Presentation on theme: "German Nationalism and the creation of united Germany."— Presentation transcript:
1 GermanNationalismand the creationof unitedGermany
2 Napoleon's conquests destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and unified many German states in the Confederation of the Rhine.
3 Nationalism united the German states to defeat the French in 1813-15
4 The Congress of Vienna formed the German Confederation of 39 states where Austria dominated.
5 German students increased nationalist spirit in spite of the attempt to stop it in the Karlsbad Decrees
6 Unification could come under Austria or Prussia: But which one?
7 The ZollvereinThe Zollverein was created by Prussia to increase trade among the German states
8 1848: The Frankfurt Diet failed to form a constitutional monarchy under Prussian King Frederick William IV
9 King William I of Prussia (reigned ) was a strong monarch willing to oppose Austria and unify Germany
10 King William appointed Otto von Bismarck Chancellor; Bismarck led the unification process
11 Otto von BismarckThe less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied.The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of —but by blood and iron.
12 Otto von BismarckI am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made.A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one.Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.
13 Bismarck’s plan: Eliminate Austria and unite Germany under the Prussian monarchy How is this for high?
14 Bismarck and Realpolitik: “Never believe anything in politics until it has been officially denied.”People never lie so much as after a hunt, during a war or before an election.“When a man says he approves of something in principle, it means he hasn't the slightest intention of carrying it out in practice..”“When you want to fool the world, tell the truth.”
15 Bismarck used nationalism to strengthen the monarchy and weaken his political opposition
16 Bismarck got Britain and Russia to agree to not interfere in any conflict between Prussia and Austria
17 Bismarck led Napoleon III to believe that he could gain territory for France by mediating between Prussia and Austria
18 Step #2: Austro-Prussian War [Seven Weeks’ War], 1866 Austria
19 In 1864, Prussia and Austria fought Denmark gaining the states of Schleswig and Holstein
20 Bismarck engineered a conflict between Prussia and Austria over the governing of Schlwesgig and Holstein
21 Denmark on the sidelines as Austria and Prussia prepare to fight, 1866 DENMARK AVENGED Denmark: “Fight it out, Gentlemen! I’ve the pleasure to look on!”
22 Battle of Sadowa (Königgrätz), 1866 Austria was defeated by Prussia in the Seven Weeks’ War, 1866Battle of Sadowa (Königgrätz), 1866
23 Napoleon III failed to secure anything for France in the Seven Weeks’ War Bismarck: “Pardon, mon ami, but we really can’t allow you to pick up anything here.”Napoleon III: “Pray, don’t mention it M’sier. It’s not of the slightest consequence.”PEACE AND NO PIECES!
24 Setting up Napoleon III and France Napoleon III failed to gain anything for France after Prussia’s war with Denmark or the Seven Weeks’ WarQueen Isabella of Spain abdicated; Bismarck nominated Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern, cousin to William I, to be King of SpainFrance protested; Leopold withdrewThe French ambassador met William I at Bad Ems and asked for an apologyBismarck edited the report of the conference to insult France; the Ems Telegram was published on Bastille Day, 1870War was declared by France on Prussia bringing the unification of the remaining German states
25 Bismarck edited the “Ems Telegram” to insult France and precipitate war
26 German Army crosses the Loire, 1870 The south German states united with Prussia in the Franco-Prussian WarGerman Army crosses the Loire, 1870
27 Napoleon III was defeated and captured at Sedan Napoleon III was defeated and captured at Sedan. It was the end of the Second Empire.
28 German troops march into Paris in 1870: France was defeated in 5 months
29 Siegfried (Germany) defeats Joan of Arc (France) in the Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71
30 The Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm I The German Empire was declared in the Palace of Versailles in January 1871The Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm I
31 Treaty of Frankfurt The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Empire.The Italians took Rome and made it their capital.Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War]France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid.France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].
32 Consequences of the Franco-Prussian War Germany unified under Prussian monarchy as the German EmpireFrance established the Third RepublicUprising and defeat of Paris CommuneLoss of Alsace-Lorraine leaves France bitter and wanting revengeBalance of power upset; Germany dominated Central Europe
36 German EmpireAfter 1871 the new German Empire was Prussia and 24 smaller statesThe popularly elected parliament was the ReichstagIn 1870 Pope Pius XI had declared papal infallibilityIt seemed to ask Catholics to put loyalty of religion above countryNational liberals backed Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church, the KulturkampfKulturkampf - “struggle for survival”