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1 Home Networking Residential Gateway Dwight Borses Member of the Technical Staff Field Applications Engineer Irvine Field Sales Office Joint Meeting May.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Home Networking Residential Gateway Dwight Borses Member of the Technical Staff Field Applications Engineer Irvine Field Sales Office Joint Meeting May."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Home Networking Residential Gateway Dwight Borses Member of the Technical Staff Field Applications Engineer Irvine Field Sales Office Joint Meeting May 21, 2001 OCCS and OC ComSigSoc

2 2 -- Residential Gateways ( Broadband to the home ) are the main reason for home networking. -- Popular physical media for connecting the gateway to the rest of the home: phone line, power line, and Wireless. -- Technical issues involved in high-data rate transmission over above media. In all three cases, the same spread- spectrum modulation technique has been adopted. -- Comparison of the data rate, cost, reliability, etc. of the three choices of media. Outline of Talk (as Advertised)

3 3 Topics Under Discussion Basic definitions of a Gateway Basic definitions of a Gateway Value to Consumer & Service Provider Value to Consumer & Service Provider Connectivity options Connectivity options Protocols Protocols Software Software Interfaces Interfaces

4 4 A gateway MUST… What it is: A Residential Gateway is a bridge between media. What it is: A Residential Gateway is a bridge between media. – Media can be networks, interfaces, or even data formats. What it does: A gateway enables the exchange of data between devices. What it does: A gateway enables the exchange of data between devices.

5 5 A gateway CAN… Gateways CAN include many other optional features… Gateways CAN include many other optional features… – Data, Video, Audio Servers – Additional user interfaces (CRT, TV out) – Extra software (Applications, games) – Fax Server – Print Server – Data vault …as long as they dont limit the primary gateway function! These are NON-ESSENTIAL features, and may even reduce the true value of the gateway, by impacting system MTBF, configuration, throughput, etc. These are NON-ESSENTIAL features, and may even reduce the true value of the gateway, by impacting system MTBF, configuration, throughput, etc.

6 6 Impact of added features Each added feature carries a burden Each added feature carries a burden – Hardware component – Software component – Configuration component – Management component – System MTBF impact

7 7 Why do I want one? Few people want a gateway Few people want a gateway – Lets see…juice, eggs, gateway, toothpaste… Many people NEED gateways Many people NEED gateways – Secure access to the Web – Multiple devices need to communicate – Multiple network types used in the home – Sharing connections to the outside world – Consolidation of data transport into/out from the home Not NEEDED if you only have one device in the home (exception: gateways that split multiple functions coming to/from the home, such as voice (telephone) and data (Web access). Not NEEDED if you only have one device in the home (exception: gateways that split multiple functions coming to/from the home, such as voice (telephone) and data (Web access).

8 8 Value to the Consumer Secure connections to the Internet (firewall) Secure connections to the Internet (firewall) Secure telecommuting (VPN) Secure telecommuting (VPN) Sharing of broadband Internet access Sharing of broadband Internet access Seamless connectivity for ALL in-home devices, across ALL network types Seamless connectivity for ALL in-home devices, across ALL network types Easy to setup and use Easy to setup and use – Automatic configuration – Remote feature management – Automatic updates Security and Safety Security and Safety – Remote monitoring of intrusion and fire alarms Home Automation Home Automation – Controlling devices in the home locally and remotely

9 9 Value to the Service Provider Consolidate delivery of services to the home Consolidate delivery of services to the home – Telephony – Internet access – Audio / Video content Enable new services Enable new services – Remote monitoring and control for Utilities and alarms (meter reading, power managing, security services) – On-demand feature expansion (additional phone lines, faster data access, movie rental) Reduced on-site service (no truck rolls) Reduced on-site service (no truck rolls)

10 10 Requirements for Gateways Always on Always on High MTBF High MTBF Self diagnosing (not fault tolerant – fault aware) Self diagnosing (not fault tolerant – fault aware) Expandable Expandable – Point-of-manufacture expansion (fixed, internal) – Consumer expansion (hot pluggable, external) Quiet, non-obtrusive Quiet, non-obtrusive Cost effective at a system level (BOM cost doesnt necessarily = system cost) Cost effective at a system level (BOM cost doesnt necessarily = system cost) Network agnostic Network agnostic – The gateway should support any interface the customer chooses – The customer shouldnt be restricted by an enabling device!

11 11 Problems with Gateways No single standard No single standard Many proposed standards Many proposed standards Gateways dont play well together Gateways dont play well together – DHCP server / client configuration – DNS server / client configuration – May interfere with Discovery services – gateway behind a gateway hard to remotely manage Must be consumer friendly (nearly foolproof) Must be consumer friendly (nearly foolproof) – Automatic, remote, or simple non-technical setup – Fault aware – Automatic recovery from transient faults – Automatic fail-over for lifeline services (POTS) – Hot plug external expansion

12 12 Firewalls Why Why – Same reasons as the lock on your front door How How – Gateway monitors all traffic from WAN – Allows client requests to pass from LAN to WAN – Allows server responses to pass into LAN – Ignores requests that originate on WAN, unless the request can be authenticated

13 13 VPN –Virtual Private Network What is it? What is it? – A method for securely exchanging data across unsecure networks How does it work? How does it work? – Gateways on both ends agree on encryption key – Each IP that is destined for the private network is encrypted – Then the encrypted packet is encapsulated within an unencrypted IP packet, and sent across the Internet to the other gateway

14 14 Connections to the Outside Common for most Broadband connections: Common for most Broadband connections: – Always on ( or < 2 second connect) – High data rates – Not intrusive (doesnt consume a resource (e.g. phone line)) – Enables new usage models for Internet Streaming audio / video Streaming audio / video Highly interactive gaming Highly interactive gaming Remote security / monitoring Remote security / monitoring

15 15 Connections to the Outside DSL (ADSL, G.lite, IDSL, SDSL,VDSL) DSL (ADSL, G.lite, IDSL, SDSL,VDSL) – ADSL 1 Mbps up/ 8 Mbps down, 500 Kbps typ. 1 Mbps up/ 8 Mbps down, 500 Kbps typ. Operates up to 18k ft. from CO Operates up to 18k ft. from CO – G.lite 512 Kbps up, 1.5 Mbps down 512 Kbps up, 1.5 Mbps down Splitterless (potential for consumer install) Splitterless (potential for consumer install) – SDSL Symmetric up/down speed, up to 3 Mbps Symmetric up/down speed, up to 3 Mbps – IDSL Uses ISDN coding, 144 Kbps, symmetric Uses ISDN coding, 144 Kbps, symmetric – VDSL 2.5 –10 Mbps up, 30 –42 Mbps down 2.5 –10 Mbps up, 30 –42 Mbps down Operates up to 4500 ft. from CO Operates up to 4500 ft. from CO Protocol is ATM (data link layer) for all DSL Protocol is ATM (data link layer) for all DSL

16 16 Connections to the Outside Cable Cable – DOCSIS compliance testing improves interoperability – 3-10 Mbps up / Mbps down, 3 Mbps typ. (varies) – Protocol is (data link layer of Ethernet) ISDN ISDN – Digital service (requires adapter to use analog phones in the home) – 2B(data) + 1D(signalling) = 128Kbps (64k/channel)

17 17 Connections to the Outside Fixed Wireless (terrestrial) Fixed Wireless (terrestrial) – Wide range of speeds: 128Kbps to 2Mbps – Transceiver and antenna mounted on house 2-way Satellite 2-way Satellite – Similar to satellite TV, except box also contains transmitter – Speeds 256Kbps – 2Mbps (not verified) – Possible latency issues may affect voice services, since RTT is ~0.5 seconds! FTTH (Fiber To The Home) & FTTC (Fiber To The Curb) FTTH (Fiber To The Home) & FTTC (Fiber To The Curb) – In trials in US (infancy) – Single delivery point for all home services (telephone, data, cable TV, etc)

18 18 Connections on the Inside Existing wires (No New Wires) – Telephone wiring HPNA HPNA – Rev 1.0 is ~1Mbps ethernet – Rev 2.0 is ~10 Mbps, with QoS enhancements – Electrical wiring Why A Powerline Bus....Because Its Everywhere! HomePlug HomePlug – Estimated 20Mbps X10 X10 – Old, one-way (no ack) 50bps protocol Lonworks Power Line Interface Lonworks Power Line Interface – 5.4Kbps – Protocol, devices, SW, controlled by Echelon CEBus CEBus – 7Kbps, using CAL protocol

19 19 Powerline Technology Most pervasive medium with multiple outlets in every room Most pervasive medium with multiple outlets in every room – Cost effective – Availability worldwide – Easy to adopt by consumers – Easy to install – Utilizes existing power source for communications

20 20 CEBus® Standard's Powerline Carrier Technology Uses the home's 120v, 60 cycle, electrical wiring to transport messages between household devices. Uses the home's 120v, 60 cycle, electrical wiring to transport messages between household devices. Uses Spread Spectrum technology to overcome communication impediments found within the home's electrical powerline. Uses Spread Spectrum technology to overcome communication impediments found within the home's electrical powerline. – Spreads its signal over a range from 100Hz to 400Hz during each bit in the packet. – Instead of frequency hopping or direct sequence spreading, CEBus sweeps through a range of frequencies as it istransmitted.

21 21 HomePlug The HomePlug PHY uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the basic transmission technique. The HomePlug PHY uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as the basic transmission technique. HomePlug uses OFDM in a burst mode rather than in continuous mode. HomePlug uses OFDM in a burst mode rather than in continuous mode. HomePlug technology also uses concatenated Viterbi and Reed Solomon FEC with interleaving for payload data, and turbo product coding (TPC) for sensitive control data fields. HomePlug technology also uses concatenated Viterbi and Reed Solomon FEC with interleaving for payload data, and turbo product coding (TPC) for sensitive control data fields.

22 22 Connections Inside New wires required New wires required – Ethernet 10/100/1000 Mbps (Apple) 10/100/1000 Mbps (Apple) Its ethernet, need I say more? Its ethernet, need I say more? – IEEE Mbps – 3.2Gbps(rev b) 400Mbps – 3.2Gbps(rev b) Used primarily for video & storage (today) Used primarily for video & storage (today) Supports peer – peer transactions Supports peer – peer transactions – Lonworks twisted pair transceivers (obscure) – RS485 (obscure)

23 23 Connections Inside Wireless Wireless – a/b b widely available today b widely available today – 11Mbps, stepping to 5.5, 2, and 1Mbps – 2.4GHz, DSSS – Apple AirPort a available 2H/ a available 2H/01 – 54Mbps – Shares MAC w/ b MAC currently under revision to add QoS & higher security (802.11e) MAC currently under revision to add QoS & higher security (802.11e)

24 24 Connections Inside Wireless Wireless – Bluetooth PAN, not LAN!! PAN, not LAN!! – 1 master, 7 active slaves, 256 syncd devices Short range (10m) IRDA-like theme Short range (10m) IRDA-like theme Will be ubiquitous, if low $$ achieved Will be ubiquitous, if low $$ achieved 2.4GHz, FHSS 2.4GHz, FHSS – HomeRF 1.0 is 1Mbps (now) 1.0 is 1Mbps (now) 2.0 is 10Mbps (soon) 2.0 is 10Mbps (soon) Has support for voice channels Has support for voice channels Too late! Loses to Too late! Loses to GHz, FHSS 2.4GHz, FHSS

25 25 Connections Inside Wireless Wireless – DECT Originally designed for cordless telephones Originally designed for cordless telephones Being (ill)extended to other LAN-like functions Being (ill)extended to other LAN-like functions 1.8GHz (2.4GHz in US) 1.8GHz (2.4GHz in US) TDMA, up to 12 voice slots TDMA, up to 12 voice slots 552Kbps max., using all slots 552Kbps max., using all slots Speed enhancements proposed Speed enhancements proposed Good for voice, loses to or Bluetooth for data Good for voice, loses to or Bluetooth for data

26 26 Protocol Soup – OSI Layers

27 27 Protocol Soup General info: General info: – PPP (Point to Point Protocol) Commonly used for dialup connections Commonly used for dialup connections Now being used in broadband networks, since the dialup model is well understood Now being used in broadband networks, since the dialup model is well understood – IP is a best effort service (no guarantees) – UDP is simplest, but only best effort – TCP is most complex, most reliable Connection oriented, reliable (error checking) Connection oriented, reliable (error checking) Handshake acks to open connection, send data, close connection Handshake acks to open connection, send data, close connection – Multiple levels of encapsulation make the job of sending data over a network easier (use what is already proven to work), at the expense of efficiency.

28 28 Voice Services: Introduction Large interest in using the gateway to provide digital voice services to the home Large interest in using the gateway to provide digital voice services to the home Quality of Service (QoS) is THE largest factor for providing these services to the gateway Quality of Service (QoS) is THE largest factor for providing these services to the gateway Voice services consist of two basic parts: Voice services consist of two basic parts: – Voice data: digitized, sometimes compressed, has strict requirements on minimum bandwidth and maximum jitter / latency – Signaling information: Provides network with necessary information to initiate and terminate the call. Designed to utilize existing networks (Internet, or PSTN [POTS and PANS] –Public Switched Telephone Network) Designed to utilize existing networks (Internet, or PSTN [POTS and PANS] –Public Switched Telephone Network)

29 29 Voice Services: Introduction The standards for Voice over broadband networks: The standards for Voice over broadband networks: – cVoDSL - channelized Voice over DSL – VoATM - Voice over ATM – VoMBN - Voice over Multiservice Broadband Networks, or VoIP - Voice over IP All attempt to allow for mixed data/voice traffic across same interface All attempt to allow for mixed data/voice traffic across same interface There is a separate standard for digitized voice over analog modem (over POTS line) There is a separate standard for digitized voice over analog modem (over POTS line)

30 30 Voice Services: Differences VoIP VoIP – Most forward-looking standard, since all data is contained within standard IP packets – Utilizes resilient nature of Internet to route traffic – Currently, QoS is not toll quality across Internet, since existing protocols do not provide prioritization of isochronous (real time) data over asynchronous (bulk) data. – Quality should improve when IPv6 is deployed – Of greatest interest to non-telco service providers, as it provides means of supplying telephony services to the home without needing to access existing telephone network (PSTN) infrastructure – VoIP is feasible today on closed networks

31 31 Operating Systems No best gateway OS No best gateway OS We (NSC)are OS agnostic We (NSC)are OS agnostic All the usual suspects… All the usual suspects… – Microsoft (many flavors) – Linux (many flavors) – QNX (RTOS) – Wind River (RTOS) – CP/M (just kidding…)

32 32 Gateway Architectures Some basic gateway types: Non-expandable (network processor based) Non-expandable (network processor based) – Lowest initial cost – Difficult to integrate with other gateways Full-featured Full-featured – High initial cost – Lower cost per interface, due to integration at time of manufacture Configurable, expandable Configurable, expandable – Low initial cost – Can function as single gateway for all interfaces – Most versatile, feature set fits exact customer needs

33 33 Gateway Architectures Internal low cost, popular, Interfaces: Internal low cost, popular, Interfaces: – PCI – IDE – USB – LPC External SW friendly, hot-pluggable Interfaces: External SW friendly, hot-pluggable Interfaces: – USB – 1394 – 10/100baseT Ethernet

34 34 Gateway Architectures Core Compute Engine (X86) External Expansion Interfaces USB 1394 User Expansion Modules (External) OS/Application storage IDE User Expansion Modules (External) MFG Expansion (Internal) Internal Expansion Interfaces USB LPC PCI MFG Expansion (Internal) MFG Expansion (Internal) System microcontroller Clocks PWR regulation

35 35 Pieces We (NSC)Have Compute engine Compute engine – Several classes of processors GX/55XX GX/55XX SCx200 SCx200 CR16 CR16 Interface Components Interface Components Networking Components Networking Components – MacPhyter 10/100 Ethernet – HPNA 1.0 – Bluetooth (in development) – a (in development) – HomeRF (RF portion) All the supporting functionality (power management - regulation, environment monitoring) for a complete system All the supporting functionality (power management - regulation, environment monitoring) for a complete system

36 36 And people that have em… X

37 37 Thank You! Q&A


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