Presentation on theme: "Review Prologue The Parthenon Two Categories of Government Democracy – Government by the people / Decisions made by the people Autocracy - Government."— Presentation transcript:
Two Categories of Government Democracy – Government by the people / Decisions made by the people Autocracy - Government by one person (King / Queen / Emperor / Pharaoh)
Golden Age of Pericles: 460 BCE – 429 BCE
Pericles Led Athens in Golden Age B.C –Established Direct Democracy –Increased number of public officials –Poorer citizens were able to participate
Great Athenian Philosophers Socrates Know thyself! question everything only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness. Plato $ The Academy The world of the FORMS The Republic philosopher-king
Republic Rule by Peoples Representative Created in Ancient Rome –Senator = Representative
Roman Law Twelve Tables step toward fair government Complied into Justinian Code government of laws not men
The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE Providing political and social rights for the plebeians.
Romes Early Road System
Constantinople: The 2 nd Rome (Founded in 330)
The Byzantine Emperor Justinian-Written legal code
The Legacy of Rome Republic Government Republic Government Roman Law-based on principles of reason and justice Roman Law-based on principles of reason and justice Latin Language Latin Language Roman Catholic Church Roman Catholic Church City Planning City Planning Romanesque Architectural Style Romanesque Architectural Style Roman Engineering Roman Engineering Aqueducts Aqueducts Sewage systems Sewage systems Dams Dams Cement Cement Arch Arch
Influences of Western World = treatment under law Innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof with the accuser
Legacy of Monotheism Duty to to combat oppression Worth of individual = of people before God
Renaissance Renewed interest in Classical Culture Humanism Italian vs. Northern Renaissance Spread of Ideas through Printing Press
Reformation Martin Luthers 95 Theses –indulgences –Individuality and freedom from Church –Bible alone –Faith alone –Priesthood of all believers Englands Protestant Revolution Calvinism Catholic Reformation
Legacy of Ren and Ref Growth of democracy by challenging monarchs and popes. Ind important
Englands Medieval Democratic Developments Henry II –Jury System –Common law precedents King John- –Magna Carta (Great Charter) Contract between King and Nobles Limited the power of the king Governance according to law-not anyway they choose Due Process of Law Consent of Governed (Parliament) Power of purse
Englands Civil War King James I and Divine Right –Star chamber-royal court
Civil War ( ) Royalists (Cavaliers) Parliamentarians (Roundheads) a House of Lords a Aristocracy a Large landowners a Church officials a More rural, less prosperous House of Commons Puritans Merchants Townspeople More urban, more prosperous
The Glorious Revolution: 1688 a Whig & Tory leaders offered the throne jointly to James IIs daughter Mary [raised a Protestant] & her husband, William of Orange. He was a vigorous enemy of Louis XIV. He was seen as a champion of the Protestant cause.
English Bill of Rights [ 1689 ] a It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament. a It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. a It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18 c and early 19 c in England.
Legacy Rule of law Parliamentary rule Ind rights Constitutional monarchy
Enlightenment Bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures. What is the meaning of life, God, human nature, good and evil, and cause and effect
Enlightenment Scientific Revolution based on Reason and Order Scientific Revolution inspired philosophers to rethink long held beliefs about –Human Condition –Rights and Liberties –Role and Purpose of Government This Revolution is known as The Enlightenment or Age of Reason
The Great Debate Reason & Logic Traditions and Superstitions rationalism rationalism empiricism empiricism tolerance tolerance skepticism skepticism Deism Deism nostalgia for the past nostalgia for the past organized religions organized religions irrationalism irrationalism emotionalism emotionalism
Renaissance= Renewed Interest in Learning Reformation= New ways of thinking about god and salvation Scientific Revolution= New ways to view the natural world Enlightenment= Intellectual movement that stressed reason, thought and power of the individuals to solve problems
Beginnings of Enlightenment Following English Civil War two English thinkers come to different conclusions on individual rights and the role and purpose of government. –Thomas Hobbes Leviathan –John Locke Treatise on Government
Thought Question The Scientific Revolution is considered a major cause of the new way of thinking about Human Rights and the role of government of the mid 1700s known as the Enlightenment or Age of Reason. How do you think a revolution based on science could effect thoughts on government?