Presentation on theme: "Napoleon's conquests destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and unified many German states in the Confederation of the Rhine. Napoleon's conquests destroyed."— Presentation transcript:
Napoleon's conquests destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and unified many German states in the Confederation of the Rhine. Napoleon's conquests destroyed the Holy Roman Empire and unified many German states in the Confederation of the Rhine.
Nationalism united the German states to defeat the French in 1813-15
The Congress of Vienna formed the German Confederation of 39 states where Austria dominated.
German students increased nationalist spirit in spite of the attempt to stop it in the Karlsbad Decrees German students increased nationalist spirit in spite of the attempt to stop it in the Karlsbad Decrees
Unification could come under Austria or Prussia : But which one?
1827 1828 1834 1838 1842 1854 The Zollverein was created by Prussia to increase trade among the German states The Zollverein 1828-1854
1848: The Frankfurt Diet failed to form a constitutional monarchy under Prussian King Frederick William IV
King William I of Prussia (reigned 1861- 1888) was a strong monarch willing to oppose Austria and unify Germany
King William appointed Otto von Bismarck Chancellor; Bismarck led the unification process
Otto von Bismarck.... The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better theyll sleep at night. Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied. The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisionsthat was the mistake of 1848-1849but by blood and iron.
Otto von Bismarck.... I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made. A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one. Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.
Bismarcks plan: Eliminate Austria and unite Germany under the Prussian monarchy How is this for high?
Bismarck and Realpolitik: Never believe anything in politics until it has been officially denied. People never lie so much as after a hunt, during a war or before an election. When a man says he approves of something in principle, it means he hasn't the slightest intention of carrying it out in practice.. When you want to fool the world, tell the truth.
Bismarck used nationalism to strengthen the monarchy and weaken his political opposition
Bismarck got Britain and Russia to agree to not interfere in any conflict between Prussia and Austria
Bismarck led Napoleon III to believe that he could gain territory for France by mediating between Prussia and Austria
Step #2: Austro-Prussian War [Seven Weeks War], 1866 Prussia Austria
In 1864, Prussia and Austria fought Denmark gaining the states of Schleswig and Holstein
Bismarck engineered a conflict between Prussia and Austria over the governing of Schlwesgig and Holstein
Denmark on the sidelines as Austria and Prussia prepare to fight, 1866 DENMARK AVENGED Denmark: Fight it out, Gentlemen! Ive the pleasure to look on!
Battle of Sadowa (Königgrätz), 1866 Austria was defeated by Prussia in the Seven Weeks War, 1866
Napoleon III failed to secure anything for France in the Seven Weeks War PEACE AND NO PIECES! Bismarck: Pardon, mon ami, but we really cant allow you to pick up anything here. Napoleon III: Pray, dont mention it Msier. Its not of the slightest consequence.
Setting up Napoleon III and France Napoleon III failed to gain anything for France after Prussias war with Denmark or the Seven Weeks War Napoleon III failed to gain anything for France after Prussias war with Denmark or the Seven Weeks War Queen Isabella of Spain abdicated; Bismarck nominated Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern, cousin to William I, to be King of Spain Queen Isabella of Spain abdicated; Bismarck nominated Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern, cousin to William I, to be King of Spain France protested; Leopold withdrew France protested; Leopold withdrew The French ambassador met William I at Bad Ems and asked for an apology The French ambassador met William I at Bad Ems and asked for an apology Bismarck edited the report of the conference to insult France; the Ems Telegram was published on Bastille Day, 1870 Bismarck edited the report of the conference to insult France; the Ems Telegram was published on Bastille Day, 1870 War was declared by France on Prussia bringing the unification of the remaining German states War was declared by France on Prussia bringing the unification of the remaining German states
Bismarck edited the Ems Telegram to insult France and precipitate war
German Army crosses the Loire, 1870 The south German states united with Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War
Napoleon III was defeated and captured at Sedan. It was the end of the Second Empire.
German troops march into Paris in 1870: France was defeated in 5 months
Siegfried (Germany) defeats Joan of Arc (France) in the Franco- Prussian War, 1870-71
The Coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm I The German Empire was declared in the Palace of Versailles in January 1871
Treaty of Frankfurt  The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Empire. The Italians took Rome and made it their capital. Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War]. ------------------- France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid. France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].
Consequences of the Franco-Prussian War Germany unified under Prussian monarchy as the German Empire France established the Third Republic Uprising and defeat of Paris Commune Loss of Alsace-Lorraine leaves France bitter and wanting revenge Balance of power upset; Germany dominated Central Europe
German Empire After 1871 the new German Empire was Prussia and 24 smaller states The popularly elected parliament was the Reichstag In 1870 Pope Pius XI had declared papal infallibility It seemed to ask Catholics to put loyalty of religion above country National liberals backed Bismarcks attack on the Catholic church, the Kulturkampf Kulturkampf - struggle for survival