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The Role of Traits, Motives, and Charisma in Leadership.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of Traits, Motives, and Charisma in Leadership."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of Traits, Motives, and Charisma in Leadership

2 Learning Objectives Describe the trait theory of leadership Understand how emotional intelligence is related to leadership Nature vs. nurture view of leadership Describe the role of charisma in leadership Understand how charisma and transformational leadership are related

3 Trait (or Universal) Theory of Leadership Certain personality traits and other individual attributes are associated with effective leadership across many situations If we have these traits and attributes, then we will be successful as leaders Requires that we measure individuals on these attributes in some way

4 Individual Attributes Account for 30-50% of the differences in an individuals behavior Examples: Personality traits Cognitive, emotional, and physical competencies Motives Values and attitudes Skills and knowledge Demographic variables

5 What is personality? Definition: Set of unique traits and other mental characteristics that give consistency to an individual's behavior across situations Source: Nature vs. Nurture? What twin studies reveal The role of genes The role of environment, including culture Gene X Environment interactions

6 Personality Development Does personality change across the life span? Are there windows of opportunity for personality change?

7 General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders

8 Task-Related Personality Traits of Leaders

9 Model of Emotional Intelligence Emotional Trigger Emotional Response Behavioral Response Self Awareness And Regulation Individual Motivation Empathy Motivational Influence Managing Self Managing Others

10 Leadership Motives (Needs)

11 Cognitive Factors Associated with Effective Leadership

12 How do we measure personality traits? 1. Observation 2. Projective tests such as inkblots and TAT's 3. Validated paper and pencil (or computerized) tests and inventories

13 Just look at the picture briefly (10-15 seconds) and write the story it suggests.


15 Problems in personality measurement People must give reliable and truthful answers People must understand the language used Responses may be affected by mood People may have multiple identities across situations and find it difficult to self-assess their "real" personality

16 So, Lets do some self assessment!

17 Locus of control Definition:Definition: the extent to which one believes that the things that happen to them are under their own or others control Spheres of controlSpheres of control: personal, interpersonal, or sociopolitical Has effects on: Motivation, leadership, job selection and design, stress, and change Cultural differences may determine locus of control

18 Locus of Control: Internals Believe their own abilities and efforts control the things that happen to them Are independent, like to participate in decisions, are involved in work, adjust to work and handle job stress well, like to influence others, are future rather than present oriented, are achievement oriented, and may chafe under too many rules, restrictions, and rigidity

19 Locus of Control: Externals Believe that others, situations, and fate control what happens to them. They prefer structure, do not like to work independently, have few expectations based on past successes or failures, and are susceptible to influence attempts by others

20 ClassPersonal Interpersonal Sociopolitical Mean RangeMean RangeMean RangeN EMBA III KMBA KMBA KMBA KMBA PMBA NUWC NUWC NAVY MGT Means and Ranges of Scores on Locus of Control

21 Machiavellianism Degree to which one uses deceit, lying, and compromising ethics to attain ones own self interest; strong believers in the end justifies the means High Machs: –Have lots of self confidence and self esteem –Are cool and calculating –Try to manipulate ambiguous situations to control them –Do not let feelings and loyalty to get in the way of obtaining own ends

22 Machiavellianism Differences between locus of control (interpersonal sphere) and Machiavellianism: They are positively related, but internals use legitimate methods of influence while high Machs use duplicitous techniques

23 EMBAFull Time and Part Time MBAUndergraduates (43-85) (46-112) (55-118) (35-83) (47-87) (49-106) (40-79) (42-103) (54-100) (41-95) (31-91) (37-122) (41-97) (50-87) (49-85) (47-91) (42-118) (42-104) (52-111) (42-103) (45-90) NUWC (41-88) Navy (40-97) (53-100) (33-86) NUWC (49-109) (49-98) (48-94) Average 63.5Average 73Average 76 Means (Ranges) of Machiavellian Scores

24 Kolb McIntyre Learning Style Measures the ways people prefer to learn Why important? –Determines how we train others and help them to change and adapt –Helps us understand why "some people never learn –May be linked to other dispositional variables: risk taking, being creative, emotionality –Helps us see there are variable ways to determine the "truth"

25 Vertical arrow: Information gathering Horizontal arrow: Information evaluation CE RO AC AE Divergers AssimilatorsConvergers Accommodators Sensing Intuition Extraversion Introversion

26 Big Five Personality Variables General personality variables that are said to cover the most important traits that differentiate us from each other Extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness

27 Trait Job Satisfaction LeadershipMotivation Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientious -ness Total R # of samples Correlations of Traits with Satisfaction, Leadership, and Motivation

28 Research on the Big Five Traits Absenteeism: Extraversion is positively related while conscientiousness is negatively related to absenteeism No differences found between racial groups, and thus less adverse impact when using for selection purposes compared to cognitive ability tests

29 Research on the Big Five Traits Agreeableness –Needed for jobs requiring teamwork and good interpersonal facilitation skills –However, negatively related to career satisfaction Extraversion –Related to positive affectivity and interpersonal facilitation –Positively related to salary levels, promotions, and career satisfaction

30 Research on the Big Five Traits Dark side to conscientiousness –Not helpful for jobs that require creativity, innovation, spontaneity, or quick decision making ("analysis paralysis") Openness to experience –Needed for jobs requiring innovation, creativity, and spontaneity –Predictive of cross-cultural sensitivity and success in international assignments –Negatively related to salary levels obtained

31 Research on the Big Five Traits Emotional Stability (Neuroticism) –Related to negative affectivity (whiners?) –Cope poorly with stress –Negatively related to career satisfaction

32 Research on the Big Five Traits: European Samples Conscientiousness and emotional stability Conscientiousness and emotional stability are valid predictors across job criteria and occupational groups (police, professionals, managers, salespeople, and skilled labor) Extraversion: Extraversion: positively related to extrinsic career success (salary, promotion) more for European than US executives Neuroticism: Neuroticism: negatively related to extrinsic success more for US than European executives

33 Other personality traits Dogmatism Rigidity and inability to change Close-mindedAuthoritarianism: Rigid adherence to conventional values Belief in rigid hierarchies and status systems Obeys authority unquestionably Prefers highly structured work situations and directive leadership

34 Why is studying personality important to leadership? Useful in selection, training, motivation, communication, and change Job/career fit and success Affects decision making, problem solving, conflict management, managing politics, and coping with stress Helps us understand how others are different from us, despite similar experiences and situations

35 Why is studying personality important to leadership? Personality predicts how well we do in terms of "contextual performance" (i.e., commitment, absenteeism, involvement, dedication, interpersonal facilitation) Abilities and job experiences predict task performance better Cultural differences may impact personality: may determine one's success in managing cross- culturally

36 Strengths and Limitations of Trait Approach Strengths –Serves as a guide to leader selection –Can guide individuals in preparing for leadership –Predicts contextual rather than task performance Limitations –Identifies many and sometimes contradictory traits –Does not specify how much of a trait or characteristic is needed –Can breed an elitist conception of leadership

37 What is charisma? Greek: divinely inspired gift Special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers, and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others (e.g., heroism, magnetism, exemplary character, etc.)

38 What do charismatic leaders do? Have idealized vision of the future Superb communication skills (use stories, anecdotes, and non-verbal strategies) Inspire trust using faith and hope Make people feel capable of achieving goals Engage in emotional appeals Use drama and unconventional influence approaches Incur personal risk and self promote incessantly Many create major changes in the situations in which they operate

39 What are the sources of charisma? Personal power sources of leader: expertise and referent power Special knowledge, skills, experience, or personal character that attracts followers The groups or networks attribution about the characteristics of a leader (involves ongoing interactions and impression management)

40 What are some positive effects of charisma? –Trust the leader –Begin to hold beliefs similar to those of the leader –Have affection for the leader –Identify with and attempt to emulate the leader –Emotional involvement in goals and mission of leader –Extra-role commitment

41 What are some negative effects of charisma? Deception, manipulation, and exploitation of followers Convince followers to take great and sometimes deadly risks Followers may give up thinking for themselves and blindly obey leader May lead followers to illegal, unethical, or socially irresponsible ends

42 What is transformational leadership? Processes which bring about major change in organizational settings Focus followers on system-wide rather than just self interest Build vision, shared values,and a larger meaning Imagine different and better conditions and ways to achieve them

43 How Transformations Take Place

44 How is charisma related to transformational leadership? Many transformational leaders are considered charismatic But not all charismatic leaders engage in major change processes Transformational leaders are more concerned than charismatic leaders with: –personal development of followers –empowerment of followers –innovation and change

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