Presentation on theme: "Routing Convergence and the Impact of Scale Dan Massey Colorado State University."— Presentation transcript:
Routing Convergence and the Impact of Scale Dan Massey Colorado State University
26 October Internet Routing and BGP l Internet divided into Autonomous Systems n Large-scale implies maintaining entire topology at a router is not feasible. l BGP is the inter-AS routing protocol. n Router stores the AS path to a destination. n Path allows router to apply policies l How quickly does BGP converge after a change? n Can BGP continue to scale with more growth? n Do we need BGP changes or a new protocol?
26 October (B A) (C B A) (E D B A) (H G F E A) BGP Path Exploration H BZ D A E C dest. IG Obsolete paths: (C B A), (E D B A) If Z knew [B A] failed, it couldve avoided the obsolete paths Zs Candidate paths: () (C B A) (E D B A) (I H G F A) () (E D B A) (I H G F A) () (I H G F A) F ( )
26 October Path Exploration and Policy l Internet does not select the shortest path n Policies limit the number of potential paths. n Especially at high level tiers. l Example: Due to routing policy, AS-X (lower tier) sees more alternate paths than AS-Z (tier-1). n Via multiple providers n Via peers Z X P2 Y W P1
26 October Impact of Topology Growth l Denser connectivity => more alternate paths l Impact depends on policies and tier n Lower tier nodes see more slow convergence MRAI off MRAI on Jan 2, 2004Dec 2, 2004 Beacon prefix /24 RV peer ( AS# )#updates#paths#updates#paths 1239 (tier1) (tier1)
26 October Convergence Improvements l MRAI Timer (Deployed Now) n Require minimum time between updates n Typically 30 seconds l Assertion Checking (Proposed in INFOCOM 02) n Signal policy or topological failure in some cases n Discard routes that include failed subpath l Ghost Flushing (Proposed in INFOCOM 03) n When the MRAI timer delays an update, send a withdrawal l Attach Failure Notification (INFOCOM05, CompNet05) n Explicitly list the cause of the failure
26 October MRAI Rate-Limiting Timer Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) timer: Within M=30 seconds, at most one announcement from A to B P1P1 P2P2 P P P As path changes: Msgs from A to B: P1P1 time=0time=30 time=60 P4P4 P b. delay convergence a. suppress transient changes Impact:
26 October MRAI and Ghost Flushing MRAI prevents removal of stale information Suppose P1 to P5 are increasingly worse Neighbor believes P1 still available until time 30 P1P1 P2P2 P P P As path changes: Msgs from A to B: P1P1 time=0time=30 time=60 P4P4 P w Ghost Flushing: if change to longer path and MRAI applies, send a withdraw w
26 October Root Cause Notification l The node who detects the failure attaches root cause to msg l Other nodes copy the root cause to outgoing messages (B A) (C B A) (E D B A) (H G F E A) H BZ D A E C IG Zs Candidate paths: F () ( C B A ) ( E D B A ) (I H G F A) ( ), [B A] failure the first msg is enough for Z to remove all the obsolete paths
26 October Ghost Flushing Assertion BGP Root Cause Notification Fail-down Simulation Results Fail-down: destination becomes unreachable
26 October Ghost Flushing Assertion BGP Root Cause Notification Implication: more redundancy means faster T long convergence Fail-over Simulation Results Fail-over: nodes switch to worse paths
26 October Conclusions? (Not Yet!) l Root Cause Approach is Clear Winner n But several non-trivial deployment problems n Not immediately clear we could standardize it. l Ghost-Flushing Does Well in Fail-down n Easily incrementally deployed n But may not work well in Fail-over l MRAI Timer Only n Leaves us with current convergence problems n And the network is getting larger…. n And other complications in large systems….
26 October Damping Analysis simulation calculation no damping Convergence Updates Trigger Damping Policies! (could fix if we damped the RCN rather than just updates)
26 October But What About Packets? Improving packet delivery is the ultimate goal Ghost Flushing Assertion BGP Root Cause Notification
26 October Conclusions l Root Cause Approach Adds Many Benefits n Convergence, dampening, packet delivery, diagnosis,…. l New Routing Designs Should Include RCN n Should be a required part of new routing protocols l Can RCN Be Added to BGP? n Not clear given existing complications n To be continued in IRTF Routing Research Group –Encourage interested researchers to join