responsibility Do Your Duty Be Accountable Pursue Excellence Exercise Self-Control Acknowledge and meet your legal and moral obligations

91 Responsibility Life is full of choices…Being responsible means being in charge of our choices, and thus, our lives.

92 Responsibility - TERMS Duty Laws Contracts Promises Job Descriptions Relationship Obligations Universal Ethical Principles Religious Convictions Accountability Diligence Reaching Goals Positive Outlook Prudent Rational Time Management Resource Management Teamwork Financial Independence Self-motivated

93 Responsibility Everything we do makes a difference What we do and what we say starts a chain reaction that affects the lives of others Decisions Activity.

94 Responsibility Work Ethic – There is an ethical dimension to good work habits – the work ethic – when others depend on us to show up on time, prepared and ready to do our work and dedicated to stick with the job unit it is done.

95 Dimensions of Responsibility Accountability. Our ability to reason and freedom to choose makes us morally autonomous and, therefore, accountable for our choices.

96 Responsibility Duty. We are bound by principles of morality to make choices that honor rather than degrade universal ethical obligations to be trustworthy, respectful, responsible, fair, caring, and good citizens Nuremburg Trials. 9/11 and Student

97 Responsibility Dont blame others Dont buy into being a victim Pursue excellence and take pride in everything you do Do the best you can with what you have. No excuses.

98 Look Out for Excuses Thats just the way I am We are what we choose to be, nothing less and nothing more. Its not my fault Could I have done something that would have mattered?

99 Responsibility Its not my job Our moral duties often go beyond specific job responsibilities. It was legal Legal does not always mean morally correct.

100 Responsibility Your living is determined not so much by what life brings to you as by the attitude you bring to life; not so much by what happens to you as by the way your mind looks at what happens. -- John Homer Miller

101 Responsibility We are responsible for our attitudes.

102 Responsibility Our attitudes propel us forward towards our victories or bog us down in defeat. They are what others see most of the personality within us; they describe us and define us, projecting the image we present to the world.

103 Responsibility Our attitudes make us rich or poor, happy or unhappy, fulfilled or incomplete. They are the single most determining factor in every action we will ever make. We and our attitudes are inextricably combined. We are our attitudes and our attitudes are us. --Shad Helmstetter

104 Responsibility Blaming the wolf would not help the sheep much. The sheep must learn not to fall into the clutches of the wolf. – Mahatma Gandhi The buck stops here – Harry Truman

105 Responsibility Duty is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more. You should never wish to do less. -- Robert E. Lee

106 Responsibility Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it. -- Abraham Lincoln

107 Responsibility To ignore evil is to become an accomplice to it. -- Martin Luther King, Jr. Destiny is not a matter of chance, it is a matter of choice; it is not a thing to be waited for it is a thing to be achieved.– William Jennings Bryan

108 Responsibility If you are not part of the solution, you are part of the problem. The price of greatness is responsibility. – Winston Churchill Knowledge is power. Knowledge plus character is super power. – Houston police officer

109 Civic Duty -- Citizenship Civic virtues refer to conduct that is desirable and praiseworthy but not morally mandated. Citizenship are the duties, rights, conduct and responsibilities of the citizen of a state. Respecting the rules, laws, and property of the state and doing your share to preserve them is your honest share in citizenship.

110 Civic Duty -- Citizenship What is a veteran? Words to Star Spangled Banner and God Bless America Discussing the words in the Pledge of Allegiance Service Projects

111 Civic Duty -- Citizenship Civic duty implies obligations to contribute to the overall public good. It refers to ethical obligations, standards of conduct that establish minimal requirements of ethical citizenship Playing by the rules, obeying the law, and paying all taxes Participating in the democratic process by voting, serving on a jury, reporting crimes, and testifying as a witness.

112 Civic Duty – Doing Your Share Protect the environment by conserving resources and minimizing waste and pollution. Being a good citizen and a good neighbor. Care about and pursue the common good. Be a volunteer – help your school and community be better, cleaner and safer Participating, voting, sharing your opinion, serving on committees, reporting wrongdoing, and paying taxes.

113 Civic Duty – Obeying the Law The Vital Social Contract that makes a democracy work is the agreement that we will be governed by laws. Rules of Engagement – running naked in the woods Each of us gives up some personal freedom in order to achieve collective benefits of orderliness, economic stability, personal safety, and justice.

114 Civic Duty – Obeying the Law In a democracy we deal with unwise or unpleasant rules by changing the rules, not by disobedient conduct. Compliance to immoral laws? – universal standards – walk through the six pillars, then act

115 Civic Duty -- Citizenship Enforcement policies do NOT determine the validity of the law – if no one sees you, its OK. Just because you have ACCESS, does NOT give you the right to STEAL. What about Downloading Music from the Internet?.

116 Civic Duty -- Citizenship Running for office, accepting appointments to office, working for candidates or issues. Giving time and / or money to charitable and other social causes.

117 Civic Duty -- Citizenship Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country. --John Fitzgerald Kennedy

118 Fairness First of ALL: It is much more difficult to know what is fair than what is unfair. A just person is never knowingly unfair Michael Josephson Being Fair is a moral obligation Treat ALL people fairly Listen to others & try to understand what they are feeling and saying. Rushing judgment is UNFAIR.

119 Fairness Unfortunately, one mans justice is another mans injustice; one mans beauty anothers ugliness; one mans wisdom anothers folly --Ralph Waldo Emerson

120 Fairness Consider all the facts, including opposing views, before making decisions Make impartial decisions, using the same criteria, rules, or standards for everyone Correct your mistakes in judgment

121 UNFairness Dont take advantage of other peoples mistakes or ignorance Dont take more than your fair share Dont let personal preferences, prejudice or other feelings improperly interfere with decisions which should be based on merit.

122 Fairness Maturity is the ability to analyze & evaluate fairly after listening to all the facts & differing points of view.

123 Fairness 3 Volunteers Job Interview 1. What is your name? 2. What is your favorite color? 3. Do you have a pet? 4. What color are your eyes? 5. Can you type?

124 Fairness Rewarding or Punishing indiscriminately is unfair and causes prejudice in society. What does Fairness & Unfairness Sound Like / Look Like Activity: Build a T Chart

125 PERSPECTIVES ON JUSTICE Small fish --- There is NO justice Medium fish – There is SOME justice Big fish – The world IS JUST. The innocent love justice, everyone else prefers mercy. -- Michael Josephson

126 Fairness All virtue is summed up in dealing justly – Aristotle To receive instruction in wise behavior, Righteousness, justice and equity; Bible, Prov 1:3 Learn to do good; Seek justice; Bible, Isa 1:17

127 Fairness It is not what a lawyer tells me I may do; but what humanity, reason and justice tell me I ought to do. --Edmund Burke

128 Basic Rules of UNFairness It is unfair to impose punishment that is disproportionate to the offence. Motives are important. Intentional violations and unintentional mistakes should be considered differently It is unfair to handle similar matters inconsistently. When possible extenuating factors should be explicitly acknowledged as part of the statement of policy.

129 Basic Rules of UNFairness Legally Mandated Favoritism. Sometimes these are mandated to correct historic patterns, but whenever possible there should be equality among ALL people. It is unfair to make a judgment that favors or discriminates against individuals based on improper factors. Nepotism. Criteria for employment or promotion should be applied to everyone alike.

130 Basic Rules of UNFairness So many factors can go into the notion of a fair judgment, that oftentimes, we do not know what is truly fair. We do, however, know what is unfair, and our first obligation is to avoid being unfair.

131 Establishing Fairness in the Classroom Respect Self Respect Others (privacy, possessions, humanity, differences) Respect Education Respect the Environment – Dont pollute my air, listen to music with headphones Respect Resources (If you teach it, you can grade it) – Breaking pencils, erasers, throwing paper clips, staples – Playing games on computer instead of being productive

132 Six Theories of Substantive Fairness Merit Need Might Equality Seniority Effort

133 Theories of Fairness EFFORT – a person is entitled to more if he/she tries harder irrespective of talent, ability, or need SENIORITY – a person is entitled to more if he/she has been there longer irrespective of merit, need, power, or effort EQUALITY – a person is entitled to an equal share irrespective of merit, need, power, or effort

134 Theories of Fairness MIGHT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can acquire irrespective of merit, need, or effort. Power determines what a person deserves; might makes right. NEED – a person is entitled to whatever he/she needs. In a just system, everyone will have what they need. Excess above needs can be distributed by any other theory of justice.

135 Theories of Fairness MERIT – a person is entitled to whatever he/she can earn or acquire based on skill, talent, and /or hard work. Persons with little skill, talent or hard work are not entitled to anything except what they need.

136 3 Rules to Fair Decisions First, since disagreement and criticism are inevitable, we must content ourselves with reaching fair decisions based on personal conscience and ethical justifiable standards. If you need to be liked or approved of by everyone, avoid accepting responsibility that requires tough choices. Charges of unfairness come with the territory.

137 3 Rules to Fair Decisions SECOND, we should be clear in our own minds about the CRITERIA used for making judgments. It is ONLY FAIR if EVERYONE knows the criteria beforehand. THIRD, the PROCEDURES used to weigh a decision must be and appear to be fair. These procedures should be a matter of record. (Common knowledge)

138 Fairness The wide variety of approaches to fairness means that for every decision there will be people who will claim it is unfair.

139 Procedural Fairness 1. Fair Notice 2. Impartiality 3. Gather of the Facts 4. Fair Hearing

140 Fair Notice Have the rules been posted? Has the person been given fair warning? Is the person unaware of the rule?

141 Impartiality Is the judgment based on the CRITERIA ? Have conclusion be made based on facts and clear evidence? Has all the information been considered? Are the conclusion clear?

142 Gather Facts Has judgment been suspended until all the opposing sides have been given time to give their statements? Have you gathered facts without undo embarrassment or disclosing your suspicions to others? Are there ambiguities that can be clarified?

143 Fair Hearing Has everyone been given time and due process for a fair disclosure of their side of the story? Has right of confrontation been given to the accused Has everyone been allowed to explain, listen, and understand?

144 Decision-Making Decisions should be made and should appear to be made, carefully, honestly and objectively, with the knowledge that even a process of the greatest integrity does not always produce certainty. PROCESS & RESULTS must be FAIR

145 Decision-Making Even though the underlying concepts of fairness and justice are simple, almost intuitive, applying them in real life proves very difficult Discussions among students on the Definitions, Process, and Results will help them to better understand both the importance and the effort needed in practicing FAIRNESS

146 Decision-Making You are an employer who for budget reasons has to let go of one employee. What is FAIR? Who do you let go?

147 Decision-Making Able, your newest employee who is young and unmarried is your best producer. He gets more work done effectively than any other employee Nettie is a competent worker of four years, a single mother with 3 small children at home, she needs the job most Oldham has worked for the company for the longest, for 18 years and is two years away from retirement Tryhard is a good producer with terrific attitude and the hardest worker you have Nepo, a competent employee is the son of one of the owners of the company.

148 Caring Caring is the GLUE of society Without CARING we are less than moral beings

149 Caring Caring is the GLUE of society Without CARING we are less than moral beings Compassion Kindness Consideration Charity

150 Caring Caring takes TIME & ACTION Teach children to love their family, friends, and community. Separate the person from the behavior or choices the person has made. ACTIVITY: Draw a picture of caring.

151 Caring A person of character is empathetic, helpful, considerate, and compassionate. A caring person is one who strives to make life better for ALL people A caring person helps people in need Is NOT mean, critical, hurtful or insensitive

152 Caring Make a list of things a caring person might do

153 Trustworthiness Integrity = wholeness, predictable, consistent in thoughts, words, and actions, not two faced. Honesty = sincerity, real, not hypocritical Promise Keeping = accountable to promises that have been made

154 Trustworthiness Loyalty = benefit of the doubt to those who you have a relationship with. Sincerity = not trying to trap or make fun of others honest feelings. Essential for meaningful personal relationships that are rewarding & enduring & successful associations in school, social activities & workplace.

155 Trustworthiness From your own experience: What kinds of words or actions build or undermine trust?

156 Trustworthiness People of character understand the importance of trust and pursue a life that makes them worthy of trust. Even small lies & deceptions can topple towers of trust. Towers of trust are built stone by stone, yet no tower is so tall or so strong that it can stand when lies & deception undermine its base. Integrity is moral wholeness demonstrated by a consistency of thoughts, words, deed, and duties.

157 Trustworthiness Beliefs: People with integrity listen to their conscience Words: Have the courage to say what is right or wrong Actions: Dont do anything they think is wrong.

158 Trustworthiness Moral Obligations – are not hypocrites. Their sense of duty to what is good. A person of integrity has a wholeness like a whole number --- it is undivided, complete. There are not dark pieces hiding out of sight. Integrity requires a discerning conscience that acts with good character regardless of personal cost, proclaiming openly the reason you act is on your understanding of right from wrong. There are no hidden agendas, to forked tongue, and not looking to judge.

159 Trustworthiness Integrity requires both being true to oneself & living up to ones highest and best personal values with courage and self discipline. How does one always act with integrity? A person with integrity is not reflex oriented. They are self-reflection oriented so they have thought clearly and act accordingly. A person of integrity consistently behaves according to firm convictions about right & wrong.

160 Trustworthiness Living up to good principles means that we always do what is right even when doing so will not get us something we want or will keep us our of trouble. It is right to do right even if no one else is doing it. Ethics is not for wimps! It takes moral courage to hold onto important values even in the face of criticism, embarrassment or pressure to do otherwise.

161 Trustworthiness Honesty requires that one looks at all the facts. Communication & Conduct are the two keystones of honesty. Communication requires that one does not stay willingly blind. Candor, openness, and truthfulness lead to understanding. Understanding leads to conduct that is becoming of an honest person. Cheating, stealing, sneaky behavior, deceitfulness are acts that demean one character. An honest person will not keep silent when silence is intended to cause another person to believe something that is not true.

162 Trustworthiness A lie has speed, but the truth has endurance. To a liar the lie is a means to manipulate. To one being lied to a lie is a manipulation. Promise Keeping: Do not make promises that you cannot or should not keep. The lack of promise keeping will make you loose respect for yourself. Good work habits demand reliability. Do not over book yourself so that you have to break good habits or destroy someones trust in you.

163 Trustworthiness Loyalty: to stand by the relationships that you have made. Give examples of Moral Dilemmas using "Trustworthiness".

164 Trustworthiness Self Quiz How do you rate yourself? 1. Tell the truth even when it may cost me. Yes No 2. Being sincere -- not being deceptive, tricky or sneaky. Yes No 3. Being candid and forthright, volunteering information others need or want to know. Yes No 4. Honoring another's property (not stealing). Never taking what is not mine. Yes No

165 TEACHING CHARACTER If you TEACH it, you can GRADE it What gets Rewarded, gets Repeated How do you reward RESPECT in your school? If praising virtues and condemning vices does not take place – you will betray one and encourage the other.

166 TEACHING CHARACTER It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing - delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards. It takes COURAGE to do the right thing. Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.

167 TEACHING CHARACTER It is easier to be bad because being right is self sacrificing - delays gratification and depends on the long run for rewards. It takes COURAGE to do the right thing. Must show heroes who have succeeded in self-sacrificing and still succeed in life.

168 TEACHING CHARACTER Must distinguish between the human being and the behavior. – Child can fail math and still be a valuable person – When a person has a clear sense of dignity and self value, they can respect and care for others. – Teachers must avoid shaming techniques when addressing behavior management.


170 5 Levels of Mastery






176 Membership ListServ Newsletters Conferences Website Updates & Issues through District Membership is $45

177 Community Integration Involve all areas of the community Involve parents Involve businesses Have a systemic Plan


179 Arp Website

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