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Home Networking Residential Gateway

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1 Home Networking Residential Gateway
3/28/2017 Joint Meeting May 21, 2001 OCCS and OC ComSigSoc Home Networking Residential Gateway Dwight Borses Member of the Technical Staff Field Applications Engineer Irvine Field Sales Office

2 Outline of Talk (as Advertised)
-- Residential Gateways ( Broadband to the home ) are the main reason for home networking. -- Popular physical media for connecting the gateway to the rest of the home: phone line, power line, and Wireless. -- Technical issues involved in high-data rate transmission over above media. In all three cases, the same spread-spectrum modulation technique has been adopted. -- Comparison of the data rate, cost, reliability, etc. of the three choices of media.

3 Topics Under Discussion
3/28/2017 Topics Under Discussion Basic definitions of a Gateway Value to Consumer & Service Provider Connectivity options Protocols Software Interfaces

4 3/28/2017 A gateway MUST… What it is: A Residential Gateway is a bridge between media. Media can be networks, interfaces, or even data formats. What it does: A gateway enables the exchange of data between devices.

5 A gateway CAN… Gateways CAN include many other optional features…
3/28/2017 A gateway CAN… Gateways CAN include many other optional features… Data, Video, Audio Servers Additional user interfaces (CRT, TV out) Extra software (Applications, games) Fax Server Print Server Data vault …as long as they don’t limit the primary gateway function! These are NON-ESSENTIAL features, and may even reduce the true value of the gateway, by impacting system MTBF, configuration, throughput, etc.

6 Impact of added features
3/28/2017 Impact of added features Each added feature carries a burden Hardware component Software component Configuration component Management component System MTBF impact

7 Why do I want one? Few people ‘want’ a gateway
3/28/2017 Why do I want one? Few people ‘want’ a gateway Let’s see…juice, eggs, gateway, toothpaste… Many people NEED gateways Secure access to the Web Multiple devices need to communicate Multiple network types used in the home Sharing connections to the outside world Consolidation of data transport into/out from the home Not NEEDED if you only have one device in the home (exception: gateways that split multiple functions coming to/from the home, such as voice (telephone) and data (Web access).

8 Value to the Consumer Secure connections to the Internet (firewall)
3/28/2017 Value to the Consumer Secure connections to the Internet (firewall) Secure telecommuting (VPN) Sharing of broadband Internet access Seamless connectivity for ALL in-home devices, across ALL network types Easy to setup and use Automatic configuration Remote feature management Automatic updates Security and Safety Remote monitoring of intrusion and fire alarms Home Automation Controlling devices in the home locally and remotely

9 Value to the Service Provider
3/28/2017 Value to the Service Provider Consolidate delivery of services to the home Telephony Internet access Audio / Video content Enable new services Remote monitoring and control for Utilities and alarms (meter reading, power managing, security services) On-demand feature expansion (additional phone lines, faster data access, movie rental) Reduced on-site service (no truck rolls)

10 Requirements for Gateways
3/28/2017 Requirements for Gateways Always on High MTBF Self diagnosing (not fault tolerant – fault ‘aware’) Expandable Point-of-manufacture expansion (fixed, internal) Consumer expansion (hot pluggable, external) Quiet, non-obtrusive Cost effective at a system level (BOM cost doesn’t necessarily = system cost) Network agnostic The gateway should support any interface the customer chooses The customer shouldn’t be restricted by an enabling device!

11 Problems with Gateways
3/28/2017 Problems with Gateways No single standard Many proposed standards Gateways don’t play well together DHCP server / client configuration DNS server / client configuration May interfere with Discovery services ‘gateway behind a gateway’ hard to remotely manage Must be consumer friendly (nearly foolproof) Automatic, remote, or simple non-technical setup Fault ‘aware’ Automatic recovery from transient faults Automatic ‘fail-over’ for lifeline services (POTS) Hot plug external expansion

12 Firewalls Why How Same reasons as the lock on your front door
3/28/2017 Firewalls Why Same reasons as the lock on your front door How Gateway monitors all traffic from WAN Allows client requests to pass from LAN to WAN Allows server responses to pass into LAN Ignores requests that originate on WAN, unless the request can be authenticated

13 VPN –Virtual Private Network
3/28/2017 VPN –Virtual Private Network What is it? A method for securely exchanging data across unsecure networks How does it work? Gateways on both ends agree on encryption key Each IP that is destined for the private network is encrypted Then the encrypted packet is encapsulated within an unencrypted IP packet, and sent across the Internet to the other gateway

14 Connections to the Outside
3/28/2017 Connections to the Outside Common for most Broadband connections: Always on ( or < 2 second ‘connect’) High data rates Not intrusive (doesn’t consume a resource (e.g. phone line)) Enables new usage models for Internet Streaming audio / video Highly interactive gaming Remote security / monitoring

15 Connections to the Outside
3/28/2017 Connections to the Outside DSL (ADSL, G.lite, IDSL, SDSL,VDSL) ADSL 1 Mbps up/ 8 Mbps down, 500 Kbps typ. Operates up to 18k ft. from CO G.lite 512 Kbps up, 1.5 Mbps down Splitterless (potential for consumer install) SDSL Symmetric up/down speed, up to 3 Mbps IDSL Uses ISDN coding, 144 Kbps, symmetric VDSL 2.5 –10 Mbps up, 30 –42 Mbps down Operates up to 4500 ft. from CO Protocol is ATM (data link layer) for all DSL

16 Connections to the Outside
3/28/2017 Connections to the Outside Cable DOCSIS compliance testing improves interoperability 3-10 Mbps up / Mbps down, 3 Mbps typ. (varies) Protocol is (data link layer of Ethernet) ISDN Digital service (requires ‘adapter’ to use analog phones in the home) 2B(data) + 1D(signalling) = 128Kbps (64k/channel)

17 Connections to the Outside
3/28/2017 Connections to the Outside Fixed Wireless (terrestrial) Wide range of speeds: 128Kbps to 2Mbps Transceiver and antenna mounted on house 2-way Satellite Similar to satellite TV, except box also contains transmitter Speeds 256Kbps – 2Mbps (not verified) Possible latency issues may affect voice services, since RTT is ~0.5 seconds! FTTH (Fiber To The Home) & FTTC (Fiber To The Curb) In trials in US (infancy) Single delivery point for all home services (telephone, data, cable TV, etc)

18 Connections on the Inside
3/28/2017 Connections on the Inside Existing wires (No New Wires) Telephone wiring HPNA Rev 1.0 is ~1Mbps ethernet Rev 2.0 is ~10 Mbps, with QoS enhancements Electrical wiring Why A Powerline Bus....Because Its Everywhere! HomePlug Estimated 20Mbps X10 Old, one-way (no ack) 50bps protocol Lonworks Power Line Interface 5.4Kbps Protocol, devices, SW, controlled by Echelon CEBus 7Kbps, using CAL protocol

19 Powerline Technology Most pervasive medium with multiple outlets in every room Cost effective Availability worldwide Easy to adopt by consumers Easy to install Utilizes existing power source for communications

20 CEBus® Standard's Powerline Carrier Technology
Uses the home's 120v, 60 cycle, electrical wiring to transport messages between household devices. Uses Spread Spectrum technology to overcome communication impediments found within the home's electrical powerline. Spreads its signal over a range from 100Hz to 400Hz during each bit in the packet. Instead of frequency hopping or direct sequence spreading, CEBus sweeps through a range of frequencies as it istransmitted.

21 HomePlug The HomePlug PHY uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the basic transmission technique. HomePlug uses OFDM in a burst mode rather than in continuous mode. HomePlug technology also uses concatenated Viterbi and Reed Solomon FEC with interleaving for payload data, and turbo product coding (TPC) for sensitive control data fields.

22 Connections Inside New wires required Ethernet IEEE 1394
3/28/2017 Connections Inside New wires required Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbps (Apple) It’s ethernet, need I say more? IEEE 1394 400Mbps – 3.2Gbps(rev b) Used primarily for video & storage (today) Supports peer – peer transactions Lonworks twisted pair transceivers (obscure) RS485 (obscure)

23 Connections Inside Wireless 802.11a/b 802.11b widely available today
3/28/2017 Connections Inside Wireless 802.11a/b 802.11b widely available today 11Mbps, stepping to 5.5, 2, and 1Mbps 2.4GHz, DSSS Apple AirPort 802.11a available 2H/01 54Mbps Shares MAC w/ b MAC currently under revision to add QoS & higher security (802.11e)

24 Connections Inside Wireless Bluetooth PAN, not LAN!!
3/28/2017 Connections Inside Wireless Bluetooth PAN, not LAN!! 1 master, 7 active slaves, 256 sync’d devices Short range (10m) IRDA-like theme Will be ubiquitous, if low $$ achieved 2.4GHz, FHSS HomeRF 1.0 is 1Mbps (now) 2.0 is 10Mbps (soon) Has support for voice channels Too late! Loses to

25 Connections Inside Wireless DECT
3/28/2017 Connections Inside Wireless DECT Originally designed for cordless telephones Being (ill)extended to other LAN-like functions 1.8GHz (2.4GHz in US) TDMA, up to 12 voice slots 552Kbps max., using all slots Speed enhancements proposed Good for voice, loses to or Bluetooth for data

26 Protocol Soup – OSI Layers
3/28/2017 Protocol Soup – OSI Layers

27 Protocol Soup General info: PPP (Point to Point Protocol)
3/28/2017 Protocol Soup General info: PPP (Point to Point Protocol) Commonly used for dialup connections Now being used in broadband networks, since the dialup model is well understood IP is a ‘best effort’ service (no guarantees) UDP is simplest, but only ‘best effort’ TCP is most complex, most reliable Connection oriented, reliable (error checking) Handshake ‘acks’ to open connection, send data, close connection Multiple levels of encapsulation make the job of sending data over a network easier (use what is already proven to work), at the expense of efficiency.

28 Voice Services: Introduction
3/28/2017 Voice Services: Introduction Large interest in using the gateway to provide digital voice services to the home Quality of Service (QoS) is THE largest factor for providing these services to the gateway Voice services consist of two basic parts: Voice data: digitized, sometimes compressed, has strict requirements on minimum bandwidth and maximum jitter / latency Signaling information: Provides network with necessary information to initiate and terminate the call. Designed to utilize existing networks (Internet, or PSTN [POTS and PANS] –Public Switched Telephone Network)

29 Voice Services: Introduction
3/28/2017 Voice Services: Introduction The standards for Voice over broadband networks: cVoDSL - channelized Voice over DSL VoATM - Voice over ATM VoMBN - Voice over Multiservice Broadband Networks, or VoIP - Voice over IP All attempt to allow for mixed data/voice traffic across same interface There is a separate standard for digitized voice over analog modem (over POTS line)

30 Voice Services: Differences
3/28/2017 Voice Services: Differences VoIP Most forward-looking standard, since all data is contained within standard IP packets Utilizes resilient nature of Internet to route traffic Currently, QoS is not toll quality across Internet, since existing protocols do not provide prioritization of isochronous (real time) data over asynchronous (bulk) data. Quality should improve when IPv6 is deployed Of greatest interest to non-telco service providers, as it provides means of supplying telephony services to the home without needing to access existing telephone network (PSTN) infrastructure VoIP is feasible today on closed networks

31 Operating Systems No ‘best’ gateway OS We (NSC)are OS agnostic
3/28/2017 Operating Systems No ‘best’ gateway OS We (NSC)are OS agnostic All the usual suspects… Microsoft (many flavors) Linux (many flavors) QNX (RTOS) Wind River (RTOS) CP/M (just kidding…)

32 Gateway Architectures
3/28/2017 Gateway Architectures Some basic gateway types: Non-expandable (network processor based) Lowest initial cost Difficult to integrate with other gateways Full-featured High initial cost Lower cost per interface, due to integration at time of manufacture Configurable, expandable Low initial cost Can function as single gateway for all interfaces Most versatile, feature set fits exact customer needs

33 Gateway Architectures
3/28/2017 Gateway Architectures Internal low cost, popular, Interfaces: PCI IDE USB LPC External SW friendly, hot-pluggable Interfaces: 1394 10/100baseT Ethernet

34 Gateway Architectures
3/28/2017 Gateway Architectures MFG Expansion (Internal) Core Compute Engine (X86) User Expansion Modules (External) USB Internal Expansion Interfaces External Expansion Interfaces USB MFG Expansion (Internal) PCI User Expansion Modules (External) 1394 MFG Expansion (Internal) LPC IDE Clocks System microcontroller OS/Application storage PWR regulation

35 Pieces We (NSC)Have Compute engine Interface Components
3/28/2017 Pieces We (NSC)Have Compute engine Several classes of processors GX/55XX SCx200 CR16 Interface Components 1394 Networking Components MacPhyter 10/100 Ethernet HPNA 1.0 Bluetooth (in development) 802.11a (in development) HomeRF (RF portion) All the supporting functionality (power management - regulation, environment monitoring) for a complete system

36 And people that have ‘em…
3/28/2017 And people that have ‘em… X

37 3/28/2017 Thank You! Q&A 37

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