2Why study Church history? To know Jesus better through the Church and its teachingsTo know about our ChurchThe lives of our brothers and sistersTo understand and explain common errors about Church history
3Divided into 12 sections … Mustard Seed (33-99 AD)Persecution ( AD)Conversion and Councils ( AD)Missionaries and the Emperor ( AD)Crusaders and Scholars ( AD)Weak Leaders and Schism ( AD)What does Schism mean?
4Protestors and Defenders (1500-1544 AD) The Catholic Reformation ( AD)Revolutions and Modernism ( AD)A World at War ( AD)The New Springtime ( AD)The Threshold of Hope (1977-Present)
5The Church in Jerusalem Fifty days after Jesus’ Resurrection and ten days after His Ascension, on the Jewish feast of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit descended upon the 12 Apostles and the Blessed Mother. We consider Pentecost the day that the Church begun.The word Apostle means one who is sent and refers to the 12 men chosen by Jesus to be his closest followersThe Apostles are …Peter (Simon) -Philip -JamesAndrew -Bartholomew -Simon the ZealotJames -Matthew -Judas aka JudeJohn -Thomas -Judas Iscariot
6Matthias is chosen to replace Judas Iscariot. St Matthias is chosen to replace Judas Iscariot. St. Paul and Barnabas also shared the position of Apostles.The Apostles were chosen to continue Christ’s mission of preaching and healingThe Apostles passed on their authority of Christ which is called Apostolic SuccessionThe Apostles and the first Christians in Jerusalem were known as the people of the Way and they still considered themselves Jews.They followed all the provisions of the Jewish Law.
7When The Way did not fade, they were persecuted Besides the Temple worship on Saturdays, they would meet in private homes on Sundays for the celebration of the Eucharist.The first Christians believed, as we still do today, that the Eucharist is the body and blood of ChristBecause the early Christians followed a dead leader and all of the Jewish laws, they were at first left aloneThe Jewish authorities thought Christianity would be a passing fadWhen The Way did not fade, they were persecuted
8Persecutions in Jerusalem Stephen was a deacon in Jerusalem who had been commissioned by the Apostles. He was stoned to death becoming the first Christian Martyr.Saul, who was persecuting Christians, had a vision of Christ who asked him why he was, “persecuting me”. Saul converted, his name was changed to Paul, and he became the great apostle to the Gentiles.
9Gentiles enter the Church Even though the Christians were persecuted, they considered themselves Jewish. To associate with non-Jews, Gentiles, was unclean.The Aposltes remember how Jesus reached out to all peopleNowhere in the Bible does it state that unclean Gentiles were to be included in the teachings; there actually was no Bible, so Peter as head of the Church, Pope, and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit makes a decision based on the teachings of Christ.1st instance of Papal Authority
10The Council of Jerusalem The issue was whether or not Gentile converts to Christianity had to follow Jewish dietary rules and circumcisionThe decision was noPeter made the final decisionThe Apostles go on missionary journeys through the Empire to preach and spread the teachings of Christ.
11Temple is destroyed in AD 70. Reproduction of TempleWestern Wall of Temple
12At the time that Christ was born, the Roman Empire was a great power This provided great benefits for the spreading of the word of God:BenefitsPeace in the Roman Empire (Pax Romana)Safe roads and ports for easy travelingUse of Greek language throughout the EmpireConcepts of Greek philosophy that help understand nature and personOn the other hand, the Romans expected all people to worship their gods and believe that Ceaser was god.Judaism was the only religion permitted to not participate in Roman gods’ worship, and it was actually protected by Romans
13This soon changed as the Romans began to oppose The Way. At first since the Christians were seen by the Romans as a sect within Judaism they were treated as such.This soon changed as the Romans began to oppose The Way.
14Challenges of early Christianity Jews accused Christians of blasphemy and persecuted themTension with Romans - Christians:Refused to worship the Roman godsDenied Ceaser was a godSeen as secretive society
15Christian worship and beliefs The earliest Christians believed that the Eucharist was the body and blood, soul and divinity of Jesus ChristBoth abortion and contraception were practiced in the Roman Empire. The Early Church condemned these practices
16Churches and Catacombs The first churches were people’s homes. Some Roman emperors permitted churches to be built, but when new persecutions came these were destroyedIn the 2nd century catacombs were built. Catacombs are a series of underground tunnels, chambers, and tombs that were dug out by Christians.Catacombs were never hiding places but during the times of persecution did become a place to hold Baptisms and celebrate the Eucharist. They were also burial places and shrines.
17CatacombsA typical gallery, this one in St. Callixtus; showing the burial niches or loculiThe cubiculum of the Good Shepherd in the Catacomb of Domatilla
18The Madonna and Child from the Catacomb of Priscilla This is the oldest known representation of this most touching and human aspect of Christ's Incarnation. The emphasis on the maternal love of Mary for the Child Jesus reflects the early Christian community's reverence for the Mother of God, and for its understanding of God's love for humankind in sending His only Son to earth to share in our humanity.
19The Apostolic FathersThis is the second generation of great Christian writers who lived after the ApostlesApostolic Fathers – those who knew and where taught by the Apostles
20PersecutionsPersecutions come at different times with periods of no persecution in-between, but Christians always lived in danger from the time of Nero to The Edict of Milan (313 AD). There were a great number of martyrs, and dying for Christ was considered a great honor.ProcessArrested and given chance to denounce faithIf didn’t reject Christianity put to deathMany chose to die rather than give up their faith
21Examples of Persecutions Nero – set city on fire and blamed the ChristiansCircus Maximus - animal skins sewn onto Christians, spread through out garden, hungry mastiffs released.Death of Peter= crucified up-side downDeath of Paul = beheadedAll apostles, except St. John die martyrsSt. James is the first apostle to die (Jerusalem)
22Results Chrisitanity grew Tertullian, who lived in the midst of the persecutions said, "The blood of the Christians is the seed of the Church.
23Martyrs St. Ignatius of Antioch = Bishop and Apostolic Father Martyred at Coliseum in Rome – fed to lionsSt. Polycarp – Bishop and Apostolic FatherFought many heresiesRefused to curse Christ in publicBurned at stake but remained unharmed; an executioner used a sword.St. Justin Martyr = Apologist (defender of the faith)Beheaded
26Perpetua and Felicity = noblewoman and slave Jailed and forced to raise their children in prison – Felicity gave birth in jailTogether with their household were scourged and fed to wild beastsSt. Iranaeus = Bishop and Apostolic FatherPope St. Sixtus II and Deacon St. LawrenceArrested while celebrating Mass with 7 deaconsAll beheaded on site except St. LawrenceSt. Lawrence roasted on spike – turn me over I am done on this sideSt. Agnes = young girl (12 or 13 years old)Beheaded
29St. Stephen first Christian Martyr St. Paul was present at the martyrdom ofStephen.
30The Edict of MilanBy the year 300 the Roman Empire was divided into the Western and Eastern Empire.Constantine, who ruled the Eastern Empire, defeated the Western Empire.The son of St. Helena, a devout Christian, he was not a Christian but claimed to have been favored by the Christian God.In the year 313 A.D. Christianity was legalized through the Edict of Milan.All property that had been taken from the Church was restoredHe converted and received Baptism on his deathbed.