Presentation on theme: "Home Networking Residential Gateway"— Presentation transcript:
1Home Networking Residential Gateway 3/28/2017Joint Meeting May 21, 2001OCCS and OC ComSigSocHome Networking Residential GatewayDwight BorsesMember of the Technical StaffField Applications EngineerIrvine Field Sales Office
2Outline of Talk (as Advertised) -- Residential Gateways ( Broadband to the home ) are the main reason for home networking.-- Popular physical media for connecting the gateway to the rest of the home: phone line, power line, and Wireless.-- Technical issues involved in high-data rate transmission over above media. In all three cases, the same spread-spectrum modulation technique has been adopted.-- Comparison of the data rate, cost, reliability, etc. of the three choices of media.
3Topics Under Discussion 3/28/2017Topics Under DiscussionBasic definitions of a GatewayValue to Consumer & Service ProviderConnectivity optionsProtocolsSoftwareInterfaces
43/28/2017A gateway MUST…What it is: A Residential Gateway is a bridge between media.Media can be networks, interfaces, or even data formats.What it does: A gateway enables the exchange of data between devices.
5A gateway CAN… Gateways CAN include many other optional features… 3/28/2017A gateway CAN…Gateways CAN include many other optional features…Data, Video, Audio ServersAdditional user interfaces (CRT, TV out)Extra software (Applications, games)Fax ServerPrint ServerData vault…as long as they don’t limit the primary gateway function!These are NON-ESSENTIAL features, and may even reduce the true value of the gateway, by impacting system MTBF, configuration, throughput, etc.
6Impact of added features 3/28/2017Impact of added featuresEach added feature carries a burdenHardware componentSoftware componentConfiguration componentManagement componentSystem MTBF impact
7Why do I want one? Few people ‘want’ a gateway 3/28/2017Why do I want one?Few people ‘want’ a gatewayLet’s see…juice, eggs, gateway, toothpaste…Many people NEED gatewaysSecure access to the WebMultiple devices need to communicateMultiple network types used in the homeSharing connections to the outside worldConsolidation of data transport into/out from the homeNot NEEDED if you only have one device in the home (exception: gateways that split multiple functions coming to/from the home, such as voice (telephone) and data (Web access).
8Value to the Consumer Secure connections to the Internet (firewall) 3/28/2017Value to the ConsumerSecure connections to the Internet (firewall)Secure telecommuting (VPN)Sharing of broadband Internet accessSeamless connectivity for ALL in-home devices, across ALL network typesEasy to setup and useAutomatic configurationRemote feature managementAutomatic updatesSecurity and SafetyRemote monitoring of intrusion and fire alarmsHome AutomationControlling devices in the home locally and remotely
9Value to the Service Provider 3/28/2017Value to the Service ProviderConsolidate delivery of services to the homeTelephonyInternet accessAudio / Video contentEnable new servicesRemote monitoring and control for Utilities and alarms (meter reading, power managing, security services)On-demand feature expansion (additional phone lines, faster data access, movie rental)Reduced on-site service (no truck rolls)
10Requirements for Gateways 3/28/2017Requirements for GatewaysAlways onHigh MTBFSelf diagnosing (not fault tolerant – fault ‘aware’)ExpandablePoint-of-manufacture expansion (fixed, internal)Consumer expansion (hot pluggable, external)Quiet, non-obtrusiveCost effective at a system level (BOM cost doesn’t necessarily = system cost)Network agnosticThe gateway should support any interface the customer choosesThe customer shouldn’t be restricted by an enabling device!
11Problems with Gateways 3/28/2017Problems with GatewaysNo single standardMany proposed standardsGateways don’t play well togetherDHCP server / client configurationDNS server / client configurationMay interfere with Discovery services‘gateway behind a gateway’ hard to remotely manageMust be consumer friendly (nearly foolproof)Automatic, remote, or simple non-technical setupFault ‘aware’Automatic recovery from transient faultsAutomatic ‘fail-over’ for lifeline services (POTS)Hot plug external expansion
12Firewalls Why How Same reasons as the lock on your front door 3/28/2017FirewallsWhySame reasons as the lock on your front doorHowGateway monitors all traffic from WANAllows client requests to pass from LAN to WANAllows server responses to pass into LANIgnores requests that originate on WAN, unless the request can be authenticated
13VPN –Virtual Private Network 3/28/2017VPN –Virtual Private NetworkWhat is it?A method for securely exchanging data across unsecure networksHow does it work?Gateways on both ends agree on encryption keyEach IP that is destined for the private network is encryptedThen the encrypted packet is encapsulated within an unencrypted IP packet, and sent across the Internet to the other gateway
14Connections to the Outside 3/28/2017Connections to the OutsideCommon for most Broadband connections:Always on ( or < 2 second ‘connect’)High data ratesNot intrusive (doesn’t consume a resource (e.g. phone line))Enables new usage models for InternetStreaming audio / videoHighly interactive gamingRemote security / monitoring
15Connections to the Outside 3/28/2017Connections to the OutsideDSL (ADSL, G.lite, IDSL, SDSL,VDSL)ADSL1 Mbps up/ 8 Mbps down, 500 Kbps typ.Operates up to 18k ft. from COG.lite512 Kbps up, 1.5 Mbps downSplitterless (potential for consumer install)SDSLSymmetric up/down speed, up to 3 MbpsIDSLUses ISDN coding, 144 Kbps, symmetricVDSL2.5 –10 Mbps up, 30 –42 Mbps downOperates up to 4500 ft. from COProtocol is ATM (data link layer) for all DSL
16Connections to the Outside 3/28/2017Connections to the OutsideCableDOCSIS compliance testing improves interoperability3-10 Mbps up / Mbps down, 3 Mbps typ. (varies)Protocol is (data link layer of Ethernet)ISDNDigital service (requires ‘adapter’ to use analog phones in the home)2B(data) + 1D(signalling) = 128Kbps (64k/channel)
17Connections to the Outside 3/28/2017Connections to the OutsideFixed Wireless (terrestrial)Wide range of speeds: 128Kbps to 2MbpsTransceiver and antenna mounted on house2-way SatelliteSimilar to satellite TV, except box also contains transmitterSpeeds 256Kbps – 2Mbps (not verified)Possible latency issues may affect voice services, since RTT is ~0.5 seconds!FTTH (Fiber To The Home) & FTTC (Fiber To The Curb)In trials in US (infancy)Single delivery point for all home services (telephone, data, cable TV, etc)
18Connections on the Inside 3/28/2017Connections on the InsideExisting wires (No New Wires)Telephone wiringHPNARev 1.0 is ~1Mbps ethernetRev 2.0 is ~10 Mbps, with QoS enhancementsElectrical wiring Why A Powerline Bus....Because Its Everywhere!HomePlugEstimated 20MbpsX10Old, one-way (no ack) 50bps protocolLonworks Power Line Interface5.4KbpsProtocol, devices, SW, controlled by EchelonCEBus7Kbps, using CAL protocol
19Powerline TechnologyMost pervasive medium with multiple outlets in every roomCost effectiveAvailability worldwideEasy to adopt by consumersEasy to installUtilizes existing power source for communications
20CEBus® Standard's Powerline Carrier Technology Uses the home's 120v, 60 cycle, electrical wiring to transport messages between household devices.Uses Spread Spectrum technology to overcome communication impediments found within the home's electrical powerline.Spreads its signal over a range from 100Hz to 400Hz during each bit in the packet.Instead of frequency hopping or direct sequence spreading, CEBus sweeps through a range of frequencies as it istransmitted.
21HomePlugThe HomePlug PHY uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the basic transmission technique.HomePlug uses OFDM in a burst mode rather than in continuous mode.HomePlug technology also uses concatenated Viterbi and Reed Solomon FEC with interleaving for payload data, and turbo product coding (TPC) for sensitive control data fields.
22Connections Inside New wires required Ethernet IEEE 1394 3/28/2017Connections InsideNew wires requiredEthernet10/100/1000 Mbps (Apple)It’s ethernet, need I say more?IEEE 1394400Mbps – 3.2Gbps(rev b)Used primarily for video & storage (today)Supports peer – peer transactionsLonworks twisted pair transceivers (obscure)RS485 (obscure)
23Connections Inside Wireless 802.11a/b 802.11b widely available today 3/28/2017Connections InsideWireless802.11a/b802.11b widely available today11Mbps, stepping to 5.5, 2, and 1Mbps2.4GHz, DSSSApple AirPort802.11a available 2H/0154MbpsShares MAC w/ bMAC currently under revision to add QoS & higher security (802.11e)
24Connections Inside Wireless Bluetooth PAN, not LAN!! 3/28/2017Connections InsideWirelessBluetoothPAN, not LAN!!1 master, 7 active slaves, 256 sync’d devicesShort range (10m) IRDA-like themeWill be ubiquitous, if low $$ achieved2.4GHz, FHSSHomeRF1.0 is 1Mbps (now)2.0 is 10Mbps (soon)Has support for voice channelsToo late! Loses to
25Connections Inside Wireless DECT 3/28/2017Connections InsideWirelessDECTOriginally designed for cordless telephonesBeing (ill)extended to other LAN-like functions1.8GHz (2.4GHz in US)TDMA, up to 12 voice slots552Kbps max., using all slotsSpeed enhancements proposedGood for voice, loses to or Bluetooth for data
26Protocol Soup – OSI Layers 3/28/2017Protocol Soup – OSI Layers
27Protocol Soup General info: PPP (Point to Point Protocol) 3/28/2017Protocol SoupGeneral info:PPP (Point to Point Protocol)Commonly used for dialup connectionsNow being used in broadband networks, since the dialup model is well understoodIP is a ‘best effort’ service (no guarantees)UDP is simplest, but only ‘best effort’TCP is most complex, most reliableConnection oriented, reliable (error checking)Handshake ‘acks’ to open connection, send data, close connectionMultiple levels of encapsulation make the job of sending data over a network easier (use what is already proven to work), at the expense of efficiency.
28Voice Services: Introduction 3/28/2017Voice Services: IntroductionLarge interest in using the gateway to provide digital voice services to the homeQuality of Service (QoS) is THE largest factor for providing these services to the gatewayVoice services consist of two basic parts:Voice data: digitized, sometimes compressed, has strict requirements on minimum bandwidth and maximum jitter / latencySignaling information: Provides network with necessary information to initiate and terminate the call.Designed to utilize existing networks (Internet, or PSTN [POTS and PANS] –Public Switched Telephone Network)
29Voice Services: Introduction 3/28/2017Voice Services: IntroductionThe standards for Voice over broadband networks:cVoDSL - channelized Voice over DSLVoATM - Voice over ATMVoMBN - Voice over Multiservice Broadband Networks, or VoIP - Voice over IPAll attempt to allow for mixed data/voice traffic across same interfaceThere is a separate standard for digitized voice over analog modem (over POTS line)
30Voice Services: Differences 3/28/2017Voice Services: DifferencesVoIPMost forward-looking standard, since all data is contained within standard IP packetsUtilizes resilient nature of Internet to route trafficCurrently, QoS is not toll quality across Internet, since existing protocols do not provide prioritization of isochronous (real time) data over asynchronous (bulk) data.Quality should improve when IPv6 is deployedOf greatest interest to non-telco service providers, as it provides means of supplying telephony services to the home without needing to access existing telephone network (PSTN) infrastructureVoIP is feasible today on closed networks
31Operating Systems No ‘best’ gateway OS We (NSC)are OS agnostic 3/28/2017Operating SystemsNo ‘best’ gateway OSWe (NSC)are OS agnosticAll the usual suspects…Microsoft (many flavors)Linux (many flavors)QNX (RTOS)Wind River (RTOS)CP/M (just kidding…)
32Gateway Architectures 3/28/2017Gateway ArchitecturesSome basic gateway types:Non-expandable (network processor based)Lowest initial costDifficult to integrate with other gatewaysFull-featuredHigh initial costLower cost per interface, due to integration at time of manufactureConfigurable, expandableLow initial costCan function as single gateway for all interfacesMost versatile, feature set fits exact customer needs
35Pieces We (NSC)Have Compute engine Interface Components 3/28/2017Pieces We (NSC)HaveCompute engineSeveral classes of processorsGX/55XXSCx200CR16Interface Components1394Networking ComponentsMacPhyter 10/100 EthernetHPNA 1.0Bluetooth (in development)802.11a (in development)HomeRF (RF portion)All the supporting functionality (power management - regulation, environment monitoring) for a complete system
36And people that have ‘em… 3/28/2017And people that have ‘em…X