Presentation on theme: "United States, Britain, and France remain democratic Millions turn to a new system of government fascism restore economy punish those responsible for."— Presentation transcript:
United States, Britain, and France remain democratic Millions turn to a new system of government fascism restore economy punish those responsible for hard times revive national pride remain loyal to the state and leaders People who liked fascism were bothered by peace treaties and the Great Depression Nationalism - wore uniforms - special salutes - mass rallies
Nations must struggle in order to stay strong FASCISM believed each social class had own functions Nationalists COMMUNISM dictatorship of working class (classless) internationalists SIMILARITIES dictators rule individual rights suffered state was supreme no democracy 1919 Paris Peace Conference Rising population, decreasing # of jobs Fear of a communist revolution
Promises: - strong leadership - improvement in government - more powerful army Founded the Fascist Party in not popular at first, but later gains support from the middle classes, the aristocracy, & industrial leaders Oct ,000 Fascists march into Rome - Demand Mussolini to be in charge of the govt - King Victor Emmanuel III let Mussolini take over
Il Duce leader - Demolishes democracy & all other political parties - Fascism; similar to totalitarianism Radio stations & publications could only broadcast or publish Fascist work Secret police jailed non-believers - Italy is a role model for Facists in other countries - Mussolini never gained as much power as Stalin or Hitler
Hitlers rise to power WW1-served 4 years. Injured and almost killed several times. Awarded Iron Cross two times for bravery. Blames insurrecting Jews and communists for Germanys surrender.
HITLER BECAME CHANCELLOR THE REICHSTAG FIRE THE ENABLING ACT THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES DEATH OF PRESIDENT HINDENBURG OATH OF LOYALTY TO HITLER
After WW1, Hitler tries to attend art school
Hitlers rise to power Hitler begins to blame the Jews for all his problems….. The Jews are why Germany surrendered. A Jewish doctor was unable to help my mother. It must have been a Jewish instructor that refused my entrance application… The Jews are trying to take over the world…
Hitlers rise to power Meanwhile, Germany is struggling due to Versailles Treaty conditions and depression. Mass unemployment and despair. Government unable to solve problems…
Hitlers rise to power German workers party becomes very popular and organized. Name is changed to National Socialist German Workers' Party - The Nazis. Introduction of the swastika symbol. SA brown shirts- paramilitary
Beer hall Pusch At a beer hall, Hitler convinces the Nazi party that the government must be changed…. Hitler and supporters try to take over the local government. This was called the Munich Putsch (beer hall putsch) sentenced to 5 years of jail
Hitlers rise to power Hitler only spends 9 months in jail, using this time to write a book, Mein Kampf (my struggle). Book explains how Jews are cause for Germanys problems and how Germany needs to be changed, removing communists. Jews must be eliminated and Lebensraum (living space) must be created.
January 1933 The depression after the Wall Street Crash made many more people vote for the Nazis. In 1933 Von Papen convinced Hindenburg that Hitler should become Chancellor.
Hitlers rise to power Nazi party had 30% of the Reichstag seats, but still not enough for control. 6 days before the next election, the Reichstag burns down Nazis find a prominent communist nearby with matches and smelling of fuel…
February 1933 The Reichstag building burnt down. A communist was found inside the building. He admitted responsibility. Chancellor Hitler was able to convince people that the Communists were trying to take power by terrorism. He was able to have the Communists banned from the Reichstag.
March 1933 HITLER CAN RULE ALONE FOR FOUR YEARS. THERE IS NO NEED TO CONSULT THE REICHSTAG. With the Communists banned from the Reichstag Hitler was able to pass:
THE ENABLING ACT GAVE HITLER THE POWER TO MAKE HIS OWN LAWS. SO, HE BANNED ALL OTHER POLITICAL PARTIES!
Hitlers rise to power Hitler becomes nervous. Nazis S.A (brownshirts) now are over 2,000,000 and S.A. leaders are strong, especially Rohm. secret police force -Gestapo. The S.S. created - special military elite loyal only to Hitler.
June 1934 Now I have got rid of opposition political groups, I can now deal with opposition in my party. Ernst Rohm (an old friend), head of the S.A. is very unpopular with the German army leaders. They have the power to overthrow me.Ive been worried about Rohm for a while, so this is a good excuse.
Hitlers rise to power One of the first tasks assigned to the S.S. was to eliminate any possible competition from the S.A. leaders. They execute over 70 S.A.leaders and force the remaining S.A. to pledge an oath of allegiance to Hitler. Night of the long knives Now they salute with both hands.
August 1934 A final note PRESIDENT HINDENBURGS DEATH GAVE HITLER THE OPPORTUNITY TO COMBINE THE ROLE OF CHANCELLOR AND PRESIDENT. HE CALLED HIMSELF DER FUHRER.
Every soldier swore a personal oath of loyalty to ADOLF HITLER.
Hitler uses propaganda to make him appear friendly:
Hitlers rise to power Hitler has officially transformed Germany into a totalitarian state…
1919 Hungary Admiral Miklos Horthy 1926 Poland Marshal Joseph Pilsudski + Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, & Romania Democracy only in Britain, France, Scandinavian countries Many saw dictatorship as a way to make their govt strong By Mid-1930s 2 major government types: democracy & totalitarianism
-Eastern nations in Europe fell for dictatorship -1919, Hungary military forces and wealthy landowners Poland Marshal Joseph Pilsudski - Yugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania kings turned to strong- man rule Czechoslovakia is the only democratic country in central/ east -Britain, France, and Scandinavias democracy survived -By 1930, 2 major governmental group; democratic and totalitarian