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CHAPTER 8: Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West, 1789-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 8: Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West, 1789-1900."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 8: Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West,

2 SECTION 1: Latin American Peoples Win Independence COLONIAL SOCIETY DIVIDED COLONIAL SOCIETY DIVIDED 1. A Race and Class System Latin America has social classes that determine jobs and authority. Latin America has social classes that determine jobs and authority. Peninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonial government, society. Peninsularesborn in Spain, they head colonial government, society. CreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can become army officers. CreolesAmerican-born Spaniards who can become army officers.

3 Colonial Society Divided Mestizos have both European and Indian ancestry. Mestizos have both European and Indian ancestry. Mulattoshave both European and African ancestry. Mulattoshave both European and African ancestry. Slaves, Indians are at the bottom of society. Slaves, Indians are at the bottom of society.

4 Revolutions in the Americas 1. Revolution in Haiti Haiti is first Latin American territory to gain freedom. Haiti is first Latin American territory to gain freedom. Toussaint LOuverture leads slave revolt against French (1791). Toussaint LOuverture leads slave revolt against French (1791). Toussaint eventually dies in French prison in Toussaint eventually dies in French prison in 1803.

5 Revolutions in the Americas 2. Haiti's Independence Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue a country in Jean-Jacques Dessalines declares Saint Domingue a country in Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independence. Saint Domingue becomes first black colony to win independence. Renamed Haiti, means mountainous land in the Arawak language. Renamed Haiti, means mountainous land in the Arawak language.

6 Creoles Lead Independence 1. The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas Enlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionaries. Enlightenment ideas inspire Latin American revolutionaries. 2. Creole Leaders Simon Bolivarwealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution. Simon Bolivarwealthy Creole leads Venezuela in revolution. Jose de San Martinleader of Argentinean revolutionary forces. Jose de San Martinleader of Argentinean revolutionary forces.

7 Creoles Lead Independence 3. Bolivar's Route to Victory Venezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by Venezuela declares independence in 1811; Bolivar wins war by San Martin Leads Southern Liberation Forces Argentina independent in 1816; San Martin helps free Chile. Argentina independent in 1816; San Martin helps free Chile. Bolivars and San Martins armies drive Spanish out of Peru in Bolivars and San Martins armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824.

8 Mexico Ends Spanish Rule 1. A Cry for Freedom Padre Miguel Hidalgopriest who launches Mexican revolt (1810). Padre Miguel Hidalgopriest who launches Mexican revolt (1810). 80,000 Indian and mestizo followers march on Mexico City. 80,000 Indian and mestizo followers march on Mexico City. Jose Maria Morelosleads revolt after Hidalgos defeat, but loses. Jose Maria Morelosleads revolt after Hidalgos defeat, but loses.

9 Mexico Ends Spanish Rule 2. Mexico's Independence Mexican creoles react; Iturbide declares Mexico independent (1821). Mexican creoles react; Iturbide declares Mexico independent (1821). In 1823, Central America breaks away from Mexico. In 1823, Central America breaks away from Mexico.

10 Brazils Royal Liberator 1. A Bloodless Revolution Napoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807). Napoleon invades Portugal; royal family moves to Brazil (1807). Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat (1815). Portuguese court returns to Portugal after Napoleons defeat (1815). Portuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in Brazil Portuguese prince Dom Pedro stays behind in Brazil --accepts Brazilians request to rule their new country. --accepts Brazilians request to rule their new country.

11 Brazils Royal Liberator --officially declares Brazils independence (September 1822). --officially declares Brazils independence (September 1822). By 1830, nearly all Latin American regions win independence. By 1830, nearly all Latin American regions win independence.

12 SECTION 2: Europe Faces Revolutions CLASH OF PHILOSOPHIES CLASH OF PHILOSOPHIES 1. Three Philosophies In early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in Europe. In early 1800s, three schools of political thought conflict in Europe. Conservativelandowners, nobles want traditional monarchies. Conservativelandowners, nobles want traditional monarchies. Liberalwealthy merchants, business owners want limited democracy. Liberalwealthy merchants, business owners want limited democracy.

13 Clash of Philosophies Radicalbelieve in liberty, equality; want everyone to have a vote. Radicalbelieve in liberty, equality; want everyone to have a vote.

14 Nationalism Develops 1. Nationalism and Nation-States Nationalismloyalty to nation of people with common culture, history. Nationalismloyalty to nation of people with common culture, history. Nation-statenation with its own independent government. Nation-statenation with its own independent government. In 1815 Europe, only France, England, and Spain are nation-states. In 1815 Europe, only France, England, and Spain are nation-states. Liberals and radicals support nationalism; conservatives do not. Liberals and radicals support nationalism; conservatives do not.

15 Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power 1. Greeks Gain Independence Balkansregion of Europe controlled by Ottomans in early 1800s. Balkansregion of Europe controlled by Ottomans in early 1800s. Greece gets European help to gain independence from Turks. Greece gets European help to gain independence from Turks s Uprisings Crushed Belgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts. Belgian, Italian, Polish liberals and nationalists launch revolts.

16 Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back in control By the mid-1830s, conservatives are back in control Revolutions Fail to Unite Ethnic uprisings in Europe, especially in the Austrian empire. Ethnic uprisings in Europe, especially in the Austrian empire. Liberals hold power for short time, lose to conservatives by Liberals hold power for short time, lose to conservatives by 1849.

17 Radicals Change France 1. Conservative Defeat In 1830, Frances Charles X fails to restore absolute monarchy. In 1830, Frances Charles X fails to restore absolute monarchy. 2. The Third Republic In 1848, Paris mob overthrows monarchy, sets up republic. In 1848, Paris mob overthrows monarchy, sets up republic. Radicals split by infighting; moderates control new government. Radicals split by infighting; moderates control new government.

18 Radicals Change France 1848 constitution calls for elected president and parliament constitution calls for elected president and parliament. 3. France Accepts a Strong Ruler Louis-NapoleonNapoleons nephew elected president. Louis-NapoleonNapoleons nephew elected president. Later takes the title of emperor, promotes industrialization. Later takes the title of emperor, promotes industrialization.

19 Reform in Russia 1. Serfdom in Russia Czars fail to free serfs because they fear losing landowners support. Czars fail to free serfs because they fear losing landowners support. 2. Defeat Brings Change Russias lack of industrialization leads to military defeat in Crimean War. Russias lack of industrialization leads to military defeat in Crimean War. Alexander IIczar who determines to make social and economic changes. Alexander IIczar who determines to make social and economic changes.

20 Reform in Russia 3. Reform and Reaction In 1861, czar frees serfs, but debt keeps them on the same land. In 1861, czar frees serfs, but debt keeps them on the same land. Reform halts when Alexander is assassinated by terrorists in Reform halts when Alexander is assassinated by terrorists in Driven by nationalism, Alexander III encourages industrialization. Driven by nationalism, Alexander III encourages industrialization.

21 SECTION 3: Nationalism NATIONALISM; A FORCE FOR UNITY OR DISUNITY NATIONALISM; A FORCE FOR UNITY OR DISUNITY 1. Two Views of Nationalism Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states. Nationalists use their common bonds to build nation-states. Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects. Rulers eventually use nationalism to unify their subjects. Three different types of nationalist movements. Three different types of nationalist movements.

22 Two Views of Nationalism --unification merges culturally similar lands. --unification merges culturally similar lands. --separation splits off culturally distinct groups. --separation splits off culturally distinct groups. --state-building binds separate cultures into one. --state-building binds separate cultures into one.

23 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires 1. The Breakup of the Austrian Empire Austria includes people from many ethnic groups. Austria includes people from many ethnic groups defeat forces emperor to split into Austria and Hungary defeat forces emperor to split into Austria and Hungary. --still ruled by emperor. --still ruled by emperor.

24 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires 2. The Russian Empire Crumbles. After 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over empire. After 370 years, Russian czars begin losing control over empire. Russificationforcing other peoples to adopt Russian culture. Russificationforcing other peoples to adopt Russian culture. --policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism. --policy further disunites Russia, strengthens ethnic nationalism.

25 Nationalism Shakes Aging Empires 3. The Ottoman Empire Weakens Internal tensions among ethnic groups weakens empire. Internal tensions among ethnic groups weakens empire. Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turks. Rulers grant citizenship to all groups, outraging Turks.

26 Case Study: Italy 1. Cavour Unites Italy Italy forms territory from crumbling empires. Italy forms territory from crumbling empires Italians want independence from foreign rulers Italians want independence from foreign rulers. 2. Cavour Leads Italian Unification Camillo di Cavourprime minister of Kingdom of Sardinia in Camillo di Cavourprime minister of Kingdom of Sardinia in 1852.

27 Case Study: Italy Gets French help to win control of Austrian-controlled Italian land. Gets French help to win control of Austrian-controlled Italian land. 3. Garibaldi Brings Unity Giuseppe Garibaldileads to nationalists who conquer southern Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldileads to nationalists who conquer southern Italy. Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite southern Italy and Sardinia. Cavour convinces Garibaldi to unite southern Italy and Sardinia. Garibaldi steps aside, allowing King of Sardinia to rule. Garibaldi steps aside, allowing King of Sardinia to rule.

28 Case Study: Italy Control of Venetia, Papal States finally unites Italy. Control of Venetia, Papal States finally unites Italy.

29 Case Study: Germany 1. Bismarck Unites Germany Beginning in 1815, 39 German states from the German Confederation. Beginning in 1815, 39 German states from the German Confederation. 2. Prussia Leads German Unification Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany: Prussia has advantages that help it unify Germany: --mainly German population --mainly German population --powerful army --powerful army --creation of liberal constitution --creation of liberal constitution

30 Case Study: Germany 3. Bismarck Takes Control Junkersconservative wealthy landownerssupport Prussian Wilhelm I Junkersconservative wealthy landownerssupport Prussian Wilhelm I Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister. Junker realpolitik master Otto von Bismarck becomes prime minister. Realpolitikpower politics without room for idealism Realpolitikpower politics without room for idealism Bismarck defies Prussian parliament. Bismarck defies Prussian parliament.

31 Case Study: Germany 4. Prussia Expands Prussia and Austria Denmark, gain two provinces. Prussia and Austria Denmark, gain two provinces. Quick victory makes other German nations respect Prussia. Quick victory makes other German nations respect Prussia. 5. Seven Weeks War Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war. Bismarck creates border dispute with Austria to provoke war.

32 Case Study: Germany Prussia seizes Austrian territory, northern Germany. Prussia seizes Austrian territory, northern Germany. Eastern and Western parts of Prussian kingdom joined for first time. Eastern and Western parts of Prussian kingdom joined for first time. 6. The Franco-Prussian War Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans. Bismarck provokes war with France to unite all Germans.

33 Case Study: Germany Wilhelm is crowned kaiseremperor of a united Germanyat Versailles. Wilhelm is crowned kaiseremperor of a united Germanyat Versailles. Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance. Bismarck creates a Germany united under Prussian dominance.

34 A Shift in Power 1. Balance is Lost In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe: In 1815 the Congress of Vienna established five powers in Europe: Austria, Prussia, Britain, France, and Russia. Austria, Prussia, Britain, France, and Russia. By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power. By 1871, Britain and Prussia (now Germany) have gained much power. Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically. Austria and Russia are weaker militarily and economically.

35 SECTION 4: Revolutions in the Arts THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT THE ROMANTIC MOVEMENT 1. The Ideas of Romanticism Romanticisminterest in nature; preferring emotion, individuality. Romanticisminterest in nature; preferring emotion, individuality. Romanticism linked to folk traditions and nationalism. Romanticism linked to folk traditions and nationalism. 2. Romanticism in Literature Poetry, music, and painting are the arts best suited to romanticism. Poetry, music, and painting are the arts best suited to romanticism.

36 The Romantic Movement Many British romantic poets believe nature is the source of beauty. Many British romantic poets believe nature is the source of beauty. Germanys Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is a great early romanticist. Germanys Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is a great early romanticist. A leading French romanticist writer is Victor Hugo. A leading French romanticist writer is Victor Hugo. 3. The Gothic Novel Gothic horror novels taking place in medieval castles become popular. Gothic horror novels taking place in medieval castles become popular.

37 The Romantic Movement One of the earliest and most successful is Frankenstein. One of the earliest and most successful is Frankenstein. 4. Composers Emphasize Emotion Composers abandon Enlightenment style of music. Composers abandon Enlightenment style of music. Ludwig ban Beethoven leads the way from enlightenment to romanticism. Ludwig ban Beethoven leads the way from enlightenment to romanticism. Some composers draw on literature or cultural themes. Some composers draw on literature or cultural themes.

38 The Shift to Realism in the Arts 1. Realism Realismart style attempting to depict life accurately. Realismart style attempting to depict life accurately. Paintings and novels in this style show the working class. Paintings and novels in this style show the working class. 2. Photographers Capture Reality Daguerreotypes, earliest photographs, are surprisingly real. Daguerreotypes, earliest photographs, are surprisingly real.

39 Shift to Realism in the Arts William Talbot invents negative, allows copies of a photograph. William Talbot invents negative, allows copies of a photograph. 3. Writers Study Society Charles Dickens and Honore de Balzac write about society, class. Charles Dickens and Honore de Balzac write about society, class. Some realist literature sparks reforms in working conditions. Some realist literature sparks reforms in working conditions.

40 Impressionists React Against Realism 1. A New Movement Impressionismart style that tries to capture precise points in time. Impressionismart style that tries to capture precise points in time. 2. Life in the Moment Impressionists like Claude Monet portray life of rising middle class. Impressionists like Claude Monet portray life of rising middle class. Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir also leading impressionists. Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir also leading impressionists.

41 Impressionists Impressionist composers use music to create mental pictures. Impressionist composers use music to create mental pictures.

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