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Texas ASCDs Boot Camp for Curriculum Administrators Dr. John A. Crain.

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1 Texas ASCDs Boot Camp for Curriculum Administrators Dr. John A. Crain

2 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 2 GUIDING QUESTIONS 1.What is curriculum? 2.Whats wrong with using the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) as a district/campus curriculum? Why arent they sufficient? 3.How do you use the TEKS as a framework for developing district/campus specific curriculum? 4. What are some processes for developing district or campus- specific curriculum within the TEKS framework? 5.What really is alignment? 6.How do you create and structure knowledge and skills within a curriculum document? 7.What are the options and processes for designing units of instruction?

3 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 3 WHAT IS CURRICULUM?

4 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 4 How What Why Differences Between Curriculum and Instruction

5 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 5 The WHAT – Content Standards--the stuff Knowledge – ConceptsCognitive Curriculum – Data/Facts Skills Attitudes Values Affective Curriculum Beliefs Judgments Strength Endurance Psychomotor Curriculum Coordination

6 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 6 The WHY – Performance Standardsthe result, outcome, objective, etc. What we want students to do with the stuff. The complexity or sophistication with which we want students to do something with the stuffthe Application / Analysis / Synthesis / Evaluation of Blooms.

7 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 7 HOW? The instruction – What the teacher will do to teach – What the students will do to learn Instructional activities The organization and sequence of content and activities. The processes through which the students will learn the curriculum.

8 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 8 Our Focus--Cognitive Curriculum: Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Knowledge – Concepts – Data/Facts Cognitive Skills WHAT?

9 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 9 The WHAT is non-negotiable. The WHY is non-negotiable. The HOW is negotiable within limits: The children learn what that are supposed to learn. They are treated with courtesy and dignity. The paint generally stays on the walls. The teacher is accountable for students learning the curriculum. Negotiable vs. Non-negotiable

10 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 10 Common Errors in Curriculum Development Lining up the TEKS and then assuming you have an aligned curriculum Trying to do too many of the steps at one time The checklist phenomenon--writing instruction and backloading curriculum Beginning with horizontal alignment

11 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 11 Major Elements of Curriculum Development 1. Vertical alignment of each sequence of student expectations, including the articulation of specific content standards 2. Organizing the aligned student expectations into bundles--into rational, coherent units of instruction, including time lines (e.g., by 6- weeks or by a discrete number of days) 3. Creating exemplar instruction for all or some percentage of the units of instruction

12 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 12 Whats Wrong With The Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills As A Curriculum Document? The TEKS are a framework for curriculum developmentNOT the curriculum. The TEKS are broad expectations for student learning (The student is expected to….). The TEKS lack specificity. The TEKS are not organized into rational, coherent units of instruction with recommended time lines

13 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 13 Such as… and Including… The content standard for student expectations is articulated in the such as… and including… statementsthe specific academic content (the What) that students will learn. Such as… means that the given content is negotiable. Including… means that the given content is non-negotiable.

14 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 14 The Case for Specificity Assumption: Every Student Expectation should have an including... statement.

15 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 15 The Critical Questions Are both the content standard and performance standard sufficiently specific that: 1. Would a new teacher know exactly what students are supposed to learn and at what level they are to demonstrate that learning? 2. Could a test item writer construct a test item that would be aligned with that learning?

16 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 16 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 1: Specificity Third-Grade (105 Student Expectations) * Unique Examples

17 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 17 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 1: Specificity Seventh-Grade (138 Student Expectations) * Unique Examples

18 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 18 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 1: Specificity Twelfth-Grade (121 Student Expectations) * Unique Examples

19 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 19 ELA mechanics TEKS without examples/specificationsa lined up curriculum #1 st Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications #4 th Grade TEKS Examples / Specification s #8 th Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications 1.17 G (b) use basic punctuation 4.16 B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning 8.1 6B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning

20 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 20 Science TEKS without examples / specifications– a lined up curriculum #2 nd Grade TEKS Examples / Specifications #3 rd Grade TEKS Examples / Specifications #4 th Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications 2. 9 A identify external characteristics of plants and animals that allow basic needs to be met 3.9A3.9A observe and identify characteristics that allow survival 4.8A4.8A identify characteristics that allow members of a species to survive and reproduce

21 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 21 ELA mechanics TEKS with examples / specificationsan aligned curriculum #1 st Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications #4 th Grade TEKS Examples / Specifications #8 th Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications 1.17 G (b) use basic punctuation including period at the end of a sentence 4.16 B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning Including possessives, commas in a series, commas in direct address, apostrophe in contraction (such as wont, theres, its)., and hyphens in two part numbers (such as twenty- six) B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning including using hyphens with compound adjectives before nouns, compounding numerals with other words, with fractions before adjectives, with titles compounded with ex and elect, and with other compound words that need hyphens …

22 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 22 Science TEKS with examples / specificationsan aligned curriculum #2 nd Grade TEKS Examples / Specifications #3 rd Grade TEKS Examples / Specifications #4 th Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications 2. 9 A identify external characteristics of plants and animals that allow basic needs to be met including plant reproduction and parts of seeds 3.9A 3.9A observe and identify characteristics that allow survival including specific functions of the leaf and seed (flowering and non flowering plants) 4.8A 4.8A identify characteristics that allow members of a species to survive and reproduce including non flowering plants (fungi, mold, mildew) and woody vs. non- woody stemmed plants

23 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 23 The TEKS are disjointed (i.e., they are arranged in strands, not in coherent units of instruction.

24 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 24 Texas History Strands History Geography Economics Government Citizenship Culture Science, technology, and society Social studies skills

25 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 25 STEP #1: Vertical Alignment (Scope) WHY? Assure Equity Provide a Rational System Reduce Gaps and Unproductive Redundancies

26 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 26 Equity Quality Assurance To The Community The State of Texas says, through TEKS: It doesn't matter whether you live in Highland Park, El Paso, Houston, San Antonio, or The Rio Grande Valley. The State of Texas guarantees that your 10th grader will have the opportunity to learn "X." Your ISD must say: It doesn't matter which attendance zone (campus) you live in. Our ISD guarantees that your 4th grader will have the opportunity to learn "X" It doesnt matter whose 7 th grade Texas History class you are in, you will have the opportunity to learn x.

27 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 27 Rational System Is your district a confederacy of independent school districts or a single system? We Are Either: – a rational system, with a vertically-aligned curriculum for all campuses or – an irrational system in which no one part knows (or cares) what other parts of the system are doing.

28 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 28 Alignment Makes Education in Your I.S.D. a System - continued Teachers Are Part of a System – Schools cannot be one-room schools located side- by-side along a common hallway. – Teachers are not independent subcontractors--we have a responsibility to deliver the goods. (knowledge and skills) that the system says we are to deliver.

29 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 29 Reduce Gaps and Unproductive Redundancies in Knowledge and Skills Critical In Mathematics – Do we progress through division in a rational way, based on TEKS? – Do we know at what grade level division using two- digit divisors is taught? – What prerequisite skills must be mastered before teaching division using two-digit divisors? At what grade level are those skills introduced and mastered?

30 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 30 Reduce Gaps of Knowledge and Skills - continued Desirable In Literature – Are we teaching literature, or are we reading stories? – There are six sub-sets of the short story: Satire Historical Mystery Gothic Science Fiction/Fantasy Realistic

31 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 31 Reduce Gaps of Knowledge and Skills - continued Desirable In Literature (continued) – Which kinds of short stories do we want students to read as they advance through the curriculum? – At which grade level will that particular kind of short story be introduced? – Will that particular kind of short story be studied again? If so, at what grade levels? – Do we use a consistent set of language, 12-K in teaching the critical attributes of that genre of literature? If "character" is one of those attributes, do all teachers, 12- K, use the same set of language in teaching character (e-g.. types of characters: protagonist, antagonist, narrator, foil, stenotype?

32 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 32 Reduce Gaps of Knowledge and Skills - continued Desirable In Literature (continued) – Do we consciously choose, teach, and emphasize specific comprehension strategies (e.g. monitoring when comprehension breaks down, making connections?) – Are we using expository and narrative reading as models for writing (e.g. problem/solution organization, sequential, order of importance).

33 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 33 Reduce Unproductive Redundancies How many time do students need to read Charlottes Web or James and the Giant Peach? How many times do they need to do the plant unit? How many times do they need to make Pilgrim hats and Pilgrim collars? Do all students need to spend the 1 st six weeks reviewing the previous years instruction?

34 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 34 Aligned vs. Lined Up Until the district addresses the issue of specificity, it can only produce a lined-up curriculum,– not an aligned curriculum.

35 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 35 The Universe of Possibilities In determining the specific content standard, it is desirable that someone at the table know the universe of possibilities a real content expert.

36 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 36 #1 st Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications #4 th Grade TEKS Examples / Specification s #8 th Grade TEKS Examples/ Specifications 1.17 G (b) use basic punctuation 4.16 B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning 8.1 6B (b) punctuate correctly to clarify and enhance meaning ELA mechanics TEKS without examples/specifications

37 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 37 The Universe of Punctuation quotation marks (9 rules) hyphen (7 rules) dash (4 rules) parentheses brackets ellipsis dots period (2 rules) question mark (3 rules) quotation mark (1 rule) comma (23 rules) colon (4 rules) semicolon (6 rules) apostrophe (2 rules) Thirteen Punctuation Marks

38 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 38 The Universe of Comma Rules items in a series city/state day/year quotations greeting of a letter nominative of address compound sentence complex sentence compound/complex sentence with Sr., Jr., Ill, etc. two adjectives that modify same noun Appositive with, too, also, yes, wall, etc. with yes, no, why, well, etc used at the beginning of a sentence phrases in a series inverted names in a list to separate name from academic degree to set off contrasted words, phrases, clauses to set off transitional words or expressions introductory prepositional phrase introductory participial or absolute phrase restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses to set off words, phrases, and clauses that would otherwise be unclear

39 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 39 Taxonomy of Literature

40 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 40 Taxonomy of Literature No pattern or reoccurrence of rhythm, rhyme, meter; sentence form Reoccurrence of rhythm, rhyme, meter; verse form

41 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 41 Taxonomy of Literature Not completely factual Plot Setting Character Mood Theme Conflict Point of View

42 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 42 Taxonomy of Literature Plot (long)Plot (short) Plot Performed Theme (explain nature or human nature)

43 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 43 Taxonomy of Literature Theme (ridicule, scorn; failings of individual or society) Theme (explains history) Plot, setting characters based on history Mood (suspense) Plot (structure to solution) Theme (romance, adventure) Characters (idealized) Setting (improbable or nonrealistic) Characters (frequently exaggerated) Plot, setting, and characters are all plausible Not completely factual Plot Setting Character Mood Theme Conflict Point of View

44 ©2002, John A. Crain, Ed.D 44 Grad e TEK S# Student ExpectationSample / Specification 4.10(L) represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8). Students observe teacher in a think aloud process, work together and individually using: A web to represent the characteristics of a character An outline to represent process steps/chronology (capital letter plus numbers 1 – 4) A chart to represent a chronology of events 5.10(L) represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8). Students observe teacher in a think aloud process, work together and individually using: Web: Characteristics of a character Web: Causes of a Characters Actions Venn Diagram: Comparison/Contrast of Traits/Characteristics of Two Characters 6.10(L) represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8) Including outlines, timelines, and graphic organizers. REPRESENTING TEXT GRAPHICALLY 45

45 ©2002, John A. Crain, Ed.D 45 Grad e TEK S# Student ExpectationSample / Specification 7.10(L) represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8) Students observe teacher in a think aloud process, work together and individually using: Chart: A Main Idea supported by given details Venn Diagram: Comparison/Contrast of Two Texts (newspaper article and letter to the editor) Outline: Attributes of an even (1 Roman numeral, 1 capital letter, 3 numbers) Chart: To Obtaining Information Web: Chronology of Events 8.10(L) represent text information in different ways such as in outline, timeline, or graphic organizer (4-8) Students observe teacher in a think aloud process, work together and individually using: Outline: Classifying ideas (Roman numeral, capital letter plus numbers 1 – 2) Outline: Classifying ideas (Roman numeral, capital letter plus numbers 1 – 4) REPRESENTING TEXT GRAPHICALLY 46

46 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 46 How Do You Accomplish Vertical Alignment? Alignment document is a technical, quality control documentnot a document from which teachers plan daily/weekly instruction. Configuration of Design Teams: 12-K teacher teams with a facilitator who has a deep knowledge of the discipline and the grade level (Exception: social studies which may be K-3, 4-7, 5/8/U.S. History, 6/World History/World Geography. Facilitator may be: – District content specialists – External to the district (ESCs, district collaboratives/co-ops) – Teachers who are content experts Someone must be an expert at group facilitation

47 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 47 How Do You Accomplish Vertical Alignment? (continued) Task: Define/give specific examples of the TEKS, sufficient that a teacher new to the profession or to your school district would know precisely what to teach and a test item writer would know what to test. The TEKS performance standards (the verbs) rarely need changing at this stage. The content standards are frequently vague and need definition. In defining a content standard, the best definitions will come by beginning with the universe of possibilities. (Thats why so much content expertise is needed in the process.)

48 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 48 Caveats… K-8 vertical alignment and 9-12 vertical alignment are rather straightforwardthe TEKS frameworks are identical and charts like the science and math charts from the Dana Center line up the TEKS. Alignment of grades K-8 with grades 9-12 is somewhat problematic.

49 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 49 Alignment between K-8 and fragments into discrete, sometimes disconnected courses (e.g., Algebra I and Geometry; Biology and Chemistrysome TEKS alignment; others do not) 2.K-12 alignment is challenging except in terms of aligning big concepts and/or unless a discipline (e.g., chemistry) asks the question What foundation experiences do we want students to have somewhere in the K-8 science journey?--a whole different process.

50 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 50 A Possible Role for 9-12 Teachers in the K-8 Alignment Process A physics expert can sometimes be helpful in advising the K-8 team on the universe of possibilities for each TEKS as well as the foundation experiences in physics concepts. Caveat: Beware the danger of the we-know- what-we-are-doing-and-you-dont phenomenon.

51 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 51 Alignment of Process Skills Aligning process skills like those in science and social studies should probably be left to the end as you begin Step #2, bundling of student expectations--unit construction and time lines. The process skills take on meaning and specificity only when applied to other academic content.

52 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 52 Step #2: Bundling Student Expectations to Create Rational Coherent Units of Instruction The vertical alignment document produced in Step #1 was a technical, quality control document. It was not the document that teachers will use to plan daily/weekly instruction. The individual student expectation now must be bundled into rational, coherent units of instruction with a time line (6-weeks, discrete number of days).

53 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 53 Putting the Aligned Student Back Together: What will be frontloaded to drive the unit? History Geography Economics Government Citizenship Culture Science, technology, and society Social studies skills

54 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 54 Putting the Aligned Student Back Together: What will be frontloaded to drive the unit? Reading Literary Elements & Response Writing Thinking Listen/Speaking Viewing/Representing

55 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 55 Activity What are all of the issues which must be considered and addressed in designing a unit of instruction? 1. Answer the question for yourself. 2. Find a Learning Buddy 3. Pair share to compare and contrast your responses.

56 ©2002, John A. Crain, Ed.D 56 Unit Template SubjectGrade6 WeeksEstimated Time Frame TEKS / Student Expectations:Examples / Specifications: Language of Instruction:Instructional Resources / Textbook Correlations: Weblinks / Other Resources: External Assessment:Local Assessment: Best Instruction:

57 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 57 Why include The Language of Instruction Consistency of instruction Critical for economically disadvantaged and second language learners

58 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 58 Adding The Language of Instruction Example: Unique instructional vocabulary that the district wants all math teachers to use. Example: Big Concepts and their critical attributes around which the district wants to build curricular units at each grade level. Example: TAKS language

59 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 59 Critical Attributes in Concept- Based Curriculum Those things (i.e., characteristics, traits) about the concept that never change. Those things (i.e., characteristics, traits) about the concept that make it different/unique from other concepts. -Madeline Hunter Example: mammal

60 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 60 So what? Why are critical attributes important? Why should they be included in the Language of Instruction as part of a curriculum document?

61 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 61 Identifying and Teaching The Critical Attributes of A Concept (or Skill) Are Essential Because…. The concept remains abstract for many learners unless it can be made more concrete. Generating examples/non-examples in a meaningful way depends on critical attributes. The critical attributes are the generalizations, principles, and rules that Jacobs, Tomlinson, Garmston, McTighe, and others talk about. Adds depth, complexity, connectivity, and consistency of language.

62 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 62 CHANGE CRITICAL ATTRUBUTE a characteristic of all change I. All change involves the alteration of one or more of the attributes of the original. A. The alteration of some attributes is through elimination. B. The alteration of some attributes is through addition C. The alteration of some attributes is through rearranging D. The alteration of some attributes is through modification II. All changes have one or more causes. A. The causes of some change are controlled/uncontrolled B. The causes of some change are internal C. The causes of some change are external D. The causes of some change are known/unknown DISTINGUISHING ATTRIBUTES characteristics that makes one change different from other changes

63 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 63 CRITICAL ATTRUBUTE a characteristic of all change DISTINGUISHING ATTRIBUTES characteristics that makes one change different from other changes III. Change occurs according to a process. A. Some change processes are cyclical. B. Some change processes are linear. C. Some change processes are incremental (steps/degrees). IV. All changes have one or more effects. A. The effects/results/consequences of some changes are unknown. B. The effects /results / consequences of some changes are predictable / unpredictable. C. The effects of some changes are preventable/ not preventable. D. The effects of some changes are positive, negative, or neutral. CHANGE Working draft from Parkland HS, Ysleta ISD, El Paso

64 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 64 Identifying Critical Attributes of a Concept There is a seven-step, inductive process for identifying the critical attributes. The process will fill in the blanks of the template below. [These are the process steps for forming generalizations (an inductive thinking process.)] I. All (concept) have/are _______. A. Some (concept) have/are_____ B. Some (concept) have/are_____ C. Some (concept) have/are_____ II.. All (concept) have/are _______ A. Some (concept) have/are_____ B. Some (concept) have/are_____ C. Some (concept) have/are_____ III. All (concept) have/are _______. A. Some (concept) have/are_____ B. Some (concept) have/are_____ C. Some (concept) have/are_____ IV. All (concept) have/are _______ A. Some (concept) have/are_____ B. Some (concept) have/are_____ C. Some (concept) have/are_____

65 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 65 In general, units of instruction will be built around the teaching learning of concepts and cognitive skills. Analytical Thinking Skills… cognitive processes that deepen understanding…. (Examples: categorizing, classifying). Critical Thinking Skills…thinking skills that are used to analyze and evaluate data and evidence in order to develop, judge the effectiveness of, or respond to an argument or position. (Examples: inductive thinking, determining bias, judging the accuracy of information). Executive Processes… cognitive processes that are involved in synthesizing, generalizing, and applying knowledge. {Examples: summarizing, metacognition, generalizing). Creative Thinking Skills… skills that are involved in creative production. What are cognitive skills? (Tomlinson, Carol Ann et al. The Parallel Curriculum, National Association for Gifted Children and Corwin Press, 2002.)

66 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 66 Even though we talk about concepts and skills as two distinct issues, behind every skill there is a concept. A skill usually involves following process steps and/or rules. 2 / 3 1 / 2 = _____

67 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 67 Activity - Concepts Behind the Skills 1. Find a Learning Buddy. 2. Discuss: Why do you invert and multiply? Whats the concept behind the skill?

68 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 68 What we have to know to teach any skill, including critical thinking: Critical Attributes of the Concept (traits, characteristic) and Critical Attributes of the Skill (process steps, rules)

69 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 69 Conclusion: The Concept a statement about an individual person, place, thing, or event that can be supported by accurate information.

70 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 70 A conclusion can either take the form of a fact statement or an opinion statement. A fact conclusion: George Washington was the first President of the United States. An opinion conclusion: George Washington was a good President.

71 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 71 The Skill: Process Steps for Validating A Conclusion (deductive process) Hypothesize or take a given conclusion. Gather data through research, observation, and/or experimentation. Verify the accuracy (and sometimes objectivity) of the data. Determine whether or not there is sufficient data to support the conclusion you started with. Note: Sufficiency is typically determined by the stakes involved in accepting and/or acting on the conclusion.

72 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 72 Everything that is not isolated data or a skill is a concept. Different Kinds of Concepts What are concepts?

73 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 73 Concepts that are not central themes / concepts of a discipline. Connect activities. Contributes no depth or complexity or connectivity to learning. bears bluebonnets apples 1. Fluffy Concepts

74 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D Discipline Specific Concepts "Concepts that exist only or primarily within a discipline. Can be the central themes and concepts of the discipline. Examples revolution (history) polarity (science)

75 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D Minor Themes/Concepts Concepts that exist in more than one discipline, but not in all. Concepts that are central themes/concepts in more than one discipline. Examples Conflict (literature, history) Ratio/Proportion (sciences, mathematics)

76 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D Universal Themes/Concepts Concepts that exist in all disciplines. Concepts that are central themes/concepts in all discipline. Examples Patterns Structure Systems Change Relationships Balance/Equity

77 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 77 In each of the models, taken as a pure model, one of these kinds of concepts is frontloaded and becomes the organizing principle for the unit. Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based Discipline Specific Concept Discipline Specific Concept or Parallel Data/Facts Minor Theme Universal Concept Real World Problem

78 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 78 For Discipline-Specific Curriculum: A discipline specific concept is front-loaded (e.g., a literary genre). A cognitive skill (e.g., drawing conclusions). The rest of the unit is built around that concept or cognitive skill Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based

79 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 79 English Language Arts Determining Point Of View Math Binomial Equations Science Magnetism Social Studies The U.S. Constitution

80 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 80 Discipline Specific Unit FrontloadBackload WHAT? Discipline Specific Concept Critical Attributes of the Concept WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Cognitive Skill(s) Critical Attributes of the Skill(s) Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products Assessment Unit Does differentiation go in a district curriculum document? TEKS

81 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 81 Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based OPTION 1: Parallel (complimentary) Data/Facts from one discipline What gets Frontloaded?

82 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 82 Social Studies U.S. Civil War Language Arts Red Badge of Courage Science ?? Math ?? Parallel Discipline (Facts / Data)

83 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 83 FrontloadBackload WHAT? Data/Facts From One Discipline WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Data/Facts from a Second Discipline Cognitive Skills Critical Attributes of the Skill(s) Real-world issues (problem, question, discrepant event) Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products (sometimes common) Assessment Parallel Disciplines Unit Unit

84 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 84 Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based OPTION 2: A Minor Theme Parallel Discipline: Minor Theme

85 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 85 Social Studies Culture Language Arts Culture Math Tools to analyze and/or report data dealing with culture Math cannot teach the concept "culture" because culture is not a central theme/concept in mathematics. Parallel Discipline: Minor Theme

86 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 86 Frontload Backload WHAT? Minor Theme Concept Critical Attributes of the Concept WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Facts/Data from each discipline that are examples of the concept Cognitive Skills Critical Attributes of the skill(s) Tools from other disciplines Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products (sometimes common) Assessment Parallel Disciplines Unit Unit

87 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 87 Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based For Multidisciplinary Curriculum: Minor theme/concept Multidisciplinary

88 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 88 Social Studies Conflict Language Arts ScienceMath Tools to analyze and/or report data dealing with conflict Conflict Multidisciplinary

89 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 89 Frontload Backload WHAT? Minor Theme Concept Critical Attributes of the Concept WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Facts/Data from each discipline that are examples of the concept (means to an end, but not an end unto itself) Cognitive Skills Critical Attributes of the skill(s) Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products Assessment Multidisciplinary Unit Unit

90 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 90 Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based For Interdisciplinary Curriculum: Universal theme/concept Interdisciplinary

91 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 91 Social Studies Patterns Language Arts ScienceMath Patterns Interdisciplinary

92 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 92 Frontload Backload WHAT? Universal Theme Concept Critical Attributes of the Concept WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Facts/Data from each discipline that are examples of the concept Cognitive Skills Critical Attributes of the skill(s) Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products (may be common) Assessment Interdisciplinary Unit Unit

93 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 93 Discipline Parallel Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary Problem Specific Discipline Based For Problem-Based Curriculum: A complex question, problems, or discrepant event Problem Based

94 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 94 Social Studies Real-world Issue Language ArtsScienceMath Real-world Issues: Complex Question, Problem, or Discrepant Event Problem Based Real-world Issue

95 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 95 Problem Based continued Real-world issues may be: Real Plausible, hypothetical Real-world problems must be: Relevant to the student interest Be plausible Require knowledge and skills from all four disciplines Example: Designing city park Future Problem Solvers

96 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 96 Frontload Backload WHAT? Complex Problem, Question Discrepant Event WHY? Performance Standards HOW? Concepts, Facts, Data, Tools from each discipline that contributes to answering the questions, solving the problem, or explaining the discrepant event Critical Attributes of the Concepts and skill(s) from the set above Instruction (teacher / learner activities) Resources Student Products (may be common) Assessment Problem Based Unit Unit

97 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 97 Activity: Reflection 1. Pair with a Learning Buddy. 2. Individually, reflect on this question: What have been your experiences with designing Discipline-Based, Parallel Disciplines, Multidisciplinary Interdisciplinary, and Problem- Based units of instruction. How does what you have seen/heard today: – conform with your prior learning and experience – conflict with your prior learning and experience and – inform your future work with these models? 3. Discuss your reflections with your Learning Buddy.

98 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 98 REFLECTION ON THE DAY…. Guiding QuestionWhat I Already Knew When I Got Here. What I learned Here. What I Still Need To Know What is curriculum? Whats wrong with using the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) as a district/campus curriculum? Why arent they sufficient? How do you use the TEKS as a framework for developing district/campus specific curriculum?

99 ©2004, John A. Crain, Ed.D 99 REFLECTION ON THE DAY - continued Guiding QuestionWhat I Already Knew When I Got Here. What I learned Here. What I Still Need To Know What are some processes for developing district or campus- specific curriculum within the TEKS framework? What really is alignment? What are the options and processes for designing units of instruction?


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