Presentation on theme: "Fascism United States, Britain, and France remain democratic"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fascism United States, Britain, and France remain democratic Millions turn to a new system of government fascismrestore economypunish those responsible for hard timesrevive national prideremain loyal to the state and leadersPeople who liked fascism were bothered by peace treaties and the Great DepressionNationalism - wore uniforms - special salutes - mass rallies
2 Fascism FASCISM COMMUNISM Nations must struggle in order to stay strongFASCISMbelieved eachsocial class hadown functionsNationalistsCOMMUNISMdictatorship ofworking class(classless)internationalistsSIMILARITIESdictators ruleindividual rights sufferedstate was supremeno democracy1919 Paris Peace ConferenceRising population, decreasing # of jobsFear of a communist revolution
3 MUSSOLINI Promises: - strong leadership - improvement in government - more powerful armyFounded the Fascist Party in 1919- not popular at first, but later gains support from themiddle classes, the aristocracy, & industrial leadersOct 30,000 Fascists march into RomeDemand Mussolini to be in charge of the gov’tKing Victor Emmanuel III let Mussolini take over
4 MUSSOLINI Il Duce “leader” Demolishes democracy & all other political partiesFascism; similar to totalitarianismRadio stations & publications could onlybroadcast or publish Fascist workSecret police jailed “non-believers”Italy is a role model for Facists in other countriesMussolini never gained as much power as Stalin or Hitler
5 Hitler’s rise to power WW1-served 4 years. Injured and almost killed several times.Awarded Iron Cross two times for bravery.Blames insurrecting Jews and communists for Germany’s surrender.
6 Der Fuhrer HITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE THE ENABLING ACTDer FuhrerOATH OFLOYALTYTOHITLERTHE NIGHTOF THELONGKNIVESDEATH OFPRESIDENTHINDENBURG
8 Hitler’s rise to powerHitler begins to blame the Jews for all his problems…..“The Jews are why Germany surrendered.”“A Jewish doctor was unable to help my mother.”“It must have been a Jewish instructor that refused my entrance application…”“The Jews are trying to take over the world…”
9 Hitler’s rise to powerMeanwhile, Germany is struggling due to Versailles Treaty conditions and depression.Mass unemployment and despair.Government unable to solve problems…
10 Hitler’s rise to powerGerman workers party becomes very popular and organized. Name is changed to National Socialist German Workers' Party - The Nazis.Introduction of the swastika symbol.SA brown shirts-paramilitary
11 Beer hall PuschAt a beer hall, Hitler convinces the Nazi party that the government must be changed….Hitler and supporters try to take over the local government.This was called the “Munich Putsch” (beer hall putsch)sentenced to 5 years of jail
12 Hitler’s rise to powerHitler only spends 9 months in jail, using this time to write a book, “Mein Kampf” (my struggle).Book explains how Jews are cause for Germany’s problems and how Germany needs to be changed, removing communists.Jews must be eliminated and “Lebensraum ” (living space) must be created.
13 Hitler became Chancellor January 1933 The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis. In 1933 Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor.Hitler becameChancellorJanuary 1933
14 Hitler’s rise to powerNazi party had 30% of the Reichstag seats, but still not enough for control.6 days before the next election, the Reichstag burns downNazis find a prominent communist nearby with matches and smelling of fuel…
15 The Reichstag Fire The Reichstag building burnt down. A communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility.Chancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorism.He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag.February 1933
16 The Enabling ActWith the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass:HITLER CANRULE ALONEFOR FOURYEARS. THEREIS NO NEED TOCONSULT THEREICHSTAG.March 1933
17 THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES!KPDSPDDDPZentrum
18 Political prisonerswere put inconcentration campsrun by the S.S.
19 Hitler’s rise to power Hitler becomes nervous. Nazi’s S.A (brownshirts) now are over 2,000,000 and S.A. leaders are strong, especially Rohm.secret police force -Gestapo.The S.S. created - special military elite loyal only to Hitler.
20 The Night of the Long Knives Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. Ernst Rohm (an old friend), head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders. They have the power to overthrow me.I’ve been worried about Rohm for a while, so this is a good excuse.June 1934
21 Hitler’s rise to powerOne of the first tasks assigned to the S.S. was to eliminate any possible competition from the S.A. leaders.They execute over 70 S.A.leaders and force the remaining S.A. to pledge an oath of allegiance to Hitler.“Night of the long knives”“Now they salute with both hands.”
22 The death of President Hindenburg A final note PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S DEATH GAVE HITLER THEOPPORTUNITY TO COMBINETHE ROLE OF CHANCELLORAND PRESIDENT. HE CALLEDHIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’.August 1934
23 Oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.
24 Hitler uses propaganda to make him appear friendly:
37 Other Countries Fall to Dictators 1919 Hungary Admiral Miklos Horthy1926 Poland Marshal Joseph Pilsudski+ Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, & RomaniaDemocracy only in Britain, France, Scandinavian countriesMany saw dictatorship as a way to make their gov’t strong By Mid-1930’s2 major government types:democracy & totalitarianism
39 Out of Germany Eastern nations in Europe fell for dictatorship 1919, Hungary military forces and wealthy landowners1926 Poland Marshal Joseph PilsudskiYugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania kings turned to strong-man rule1935 Czechoslovakia is the only democratic country in central/ eastBritain, France, and Scandinavia’s democracy survivedBy 1930, 2 major governmental group; democratic and totalitarian