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1 The Industrial Revolution From Agriculture To Industrialization By Marvin L. Scott.

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1 1 The Industrial Revolution From Agriculture To Industrialization By Marvin L. Scott

2 2 Learning the craft, perfecting the skill The apprentice and master craftsman Male head of the household Male head of the business Teach sons/boys craft they become apprentice Learn the entire craft, all of the parts that constitute producing the final good Apprentice has the ability at the end to open and run his own shop as a master craftsman. Apprentice lives and works with craftsman family.

3 3 Changes in the apprentice family Apprentice lives and works with the master craftsman and his family. Burden of feeding and providing for child is lifted from the apprentice family. The apprentice provides free labor to the master craftsman and his family in exchange for the knowledge he gains.

4 4 Changes to Family through Industrialization Skilled Artisan (Craftsmen) move out of the home into shops. Women gain more power over the home and children. Women, young girls in early factories Industrialist (capitalist) need workers, show concern, demonstrate compassion. Skilled Artisan (Craftsmen) will move out of the shops, replaced by improvements, technology. Competition between skilled and unskilled laborers for jobs in factories Men working in factories, selling labor instead of products, alienated

5 5 Immigration to the United States Influx of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, western European Nations nearly 1. million German people come to the United States They are escaping persecution for failed revolts million Irish people come to the United States They are escaping the famine, potatoes blight in Ireland

6 6 Immigration to the United States New arrivals chasing the American Dream Land of Milk and Honey Major cities, Chicago, New York, etc huge settlements Bring their culture, building styles, and traditions to the United States Germans (Christmas Trees) Irish (song and Dances)

7 7 Ethnic Enclaves Creation of Ethnic Enclaves An area where most of the residents are from one particular ethnic group. The culture and ideas of this group are dominate in expression, transmission, and reinforcement in this area. Most of the inhabitants are new arrivals, 1 st generation immigrants to the United States. The children of this group will act as a go between for their parents and society

8 8 Chicago blazes new path in Marsh Gustavus Swift Built refrigeration plant in Chicago Used to refrigerate beef and pork in Chicago Built refrigerated train cars so meat can be shipped from Chicago Beginning of assembly line process (Heifer Wheel) used to dismantle pigs, mass production of pork Later Ford will use this process to assemble cars, create mass assembly of cars (Model T). Chicago, meat packing industry, Pork and Beef, Armour and swift Refrigeration in the 1880s

9 9 Chicago Fire 1871 Chicago is primarily built of wood, and the summer is very dry Fire starts on the water front, plants, burn, stockyards burn, major hotels, homes, and other businesses burn, city will rebuild. 300 killed Almost 100,000 homeless Grain elevators Used to store grain, makes the shipment of grain quicker, movement of grain sped up Lumber Yards Huge shipments of lumber stacked in Chicago from the plains awaiting transport to other towns, whole towns can be mail ordered ready to assemble from Chicago

10 10 Migration People migrate from rural to urban areas Looking for jobs because they lose them do to improvements in agriculture Urban areas began to grow with the steady stream of migrants looking for work. Small towns become cities and cities will become metropolitan areas

11 11 Urbanization and its Setbacks Influx (increase) of people from the countryside People are living in closer proximity Pollution rises, communicable diseases rise, waste and refuse rise. Industrial towns kill, (Steel & Meat Production) Black lung from chimneys Miners die from the smoke and suit, Stockyards In Chicago produce high level of nauseating pollution, 2 people a day die from the dirt and smog, chorea, etc Streets used as trash cans, pigs used to clean street

12 12 Improvements In Power Production The water wheel 1780s-1790s in the US. Required small factories be built by water supplies. Wheels turn from the power of rushing water create energy source. Wheels are huge and expensive Steam Power 1830s Turbines, pistons churn, water uses pressure to create power source. Steam power means more flexibility. Plant does not have to be located on a stream or river. Steam powered machines are cheap and easy to run Steam power means that the cost of producing a good is cheaper (clothing, shoes, etc) Steam power means that businesses can produce a higher number of goods.

13 13 Electrical Power Electric Power Plant 1882 Thomas Edison and his associates come up with the electric power plant as a source of energy for business, replacing steam power, safer, quieter. Later is applied to homes, etc

14 14 Improvements in Transportation Canals built to facilitate movement of people and goods, improves business Yankee Clippers 1845 John Griffith Ocean worthy vessels used for international trade and to move goods between the east and west coast

15 15 Railroads Railroads 1850s are built in the east moving into the Midwest (New York, to Chicago) Cities at the center of a railroad hub grew, Chicago was one such city

16 16 Improvements in Communications The Telegraph 1844 The telegraph, Samuel F.B.Morse Code and telegraph line electrical signal along a wire The Transatlantic Cable 1858 Cyrus Field Links the east coast with Great Britain etc The Telephone 1876 Alexander Graham Bell and lab assistants, transmit sound in waves, improvements for business, closing the gap between supply and demand and creating new areas of market advantage.

17 17 Improvements in Agriculture John Deere light weight steel plow Pulled by a horse a field could be plowed faster, easier Old Plow is very heavy made of iron or wood, Pulled by slow moving oxen, takes a longtime to plow a field Cyrus McCormick Mechanical Reaper 1847 Opens a Plant that manufactures steel reapers in Chicago Replaces the labor of five people using the old sickle. Farmers need less hands people have to go other places to find employment

18 18 Agriculture II and the spread of Slavery Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin Whitney is a school teacher working in the South, observes the work being done in the field by slaves Cotton gin, separate the cotton fiber from the seed and stem. Machine does the work of 50 field hands. Slavery spreads, plantation owners need more slaves to plant cotton, clear additional fields, and tend to the cotton daily Cotton robs the soil of vital nutrients, in order to continue to plant cotton planters must move frequently and find new land to cultivate

19 19 Wrapping up Industrialization America moves from agriculture to manufacturing Farmers, immigrants, find work in factories Family structure changes, from extended to nuclear, from home based business to shops, Cities grow, urbanization, pollution, communicable diseases, politics, creation of ethnic enclaves Improvements in Transportation, Communications, Agriculture, Power production, & Manufacturing

20 20 Wrapping up the Industrial Revolution Changes in Business Improvements in Business Heifer wheel and de-assembly (Chicago) Henry Ford and Assembly line Changes in Factories/Industrialist after 1840 Immigrant workers, migrant workers, and low wages Growth of Factories, depressed (low) wages, influx (increase) of immigrant workers, poor ventilation, poor illumination, dangerous machinery, long working hours (16-18) hour days Owners see workers as cogs, in industrial machines, not as people, dont respect workers, because workers are easily replaced.

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