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The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven

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1 The Age of Imperialism Chapter Eleven
The Scramble for Africa Section One

2 Africa Before European Domination
Africa in the mid 1800’s: Divided into hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups Most followed traditional beliefs, some converted to Islam or Christianity Over 1,000 different languages spoken on the continent. Some areas governed by large empires uniting many ethnic groups Some areas governed by independent villages Europeans established contact with Sub-Saharan Africans as early as the 1450’s. As late as 1880 Europeans controlled only 10% of Africa, mostly along the coast. European exploration of the interior of Africa was not possible until after the invention of the steam engine. Even then, Africa’s rivers were difficult to navigate. Disease also kept many Europeans away.

3 Nations Compete for Overseas Empires
Europeans who did penetrate the interior of Africa were mostly explorers, missionaries, and humanitarians who opposed the African slave trade. Newspapers and book publishers competed for the best stories of adventure, mystery and excitement. Many sent reporters and photographers into the deepest parts of Africa.

4 The Congo Sparks Interest
Henry Stanley, a newspaper reporter sent out to find a lost missionary in deep central Africa, traced the course of the Congo River. King Leopold II of Belgium commissioned him to obtain land in the Congo. Stanley arranged several treaties with local chiefs, giving control of the Congo River Valley to the King Leopold II. The king licensed companies that exploited the native population. More than 10 million died due to the abuses. In 1908 the Belgian government seized control of what was now called the Belgian Congo. Soon Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and France were claiming parts of Africa as there own.

5 Forces Driving Imperialism: Belief in European Superiority
The Industrial Revolution provided the need for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies. A strong sense of national pride also contributed to the race for new colonies. Many Europeans believed that they were better than other peoples. Racism- The belief that one race is superior to others. This was reflected in Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism- Those who are fittest for survival enjoy wealth and success, and are considered superior to others. Non-Europeans were considered lower because they had not made the scientific and technological progress that Europeans had. Europeans believed that they had the right and duty to bring this progress to other countries. Missionaries also believed that spreading Christianity throughout the world was a prime responsibility. They had to “civilize” or “westernize” the peoples of foreign lands.

6 Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
Technological superiority (Maxim Gun) Means to control their empires (steam engine, railroads, cables) Quinine (prevented Malaria) Disunity among the African peoples

7 The Division of Africa The colonization of Africa began in 1880
The French began to expand their control from the coast of West Africa toward the Sudan. European interests in Africa were increased by the discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1886 in South Africa.

8 Berlin Conference Divides Africa
The competition for Africa almost led to war between the European nations. In 1884, 14 nations met at the Berlin Conference to discuss the division of Africa. Any African land could be claimed by any European nation simply by notifying the other nations. These divisions were made without any consultation from African kings or other rulers. By 1914 only Ethiopia and Liberia were free from European control.

9 Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies
Europeans believed that the African natives would purchase European products in great quantities. They were wrong. Africa still held great natural resources for Europe. The Belgian Congo had large supplies of copper and tin. South Africa had huge amounts of diamonds and gold. Businesses developed plantations that grew peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber. These plantations displaced the food crops grown by local farmers to feed their families.

10 Three Groups Clash Over South Africa
The Africans, Dutch, and British clashed over land and resources in South Africa. Local tribes had disputed control of these lands for well over 100 years.

11 Zulus Fight the British
In 1816 a Zulu chief named Shaka used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large empire in southern Africa. Shaka’s successors, however, were unable to keep the kingdom together against the British invaders. In 1879, the Zulu chief refused to surrender to British forces and forced the British to invade the Zulu nation. In July of 1879 the Zulus lost the Battle of Ulundi, and by 1887 the entire Zulu nation had fallen to British rule.

12 Boers and British Settle in the Cape
The first Europeans to settle in South Africa were the Dutch. They settled in the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 to establish a port for their ships sailing between the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands. Dutch settlers known as Boers gradually took Africans’ land and established large farms. (The Boers are also known as Afrikaners) When the British took over the Cape Colony in the early 1800’s, they and the Boers clashed over land and slaves. In the 1830’s, to escape the British, the Boers moved north into Zulu lands. They found themselves fighting with the Zulus over land.

13 The Boer War Once gold and diamonds were discovered in South Africa in the 1860’s and 1880’s, many people, especially from Britain, traveled to South Africa and settled in Boer controlled lands. The Boers tried to limit the political rights of these “outsiders”. In 1899, the Boers took up arms against the British in what is called the Boer War. The fighting was fierce. The British were better organized and had superior weapons. Many Boers were captured. Their farms were destroyed and they were imprisoned in concentration camps. Black South Africans were also involved and many of them went to their deaths in these camps. In 1910 the British finally won. The Boer republics were joined into the self-governing Union of South Africa.

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