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Latest Trends and New Enhancements in 3G Wireless Communications Rao Yallapragada Senior Director, Qualcomm Inc. April 12, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Latest Trends and New Enhancements in 3G Wireless Communications Rao Yallapragada Senior Director, Qualcomm Inc. April 12, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Latest Trends and New Enhancements in 3G Wireless Communications Rao Yallapragada Senior Director, Qualcomm Inc. April 12, 2004

2 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Presentation Outline 3G Reported Subscribers 3G CDMA Evolution Voice and Data Capacity Evolution of 3G Technologies New Enhancements in 3G Technologies –CDMA2000 1x –CDMA2000 1xEV-DO –WCDMA Summary

3 3G Wireless Subscriber Growth

4 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April G CDMA Reported* Subscribers (As of March 30, 2004) 88.2 million 6.46 million 4.31 million Source:

5 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Worldwide CDMA Subscriber Evolution Forecast Future (Millions) Source: Strategy Analytics, April 2003 and as of December 2003, CDG September 2003www.3gtoday 3G CDMA is Well Established & Growing Now in Use in Two Flavors: CDMA2000 ® and WCDMA Over 98M Subscribers, 75 Operators, 37 Countries, 430 Handsets, 43 Vendors September >174M subs

6 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Operators Expanding Data Services With CDMA2000 1xEV-DO 5 Commercial Operators Over 5M EV-DO subscribers as of January 2004 Over $1 billion EV-DO national rollout over next 2 years Coming Soon Pelephone (PT Mobile-8) (Telecsa Ecuador) 2.4 Mbps gpsOne ARM Mbps gpsOne ARM Mbps Higher resolution video/graphics Camera to 4 megapixel 3.1Mbps Camera to 4 megapixel Launched November 2003

7 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Latest Trends and Driving Factors High Intensity Multi-Media Capabilities –More efficiency in multi-media content delivery Enhancements to support Quality of Service Efficient and flexible Packet based Video Telephony Support for VoIP and Low-latency applications, e.g., Gaming applications Instant Multi Media (IMM) Broadcast and Multicast services High Speed Data on both Up and Down Links Push to See Samsung SCH V310

8 3G CDMA Evolution

9 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April In-Band Migration and Designed for In-Band Migration and New Spectrum 3G CDMA 2G CDMA 3G CDMA Evolution 1.25 MHz Voice & Data 2.5G CDMA Rel. 4 HSDPA Additional voice capacity doubling - Terminal antenna diversity Rel. 5 CDMA2000 1X 14.4 kbps data Soft Handoff Synchronous Timing 64 kbps packet data Channel Concatenation Double voice capacity Fast Fwd Power Control Coherent Uplink kbps packet data Turbo Codes 307 kbps packet data Simultaneous voice and data Dedicated & Optimized For Packet Data 2.4 Mbps Peak Rates All IP Architecture Improvements to data services. More flexible data packet scheduling. 64/384 kbps cs/packet data Soft handoff Asynchronous timing Improvements to data services More flexible data packet scheduling cdmaOne QoS, Broadcast, Personal Media, IMM,2x 1xEV-DV Forward Link: Peak Rate: 3.1 mbps Reverse Link: Peak Rate: 1.8 mbps Fwd & Rev. Capacity Gains Forward Link: Peak Rate 3.1 mbps Reverse Link: Peak Rate 1.8 mbps EUL Rel. 6 Enhanced Up-Link IS - 95A IS-95B 1.25 MHz Optimized for Data IS-2000 Rel. 0 Rel. A Rel. BRel. C Rel. D Designed for New Spectrum 5 MHz Voice & Data 3GPP Rel. 99 CDMA2000 1xEV-DO UMTS (WCDMA) IS-856, Rel. 0 Enhancements Rel. A

10 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Voice Capacity Evolution of 3G Technologies

11 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Data Capacity Evolution of 3G Technologies

12 New Enhancements in 3G Wireless Technologies

13 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April CDMA2000 Standards Status IS-95A/B 1x Release 0 1x/3x Release A 1x/3x Release B 1xEV-DO Revision 0 1x Revision C (1xEV-DV FL) Arrow denotes evolution of standard, maintaining backward compatibility cdma2000 family Done 1x Revision D (1xEV-DV RL) Done 1xEV-DO Revision A Publish Date: March 2004

14 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April CDMA2000 1X Enhancements Capacity Enhancements via Mobile Receive Diversity and SMV Vocoders Release C Enhancements –Introduces 1xEV-DV and a new data mode for the forward link –New Forward Packet Data Channel (F-PDCH) High data rate, rapidly time-shared among users Dynamic modulation and coding based on channel condition Forward Link Data Rates up to 3.1 Mbps

15 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April CDMA2000 Release D Enhancements Simultaneous wireless voice and bi-directional high speed data on a single RF carrier Reverse Link Enhancements –Hybrid ARQ Re-transmit & combine, similar to 1xEV-DV FL Synchronous re-transmissions –MAC-layer control of data transmissions –Higher peak data rates: ~ 1.8 Mbit/s –Fast scheduling with shorter variable duration frames –Base station supervised rate control –Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) Fast Call Setup Backward compatible with IS-95 and CDMA2000 Releases 0, A, B & C Expected Date of Commercial Deployments: Y2005

16 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Throughput gains with proposed enhancements (~1x Revision C) 1x Revision D candidates Full Buffer RL Throughput RL Throughput (kbit/s per sector)

17 1xEV-DV: Overview

18 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Introduction to 1xEV-DV CDMA2000 1x FL currently has 3 modes of transmitting data: –Fundicated Channel (F-FCH / F-DCCH) Low rate data, circuit-switched like One to each MS –Supplemental Channel (F-SCH) Higher rate data, packet data or circuit-switched Typically time-shared among users, ~160 ms at a time –Broadcast Control Channel (F-BCCH) Small payloads, low rate, large latencies SMS-like data Introduces a new Packet Data Channel (F-PDCH) : –Called as FL Radio Configuration 10 –High rate, rapidly time-shared among users –Uses adaptive modulation and coding schemes E

19 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April CDMA2000 Compatibility CDMA2000 Revision C is fully backward compatible: –IS-95A or newer mobile stations can operate in a Revision C cell –1xEV-DV capable mobiles can do data on older systems Mobile Station supporting Revision C Base Station supporting Revision C F-PDCH Base Station supporting Revision 0 F-SCH Mobile Station supporting Revision C F-PDCH E

20 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April xEV-DV: Key Concepts Maximizes the use of Forward Link resources –Forward Transmit power and –Code channel Resources Allocates left-over power to the packet data channel (PDCH) Data to different users are TDMd on F-PDCH Uses advanced communication techniques: –Channel-sensitive scheduling –Multi-user diversity –Adaptive modulation and coding –Incremental redundancy

21 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April xEV-DV Dynamic Resource Allocation 1xEV-DV BTS Transmit Power Time Maximum Fundamental Channels Overhead Channels Packet Data Channel –Pool unused power and code channels into F-PDCH –Transmission must adapt to dynamics in resources 1x BTS Transmit Power Time Maximum Supplemental Channel(s) Fundamental Channels Overhead Channels Walsh Space Time Leftovers pooled into PDCH Dedicated & Common CHs

22 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April F-PDCH Time-Sharing BTS Transmit Power Time Maximum For User 1 Fundamental and Supplemental Channels Overhead Channels For User 2 E

23 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Key Principles of 1xEV-DV 1)Rapid Adaptive modulation and coding for each transmission 2)Transmit for short durations of time Adapt parameters based on: a.Available BTS resources b.Amount of data to transmit c.Channel condition Allows the full use of available resources Transmission durations of 1.25 ms to 5 ms: Minimizes variations during transmission period due to: a.Available resources b.Channel conditions E

24 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Key Principles of 1xEV-DV 3)Transmit to only 1 (or 2) users at a time Wait, and transmit to a user when the users channel is at its best Avoids wasting power trying to get a packet through the channel when it has faded away Also called as Adaptive Asynchronous Incremental Redundancy technique Get ACK or NAK back fast from the MS Combine transmissions and re-transmissions for better decoding Allows to be very aggressive and transmit at highest data rate possible 4)Provide a method for fast and efficient re-transmission E

25 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April F-PDCH Frame Format –Minimum = 1.25 ms = 1 slot –Lower rates get more consecutive slots –Three possible modulations: QPSK, 8-PSK, or 16-QAM –Data rates defined by a total of 127 combinations per sub-packet –Up to 28 code channels of length 32 are available to use Time Slot duration = 1.25 ms User A SubPkt (QPSK) Ctrl A User B SubPkt (16-QAM) Ctrl B User C SubPkt (QPSK) Ctrl C User A SubPkt (16-QAM) Ctrl A Packet Data Channel Control Channel 6 possible physical layer payloads: 386, 770, 1538, 2306, 3074, 3842 bits Three possible transmission durations: 1, 2, or 4 slots of 1.25ms Destination MS, modulation, coding, and Walsh codes explicitly indicated in control channel (F-PDCCH) E

26 1xEV-DO: New Enhancements Revision A

27 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Whats Next for CDMA2000 1xEV-DO? Multimedia Services, Increase Data Rates and System Capacity, and Lower Costs Personal Media Multiple channels of video/audio Instant Multi-media Audio and video together Quality of Service (QOS) Different levels of priority Location-based services (LBS) High resolution locations 2x Multicarrier Two 1xEV-DO carriers simultaneously, doubling data rates Equalizer Increase sector capacity 20-60% Receive Diversity 4X capacity in 1.25 MHz

28 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April xEV-DO Release A Enhancements Capacity Improvement relative to existing 1xEV-DO systems –Higher Data Rates on both Forward and Reverse Links –Better utilization of PL throughput with improved RL MAC algorithms QOS Support with improved Latency Characteristics –Low, Bounded Latency for CBR applications (VoIP, Gaming etc.) –Low, Transient Latency for sporadic, interactive traffic (Telnet etc.) Similar link budget as the current system Backward compatibility and Interoperability with legacy DO systems

29 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Physical and MAC Layer Features Reverse Link –Physical Layer Hybrid ARQ: CDMA with Hybrid ARQ –Flexible Packet Length –Higher Peak Rate (153.6 kbps 1.8 Mbps) –Finer Rate Quantization –Enhanced MAC Algorithms –Improved Latency Performance and Better QoS Support Forward Link –Improved Packing Efficiency –Higher Peak Rate (2.4 Mbps 3.1 Mbps) –Improved QoS Support

30 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Physical & MAC Layer Features Shorter Packets with Incremental Transmission –Up to four bursts of 4-slot transmissions (4-slot subpackets) –8-slot interval between successive transmissions of the same packet –Three ARQ interlaces Physical Layer Based Hybrid ARQ (PL ARQ) –3-slot ARQ (ie, ACK/NAK) Signal on the FL, between two successive transmissions of the same RL packet –Packet Soft combining with Incremental Redundancy MAC Layer Based ARQ Enhanced reliability of last ARQ message of a packet Detect packet erasure after the final burst of packet transmission MAC Layer Retransmission of erased physical layer packets

31 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Physical Layer ARQ Timeline

32 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Key Factors to Better Performance Capacity Improvement –Higher Data Rates and Finer Quantization Data rates ranging from 4.8 kbps to 1.8 Mbps Smoother rate transitions and interference variation –Improved code rates and higher order modulation for large packets QPSK modulation introduced Data channel spreading uses either or both of 2-ary and 4-ary Walsh code channel Code rate 1/5 for all 16-slot packets –Hybrid ARQ with IR Enables packet to early terminate in the presence of channel variation and imperfect power control

33 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Key Factors to Better Performance Latency Improvement –Ability to start a new packet at 4-slot boundaries –Terminals have the ability to boost transmit power to force packet termination after the first, second or third sub packets The power boost procedure is regulated by RL MAC Flexibility in the choice of Payload Size Vs. Data Rate combinations –Bigger/Longer Packets provide more coding gain, time diversity, and are more capacity-efficient –Smaller/Shorter Packets provide better packing efficiency (for low rate traffic) and are more delay-efficient

34 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Throughput & Latency Results

35 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Performance Evaluation Preliminary simulation results show –Near 50% improvement in capacity over Rev. 0 with similar latency performance 10 AT/sector ~ Capacity = 600 kbps –Over 60% improvement in latency reduction over Rev. 0 with similar capacity performance Tradeoff between capacity and latency tradeoff –Use bigger and longer packets for higher capacity –Use smaller and shorter packets to achieve lower latency

36 New Enhancements in WCDMA Technologies

37 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April G WCDMA is Here Today QUALCOMM WCDMA Handset Estimate As of January 21, M subs in Japan Jan 2004, FOMA coverage area from 98% to 99% by the end of FY03 4M 15M Source: DoCoMo Q303 Earnings

38 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April WCDMA Enhancements Release 4 Enhancements –All-IP Core Network –Efficient IP support –Expected Date of Commercial Deployments: Y2004 Release 5 Enhancements –High Speed Packet Data Channel (HSPDA) Peak Data Rates: 14.4 Mbps Average Sector Throughput: 2.2 to 4.2 Mbps in 5 MHz spectrum Modulation Schemes: QPSK & 16-QAM Expected Date of Commercial Deployments: Y2005 Release 6 Enhancements –Enhanced Uplink (EUL)

39 WCDMA HSDPA: Overview Release 5

40 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April HSDPA Features Overlay on top of regular R99 W-CDMA Channels New Forward Link Data Channel similar to EV-DV Hybrid ARQ –Incremental Redundancy –Soft Combining –Modulation Rearrangement –Fast Re-transmissions Adaptive Modulation and Coding –Channel sensitive scheduling Based on Channel Quality Information feedback –Adaptive/Asynchronous re-transmissions –Higher order modulation (QPSK & 16QAM)

41 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Features (cont.) CDM to be able to schedule multiple users in parallel Mobility achieved through higher layer signaling Associated Dedicated Channel –Maximum spreading factor SF256 –Used to transmit higher layer signaling Multiple UE capabilities –Modulation (support for 16QAM) –Number of codes –Inter-TTI time (Nb of HARQ processes)

42 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Deployment Aspects Higher data-rates through the back-bone –10Mbps peak rate –2Mbps average rate More complex Node-B –Protocol termination –Scheduling/Rate selection UE Capabilities –Support of different UE classes –Varying performance / complexity / costs –12 different classes From 900kbps-14.4Mbps peak rate Support for 16QAM Support for 5/10/15 SF16 Codes

43 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April HSDPA Performance Theoretical limit –14.4Mbps (3840kcps*15/16*4) –Essentially impossible to obtain in the field Practical limit –10Mbps (3840kcps*15/16*4*3/4) –A single active UE in the network –Highest capabilities –Very close to the BTS Average data-rate based on simulations –2.5Mbps for full capability UEs –2Mbps for limited capability UEs (5/15 codes, no 16QAM)

44 WCDMA EUL: Overview Release 6

45 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April WCDMA Enhancements Release 6 Enhancements –Enhanced Uplink (EUL) Increased average cell throughput Peak Data Rates: 4 Mbps Uses adaptive Modulation Schemes Uses QPSK Modulation Hybrid-ARQ Protocols EUL will be strictly scheduled –Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Systems (MBMS) –MIMO Techniques and Beam forming Enhancements –Expected Data of Completion of Standards: Dec 2004 –Expected Date of Commercial Deployments: Y2006

46 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April EUL Design Goals Increase average cell throughput –Peak throughput is not a major driving factor Node-B scheduling –Reduced turn-around time Improved link efficiency –Boosted phase reference –Retransmissions with IR

47 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April EUL Baseline Design Proposal Node-B Scheduled system TTI = 2 ms or 10 ms –UE allowed to use only one TTI –Typical mapping based on UE SHO status Modulation –QPSK SF = 4 –Maximum number of OVSF codes = 3 HARQ –Synchronous operation Retransmissions –4 redundancy versions –Incremental redundancy (IR) Peak Rate –4.096 Mbps with 2 ms TTI –819.2 kbps with 10 ms TTI

48 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April E-DPDCH – Sample MCS – 2 ms IndexTBSMod # of codes Code Rate 1 Tx Data Rate (kbps) 2 Tx Data Rate (kbps) 4 Tx Data Rate (kbps) 31024QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK

49 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Summary 3G wireless services are rapidly spreading the global market place with CDMA as the preferred technology solution The following are the key 3G Technologies that have emerged to be the key commercial players: –CDMA2000 1X –CDMA2000 1xEV-DO –WCDMA The main focus of 3G so far has been to provide high capacity voice and higher downlink data throughput –26 Erlangs in 1.25 MHz voice capacity with CDMA2000 1x –1.15 Mbps in 1.25 MHz downlink average sector throughput with 1xEV-DO –51 Erlangs in 5 MHz voice capacity with WCDMA A host of new enhancements are underway for all flavors of 3G CDMA technologies –More Capable Uplink –Provision for higher data rates for both Up and Down links –All IP, QoS and Support for Multimedia applications –3.1 Mbps in 1.25 MHz carrier Downlink Peak Data Rates with 1xEV-DO –4.1 Mbps in 5 MHz carrier Uplink Peak Data Rates with WCDMA/HSDPA –52 Erlangs Voice Capacity in 1.25 MHz carrier with CDMA2000

50 Thank You

51 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April xEV-DV: Data and Voice Performance Issues Optimal data solution is possible when packet data is sent on a dedicated RF channel where data throughput can be maximized by using the following techniques: –Transmit full power and use all code channels whenever data is to be transmitted –Apply multi-user diversity with channel-sensitive scheduling –Use Adaptive modulation and coding –Use Incremental redundancy (H-ARQ) BS transmit power and number of code channels in use vary rapidly because of fast forward power control and soft handoffs of voice users Requires reserving margin in both power and code channels for voice traffic Power may not be available for an optimal data solution –Not able to transmit at high data rates even if channel condition is good Results in loss in data throughput without gaining in voice capacity A net loss in efficiency

52 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April RL Packet Parameters (1) Payload Size (bits) Modu- lation Effective Data Rate (kbps)Code Rate [ Repetition ] After 4 slots After 8 slots After 12 slots After 16 slots After 4 slots After 8 slots After 12 slots After 16 slots [1] 128BPSK D /5 [ 3.2 ] 1/5 [ 6.4 ] 1/5 [ 9.6] 1/5 [ 12.8] [2] 256BPSK D /5 [ 1.6 ] 1/5 [ 3.2 ] 1/5 [ 4.8 ] 1/5 [ 6.4] [3] 512BPSK D /4 [ 1 ] 1/5 [1.6] 1/5 [2.4] 1/5 [3.2] [4] 768BPSK D /8 [ 1 ] 1/5 [1.07] 1/5 [ 1.6] 1/5 [ 2.13] [5] 1024BPSK D /2 [ 1] 1/4 [ 1 ] 1/5 [ 1.2] 1/5 [1.6]

53 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April RL Packet Parameters (2) Payload (bits) Modu- lation Effective Data Rate in kbpsCode Rate [ Repetition ] After 4 slots After 8 slots After 12 slots After 16 slots After 4 slots After 8 slots After 12 slots After 16 slots [6] 1536QPSK D /8 [ 1 ] 1/5 [1.07] 1/5 [ 1.6] 1/5 [ 2.13] [7] 2048QPSK D /2 [ 1 ] 1/4 [ 1 ] 1/5 [ 1.2] 1/5 [1.6] [8] 3072QPSK D /8 [ 1 ] 1/5 [1.07] 1/5 [1.6] 1/5 [2.13] [9] 4096QPSK D /2 [ 1 ] 1/4 [ 1 ] 1/5 [ 1.2] 1/5 [1.6] [10] 6144 QPSK D0 & D /2 [ 1 ] 1/4 [ 1 ] 1/5 [ 1.2] 1/5 [1.6] [11] 8192 QPSK D0 & D /3 [ 1 ] 1/3 [ 1 ] 2/9 [ 1 ] 1/5 [1.2] [12] QPSK ½ ¼ 1/5 1/5

54 Latest Trends and New Enhancements April Reverse Link Channel Structure


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