Presentation on theme: "LTM models: Craik & Lockhart – levels of processing Memory is result of type of processing – deeper processing = longer lasting memory trace Structural."— Presentation transcript:
LTM models: Craik & Lockhart – levels of processing Memory is result of type of processing – deeper processing = longer lasting memory trace Structural Phonemic Semantic
LTM models: Tulving’s three systems of (LTM) memory Procedural Semantic Episodic HM: mirror tracing task LTM models: PDP approach to memory Based on brain function – nodes; weighted connections; patterns of activation
An Example of Using Hierarchies as an Organizational Tool
LTM Processes Semantic codes predominant, but info encoded multidimensionally Free-recall studies suggest LTM categorically and hierarchically organized (flexibly not rigidly) Forgetting: decay or retrieval failure? Jenkins & Dallenback (1929) indicates rf not decay. Proactive vs. Retroactive Interference Encoding specificity hypo of forgetting: recall can beat recognition if cuing environment is right. Context and state dependent affects on memory
Mnemonics and Memory Experts Mnemonics: cognitive strategies for improving memory Method of Loci: TBR items associated with locations in familiar image. EX: boxes in head associated with places in classroom. Peg word system: TBR items associated with rhymes of numbers 1-10. EX: 1 is bun, imagine horse in a bun Key word system: variant of peg word, sound of TBR items associated with something familiar that serves to cue its meaning. EX: abscissa associated with “abs” good abs are flat. Acronyms: Using first letters or sounds of TBR to create memorable phrase or sentence. EX: FACE; every good boy does fine.
Memory Experts Extraordinary memory: Made or born Born: S. – evidence of extreme synthesia VP – could read by age 3; memorized map of Riga by age 5 Made: S.F. with extensive training, digit span increased to 80 items. Most memory prodigies still employ encoding straties.
Lessons of extraordinary memory 1. Importance of encoding strategies 2. Relationship to encoding specificity hypothesis 3. Work in creating semantic connections at encoding determine later recall abililty