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Fascism United States, Britain, and France remain democratic

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Presentation on theme: "Fascism United States, Britain, and France remain democratic"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fascism United States, Britain, and France remain democratic
Millions turn to a new system of government  fascism restore economy punish those responsible for hard times revive national pride remain loyal to the state and leaders People who liked fascism were bothered by peace treaties and the Great Depression Nationalism - wore uniforms - special salutes - mass rallies

2 Fascism FASCISM COMMUNISM
Nations must struggle in order to stay strong FASCISM believed each social class had own functions Nationalists COMMUNISM dictatorship of working class (classless) internationalists SIMILARITIES dictators rule individual rights suffered state was supreme no democracy 1919 Paris Peace Conference Rising population, decreasing # of jobs Fear of a communist revolution

3 MUSSOLINI Promises: - strong leadership - improvement in government
- more powerful army Founded the Fascist Party in 1919 - not popular at first, but later gains support from the middle classes, the aristocracy, & industrial leaders Oct  30,000 Fascists march into Rome Demand Mussolini to be in charge of the gov’t King Victor Emmanuel III let Mussolini take over

4 MUSSOLINI Il Duce “leader”
Demolishes democracy & all other political parties Fascism; similar to totalitarianism Radio stations & publications could only broadcast or publish Fascist work Secret police jailed “non-believers” Italy is a role model for Facists in other countries Mussolini never gained as much power as Stalin or Hitler

5 Hitler’s rise to power WW1-served 4 years.
Injured and almost killed several times. Awarded Iron Cross two times for bravery. Blames insurrecting Jews and communists for Germany’s surrender.

6 Der Fuhrer HITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE THE ENABLING
ACT Der Fuhrer OATH OF LOYALTY TO HITLER THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES DEATH OF PRESIDENT HINDENBURG

7 After WW1, Hitler tries to attend art school

8 Hitler’s rise to power Hitler begins to blame the Jews for all his problems….. “The Jews are why Germany surrendered.” “A Jewish doctor was unable to help my mother.” “It must have been a Jewish instructor that refused my entrance application…” “The Jews are trying to take over the world…”

9 Hitler’s rise to power Meanwhile, Germany is struggling due to Versailles Treaty conditions and depression. Mass unemployment and despair. Government unable to solve problems…

10 Hitler’s rise to power German workers party becomes very popular and organized. Name is changed to National Socialist German Workers' Party - The Nazis. Introduction of the swastika symbol. SA brown shirts-paramilitary

11 Beer hall Pusch At a beer hall, Hitler convinces the Nazi party that the government must be changed…. Hitler and supporters try to take over the local government. This was called the “Munich Putsch” (beer hall putsch) sentenced to 5 years of jail

12 Hitler’s rise to power Hitler only spends 9 months in jail, using this time to write a book, “Mein Kampf” (my struggle). Book explains how Jews are cause for Germany’s problems and how Germany needs to be changed, removing communists. Jews must be eliminated and “Lebensraum ” (living space) must be created.

13 Hitler became Chancellor January 1933
The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis. In 1933 Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor. Hitler became Chancellor January 1933

14 Hitler’s rise to power Nazi party had 30% of the Reichstag seats, but still not enough for control. 6 days before the next election, the Reichstag burns down Nazis find a prominent communist nearby with matches and smelling of fuel…

15 The Reichstag Fire The Reichstag building burnt down.
A communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility. Chancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorism. He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag. February 1933

16 The Enabling Act With the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass: HITLER CAN RULE ALONE FOR FOUR YEARS. THERE IS NO NEED TO CONSULT THE REICHSTAG. March 1933

17 THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS
THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES! KPD SPD DDP Zentrum

18 Political prisoners were put in concentration camps run by the S.S.

19 Hitler’s rise to power Hitler becomes nervous.
Nazi’s S.A (brownshirts) now are over 2,000,000 and S.A. leaders are strong, especially Rohm. secret police force -Gestapo. The S.S. created - special military elite loyal only to Hitler.

20 The Night of the Long Knives
Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. Ernst Rohm (an old friend), head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders. They have the power to overthrow me.I’ve been worried about Rohm for a while, so this is a good excuse. June 1934

21 Hitler’s rise to power One of the first tasks assigned to the S.S. was to eliminate any possible competition from the S.A. leaders. They execute over 70 S.A.leaders and force the remaining S.A. to pledge an oath of allegiance to Hitler. “Night of the long knives” “Now they salute with both hands.”

22 The death of President Hindenburg A final note PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S
DEATH GAVE HITLER THE OPPORTUNITY TO COMBINE THE ROLE OF CHANCELLOR AND PRESIDENT. HE CALLED HIMSELF ‘DER FUHRER’. August 1934

23 Oath of loyalty to Adolf Hitler
Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.

24 Hitler uses propaganda to make him appear friendly:

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29 Hitler’s rise to power Hitler has officially transformed Germany into a totalitarian state…

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36 So, how did he become a dictator legally?

37 Other Countries Fall to Dictators
1919 Hungary  Admiral Miklos Horthy 1926 Poland  Marshal Joseph Pilsudski + Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, & Romania Democracy only in Britain, France, Scandinavian countries Many saw dictatorship as a way to make their gov’t strong  By Mid-1930’s 2 major government types: democracy & totalitarianism

38 Other Countries Fall to Dictators

39 Out of Germany Eastern nations in Europe fell for dictatorship
1919, Hungary military forces and wealthy landowners 1926 Poland Marshal Joseph Pilsudski Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania kings turned to strong-man rule 1935 Czechoslovakia is the only democratic country in central/ east Britain, France, and Scandinavia’s democracy survived By 1930, 2 major governmental group; democratic and totalitarian


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