Presentation on theme: "A Storm Upon the Land The end of peace in America."— Presentation transcript:
A Storm Upon the Land The end of peace in America
Bleeding Kansas Freesoiler – citizens who wanted Kansas to become a free state. The Democratic party was forcing them to accept the hijacked election, and become a slave state.
Brooks v. Sumner "The Senate is a dignified and decorous body, and its proceedings are conducted with much gravity and order." -Charles Dickens, American Notes, 1842.
Brooks v. Sumner Preston Brooks, a Senator from South Carolina, walked into the Senate chamber and, using his cane, beat Senator Charles Sumner unconscious. Sumner, in a speech against the crimes done to the Kansas elections, had called one of Brooks relatives a fat, stuttering idiot, and that is why Brooks attacked Sumner.
Brooks v. Sumner Look at this political cartoon… Sumner is the one on the floor with a pen in hand… Brooks has the cane… How does the media spin this story? What do they make the fight about? What are the people in the back doing? Is anyone trying to stop them?
President James Buchanan Fifteenth President Democrat Only President to never marry. His Presidency began with the infamous Dred Scott Decision. Famous for flip-flopping on almost every decision he made.
President Buchanan When he was elected, he felt the Scott case was of little practical importance, and that the Supreme Court would make the right decision. When Scott lost and the Supreme Court ruled against Congress right to control the territories, the freesoilers and Republicans were furious. Buchanan decided to end the troubles in Kansas by urging the admission of the territory as a slave state. This only made northerners more upset.
President Buchanan In 1858, the Republicans won control of the House of Representatives. Every bill they passed in the next two years was killed by the Democratically controlled Senate or vetoed by Buchanan. More and more northerners joined the quickly growing Republican party, which hoped to end slavery and the southern control of the government.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates The Lincoln-Douglas debates were a series of formal political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in a campaign for one of Illinois' two United States Senate seats.
Typical Scene of the Lincoln- Douglas Debates
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Although Lincoln lost the election, these debates launched him into national prominence which eventually led to his election as President of the United States. The debates focused on hot topics of the day, primarily the Kansas situation and the Dred Scott Decision. Lincoln became the champion of the Republican cause.
John Browns Raid With the Kansas conflict still raging, John Brown, a militant abolitionist, decided to take matters into his own hands. In the early years of Bleeding Kansas, he brutally murdered five slave holders in retaliation for the deaths of five abolitions.
Brown, in 1859, decided to take the abolitionist cause to a new level. He infiltrated the south, and began freeing slaves from the plantations and began plans to stage an armed uprising.
John Browns Raid Brown first needed weapons to arm the slaves, and the Federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry became his target. When he staged his raid on the Federal arsenal on October 16, 1859, he had 21 men total; 16 whites and only 5 blacks.
John Browns Raid Brown and his men cut the telegraph lines to the town and then took 60 townspeople hostage. Unfortunately for Brown, a train line ran through the town, and his men were unable to stop the train from leaving and spreading an alarm about the raid. U.S. Marines, led by Colonel Robert E. Lee, were sent to stop Browns Raiders. Brown took 9 hostages and took refuge in the local firehouse.
John Browns Raid "...on arriving here on the night of the 17th instant, I learned that a party of insurgents, about 11pm on the 16th, had seized the watchmen stationed at the armory, arsenal, rifle factory, and bridge across the Potomac, and taken possession of those points. ~Col. R. E. Lee Marines stormed the firehouse and killed a number of Browns followers and wounded Brown.
Trial of John Brown Brown was brought to trial on charges of treason towards the commonwealth of Virginia, and was sentenced to hang. Just before his hanging on December 2, 1859, Brown uttered a prophetic forewarning of the coming Civil War: "I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood."
Election of 1860 With Buchanan frustrating the nation with his inability to commit to either the abolition or the support of slavery, the nation sought new political parties. The Democratic party split between Northern Democrats, led by Stephen Douglas, and Southern Democrats, led by John Breckinridge. This split destroyed the power the Democrats held in Congress, and doomed them in the upcoming election.
Election of 1860 With the Democratic split, the Republican party, led by Abraham Lincoln now had a lead in the polls. The last split came with the end of the Whigs, a party that originated with the Revolution. Several of their members joined the Republicans, while others backed the Constitutional Union Party, led by John Bell.
Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election, despite the fact he did not hold the majority vote. His election was the final upset the South would stand for. Immediately, talks of secession began throughout the south.
Secession December 20, 1860: South Carolina is the first to declare secession from the Union. 6 other states, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas, were soon to follow.
The War Begins Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC guarded the entrance to the citys harbor. They rebels felt it posed a threat, and demanded the forts surrender. Major Robert Anderson refused and asked Lincoln for supplies in preparation for a possible siege.
Battle for Sumter On April 12, 1861, Confederate forces open fire on the fort. For 34 hours the fort was bombarded from all directions. Without his needed supplies, Maj. Anderson was forced to surrender the fort on the 13 th.
Fort Sumter Aftermath With the loss of the fort, Lincoln saw this as the beginning of a war. Shortly after Sumter fell, four more states seceded from the Union. Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas.
The Union Forever! War was declared, and the nation looked to their President to see what the government response would be. Lincoln answered the rebels with a call for 100,000 volunteers to end the rebellion and restore the Union.