Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution From Agriculture"— Presentation transcript:
1The Industrial Revolution From Agriculture To IndustrializationByMarvin L. Scott
2Learning the craft, perfecting the skill The apprentice and master craftsmanMale head of the householdMale head of the businessTeach sons/boys craft they become apprenticeLearn the entire craft, all of the parts that constitute producing the final goodApprentice has the ability at the end to open and run his own shop as a master craftsman.Apprentice lives and works with craftsman’ family.
3Changes in the apprentice family Apprentice lives and works with the master craftsman and his family.Burden of feeding and providing for child is lifted from the apprentice family.The apprentice provides free labor to the master craftsman and his family in exchange for the knowledge he gains.
4Changes to Family through Industrialization Skilled Artisan (Craftsmen) move out of the home into shops.Women gain more power over the home and children.Women, young girls in early factoriesIndustrialist (capitalist) need workers, show concern, demonstrate compassion.Skilled Artisan (Craftsmen) will move out of the shops, replaced by improvements, technology.Competition between skilled and unskilled laborers for jobs in factoriesMen working in factories, selling labor instead of products, alienated
5Immigration to the United States Influx of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, western European Nationsnearly 1. million German people come to the United StatesThey are escaping persecution for failed revolts.million Irish people come to the United StatesThey are escaping the famine, potatoes blight in Ireland
6Immigration to the United States New arrivals chasing the American DreamLand of Milk and HoneyMajor cities, Chicago, New York, etc huge settlementsBring their culture, building styles, and traditions to the United StatesGermans (Christmas Trees)Irish (song and Dances)
7Ethnic EnclavesCreation of Ethnic EnclavesAn area where most of the residents are from one particular ethnic group. The culture and ideas of this group are dominate in expression, transmission, and reinforcement in this area.Most of the inhabitants are new arrivals, 1st generation immigrants to the United States. The children of this group will act as a go between for their parents and society
8Chicago blazes new path in Marsh Chicago, meat packing industry, Pork and Beef, Armour and swiftRefrigeration in the 1880’sGustavus Swift Built refrigeration plant in ChicagoUsed to refrigerate beef and pork in ChicagoBuilt refrigerated train cars so meat can be shipped from ChicagoBeginning of assembly line process (Heifer Wheel) used to dismantle pigs, mass production of porkLater Ford will use this process to assemble cars, create mass assembly of cars (Model T).
9Grain elevatorsUsed to store grain, makes the shipment of grain quicker, movement of grain sped upLumber Yards Huge shipments of lumber stacked in Chicago from the plains awaiting transport to other towns, whole towns can be mail ordered ready to assemble from ChicagoChicago Fire 1871 Chicago is primarily built of wood, and the summer is very dryFire starts on the water front, plants, burn, stockyards burn, major hotels, homes, and other businesses burn, city will rebuild.300 killedAlmost 100,000 homeless
10Migration People migrate from rural to urban areas Looking for jobs because they lose them do to improvements in agricultureUrban areas began to grow with the steady stream of migrants looking for work.Small towns become cities and cities will become metropolitan areas
11Urbanization and its Setbacks Influx (increase) of people from the countrysidePeople are living in closer proximityPollution rises, communicable diseases rise, waste and refuse rise.Industrial towns kill, (Steel & Meat Production)Black lung from chimneysMiners die from the smoke and suit,Stockyards In Chicagoproduce high level of nauseating pollution,2 people a day die from the dirt and smog, chorea, etcStreets used as trash cans, pigs used to clean street
12Improvements In Power Production The water wheel 1780’s-1790’s in the US.Required small factories be built by water supplies.Wheels turn from the power of rushing water create energy source. Wheels are huge and expensiveSteam Power 1830’sTurbines, pistons churn, water uses pressure to create power source.Steam power means more flexibility. Plant does not have to be located on a stream or river.Steam powered machines are cheap and easy to runSteam power means that the cost of producing a good is cheaper (clothing, shoes, etc)Steam power means that businesses can produce a higher number of goods.
13Electrical Power Electric Power Plant 1882 Thomas Edison and his associates come up with the electric power plant as a source of energy for business, replacing steam power, safer, quieter.Later is applied to homes, etc
14Improvements in Transportation Canals built to facilitate movement of people and goods, improves businessYankee Clippers 1845 John GriffithOcean worthy vessels used for international trade and to move goods between the east and west coast
15Railroads Railroads 1850’s are built in the east moving into the Midwest (New York, to Chicago)Cities at the center of a railroad hub grew, Chicago was one such city
16Improvements in Communications The Telegraph1844 The telegraph, Samuel F.B.Morse Code and telegraph line electrical signal along a wireThe Transatlantic Cable1858 Cyrus Field Links the east coast with Great Britain etcThe Telephone1876 Alexander Graham Bell and lab assistants, transmit sound in waves, improvements for business, closing the gap between supply and demand and creating new areas of market advantage.
17Improvements in Agriculture John Deere light weight steel plowPulled by a horse a field could be plowed faster, easierOld Plow is very heavy made of iron or wood, Pulled by slow moving oxen, takes a longtime to plow a fieldCyrus McCormick Mechanical Reaper1847 Opens a Plant that manufactures steel reapers in ChicagoReplaces the labor of five people using the old sickle. Farmers need less hands people have to go other places to find employment
18Agriculture II and the spread of Slavery Eli Whitney and the Cotton GinWhitney is a school teacher working in the South, observes the work being done in the field by slavesCotton gin, separate the cotton fiber from the seed and stem. Machine does the work of 50 field hands.Slavery spreads, plantation owners need more slaves to plant cotton, clear additional fields, and tend to the cotton dailyCotton robs the soil of vital nutrients, in order to continue to plant cotton planters must move frequently and find new land to cultivate
19Wrapping up Industrialization America moves from agriculture to manufacturingFarmers, immigrants, find work in factoriesFamily structure changes, from extended to nuclear, from home based business to shops,Cities grow, urbanization, pollution, communicable diseases, politics, creation of ethnic enclavesImprovements in Transportation, Communications, Agriculture, Power production, & Manufacturing
20Wrapping up the Industrial Revolution Changes in Business Improvements in BusinessHeifer wheel and de-assembly (Chicago)Henry Ford and Assembly lineChanges in Factories/Industrialist after 1840Immigrant workers, migrant workers, and low wagesGrowth of Factories, depressed (low) wages, influx (increase) of immigrant workers, poor ventilation, poor illumination, dangerous machinery, long working hours (16-18) hour daysOwners see workers as cogs, in industrial machines, not as people, don’t respect workers, because workers are easily replaced.