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It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the.

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Presentation on theme: "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the."— Presentation transcript:

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3 It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

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5 The French Monarchy: Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

6 Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

7 Marie Antoinettes Peasant Cottage

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9 Causes of the Fr Rev Long Term causes Breakdown of the old order – The 3 Estate system –Class conflict Ideals of the Enlightenment Long Term causes Breakdown of the old order – The 3 Estate system –Class conflict Ideals of the Enlightenment

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11 Immediate Causes Money –Nearly bankrupt –Poorest classes pay for govt –Inflation Taxes, taxes, taxes Weak leader Money –Nearly bankrupt –Poorest classes pay for govt –Inflation Taxes, taxes, taxes Weak leader

12 Socio-Economic Data, 1789 So…

13 The French Urban Poor

14 aUrban Commoners Budget: –Food 80% –Rent 25% –Tithe 10% –Taxes 35% –Clothing 20% –TOTAL 170% aKings Budget: –Interest 50% –Army 25% –Versailles 25% –Coronation 10% –Loans 25% –Admin. 25% –TOTAL 160% Financial Problems in France, 1789

15 French Budget, 1774

16 MORE PROBLEMS THE KING VS. THE NOBILITY –An ongoing struggle between the king and the nobility reached its peak in 1778 when the nobility refused to pay taxes. –France was a bankrupt nation of rich nobles.

17 STILL MORE PROBLEMS THE KING VS. THE PEOPLE –The king was very out of touch with the common people. –The peasants bore the burden of taxation for the French nation and many were suffering greatly.

18 Where is the tax money?

19 THE FRENCH FINANCIAL CRISIS OF THE 1780S NECKERS (D-G ) REPORT OF 1781: –If America would pay its war debts, France would have a surplus. –41% of the royal budget went to provide money for court favorites and royal pensions. THE NOBILITY HAS NECKER FIRED.

20 Ancien Regime Map, 1789

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22 Weak Leader Indecisive Madam Deficit Indecisive Madam Deficit

23 Popular Cartoon of the Plight of the Third Estate

24 Estates General called Cahiers de doleances- list of grievances

25 Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.

26 Commoners 3rd Estate Aristocracy 2nd Estate Clergy 1st Estate The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!

27 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1 st What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3 rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès

28 Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!

29 The Third Estate Awakens YThe commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as representatives of the nation. YThey proclaimed themselves the National Assembly of France.

30 The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789

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32 Storming of the Bastile July 14

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34 The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) YRumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

35 The Path of the Great Fear

36 Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution

37 March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 We want the baker, the bakers wife and the bakers boy! A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.

38 The October Days (1789) The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.

39 Night Session of August 4, 1789 Y Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France had been abolished. The feudal regime in France had been abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. Equality & Meritocracy! Equality & Meritocracy!

40 National Constituent Assembly August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!) Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité!

41 The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen! Citizen!

42 The Tricolor is the Fashion!

43 The Liberty Cap: Bonne Rouge

44 Revolutionary Playing Cards

45 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen August 26, 1789 VLiberty! VProperty! VResistance to oppression! VMen are born and remain free and equal in rights!

46 Planting the Tree of Liberty 1790

47 Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in France Emigres fled France The conservative response to the French Revolution

48 Olympe de Gouges ( ) Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) VWomen played a vital role in the Revolution. VBut, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

49 How to Finance the New Govt.? Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

50 The Civil Constitution of the Clergy July 12, 1790 Church officialsChurch officials and Priests paid by the State Significance?Peasants?

51 New Relations Between Church & State V Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. V The church was reorganized: Parish priests elected by the district assemblies. Parish priests elected by the district assemblies. Bishops named by the department assemblies. Bishops named by the department assemblies. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. VIt transformed Frances Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [ ]

52 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee Y June, 1791 Y Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinettes lover]. Y Headed toward the Luxembourg border. Y The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border

53 Louis XVI Accepts the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791

54 The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government VThe king got the suspensive veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws. He could not pass laws. His ministers were responsible for their own actions. His ministers were responsible for their own actions. VA permanent, elected, single chamber Legislative Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation. Had the power to grant taxation. VAn independent judiciary.

55 The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government VActive Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. Passive Citizen. 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. Domestic servants were also excluded. VA newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!

56 83 Revolutionary Departments February 26, 1790

57 The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers. Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Tradesmen. Artisans. Artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!

58 The Sans-Culottes Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.

59 War! FRANCE AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT Wanted the king restored-Wanted the king restored- Worried that Rev. would spread to their countriesWorried that Rev. would spread to their countries This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.

60 French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! VThe French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. V½ of the officer corps had emigrated. VMany men disserted. VNew recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained. VFrench troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.

61 War … more By 1792 Prussia outside of Paris Threatened to destroy Paris if royal family Was harmed. By 1792 Prussia outside of Paris Threatened to destroy Paris if royal family Was harmed.

62 The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the kings treason.

63 The September Massacres, 1792 Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. over 1000 killed! over 1000 killed! It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad. It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad.

64 Constitution put aside King deposed Assembly dissolved National Convention takes over King deposed Assembly dissolved National Convention takes over

65 The National Convention (September, 1792) Get rid of the monarchy Get rid of the monarchy The Year I of the French Republic. The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!

66 The Political Spectrum Jacobins Royalists 1790s: The Plain (swing votes) TODAY:

67 Jean-Paul Marat (1744 – 1793)

68 The Death of Marat by Jacques Louis David, 1793

69 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19 c [A Romantic View]

70 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793

71 Georges Jacques Danton Sans cullottes leader

72 Louis XVI as a Pig c For the Jacobins, the king was a traitor. c Some felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didnt want to execute the king [maybe exile him].

73 Louis XVIs Head (January 21, 1793) c Discovered a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. c They proved conclusively Louis knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. c The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.

74 The Death of Citizen Louis Capet So impure blood doesnt soil our land!

75 Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine

76 Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793

77 Attempts to Control the Growing Crisis eWeWeWeWar successful! Defeated the Aust and Prussia eBeBeBeBut Eng, Netherlands and Spain join eCeCeCeCommittee of Public Safety [CPS] eEeEeEeEmergency executive committee eteteteto oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis.

78 French Expansion:

79 Maximillian Robespierre (1758 – 1794)

80 Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals. Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.

81 Draft An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!

82 The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! c The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. c The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!

83 Different Social Classes Executed 28% 31% 25% 8% 7%

84 The Monster Guillotine The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939! The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

85 Political Propaganda

86 The Contrast: French Liberty / British Slavery

87 Religious Terror: De-Christianization ( ) The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices. Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices. Very popular among the sans-culottes. Very popular among the sans-culottes. Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic! Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!

88 A Republican Calendar

89 The New Republican Calendar Vendemaire(Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire(Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire(Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose(Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose(Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose(Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal(Budding)21 March-19 April Floreal(Flowers)20 April-19 May Prairial(Meadows)20 May-18 June Messidor(Harvest)19 June-18 July Thermidor(Heat)19 July-17 August Fructidor(Fruit) 18 August-21 September New NameMeaningTime Period VendemaireVintageSeptember 22 – October 21 BrumaireFogOctober 22 – November 20 FrimaireFrostNovember 21 – December 20 NivoseSnowDecember 21 – January 19 PluvioseRainJanuary 20 – February 18 VentoseWindFebruary 19 – March 20 GerminalBuddingMarch 21 – April 19 FlorealFlowersApril 20 – May 19 PrairialMeadowMay 20 – June 18 MessidorHarvestJune 19 – July 18 ThermidorHeatJuly 19 – August 17 FructidorFruitAugust 18 – September 21

90 A New Republican Calendar Year Vendemaire(Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire(Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire(Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose(Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose(Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose(Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal(Budding)21 March-19 April Floreal(Flowers)20 April-19 May Prairial(Meadows)20 May-18 June Messidor(Harvest)19 June-18 July Thermidor(Heat)19 July-17 August Fructidor(Fruit) 18 August-21 September I1792 – 1793 II1793 – 1794 III1794 – 1795 IV1795 – 1796 V1796 – 1797 VI1797 – 1798 VII1798 – 1799 VIII1799 – 1800 IX1800 – 1801 X1801 – 1802 XI1802 – 1803 XII1803 – 1804 XIII1804 – 1805 XIV1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806.

91 The Temple of Reason

92 The Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holiday

93 The Thermidorean Reaction, 1794 P July 26 Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS. he alienated members of the CPS. many felt threatened by his implications. many felt threatened by his implications. P July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre. P July 28 Robespierre is tried & guillotined!

94 The Arrest of Robespierre

95 The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children! Danton Awaits Execution, 1793 Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794.


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