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The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase: 1789-1792."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution "Bourgeois" Phase:

2 -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity… -- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

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4 Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI
The French Monarchy: Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

5 Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

6 Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

7 Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

8 Causes of the Fr Rev Long Term causes Breakdown of the old order
The 3 Estate system Class conflict Ideals of the Enlightenment Enlightenmetn ideas Success of American Revolution liberty equality and democracy

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10 Immediate Causes Money Taxes, taxes, taxes Weak leader Nearly bankrupt
Poorest classes pay for gov’t Inflation Taxes, taxes, taxes Weak leader

11 Socio-Economic Data, 1789 So…

12 The French Urban Poor

13 Financial Problems in France, 1789
Urban Commoner’s Budget: Food % Rent % Tithe % Taxes % Clothing 20% TOTAL 170% King’s Budget: Interest % Army % Versailles 25% Coronation 10% Loans % Admin % TOTAL % Economic decline Cost of living rose and taxes made it difficult for m/c to make a profit

14 French Budget, 1774

15 MORE PROBLEMS THE KING VS. THE NOBILITY
An ongoing struggle between the king and the nobility reached its peak in when the nobility refused to pay taxes. France was a bankrupt nation of rich nobles.

16 STILL MORE PROBLEMS THE KING VS. THE PEOPLE
The king was very out of touch with the common people. The peasants bore the burden of taxation for the French nation and many were suffering greatly.

17 Where is the tax money?

18 THE FRENCH FINANCIAL CRISIS OF THE 1780’S
NECKER’S (D-G ) REPORT OF 1781: If America would pay its war debts, France would have a surplus. 41% of the royal budget went to provide money for court favorites and royal pensions. THE NOBILITY HAS NECKER FIRED.

19 Ancien Regime Map, 1789

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21 Weak Leader Indecisive Madam Deficit

22 Popular Cartoon of the Plight of the Third Estate

23 Estates General called
Cahiers de doleances- list of grievances

24 The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates
Clergy 1st Estate 1 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 1 1 Commoners 3rd Estate Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.

25 The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!
Clergy 1st Estate 300 Aristocracy 2nd Estate 300 648 Commoners 3rd Estate

26 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes
1st What is the Third Estate? Everything! 2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing! 3rd What does it demand? To become something therein! Abbé Sieyès

27 Convening the Estates General May, 1789
Last time it was called into session was 1614!

28 “The Third Estate Awakens”
The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.” Sieyes’s idea to become a national assembly They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

29 “The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David
June 20, 1789

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31 Storming of the Bastile July 14
Rumors fly that L16 is going to attack the assembly so mob collects weapons to protect city Looking for gunpowder

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33 The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789)
Panic spreads to the countryside Destroyed legal papers- feudal dues Rumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

34 The Path of the “Great Fear”

35 Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution

36 March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789
A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread. Drag L16 back to Paris--- they never go to Versailles again We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!

37 The “October Days” (1789) The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.

38 Night Session of August 4, 1789
Before the night was over: The feudal regime in France had been abolished. All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices. Equality & Meritocracy!

39 National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791
Liberté! Egalité! Fraternité! August Decrees August 4-11, 1789 (A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)

40 The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.
The Tricolor (1789) The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. Citizen!

41 The Tricolor is the Fashion!

42 The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge

43 Revolutionary Playing Cards

44 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
August 26, 1789 Liberty! Property! Resistance to oppression! “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights!” All men are equal

45 Planting the Tree of Liberty
1790

46 Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in France
Brought terrible stories of revolution- great fear/ womens march etc Emigres fled France The conservative response to the French Revolution

47 Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)
Olympe de Gouges ( ) Women played a vital role in the Revolution. But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women. Yr later declared an enemy and executed. Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)

48 How to Finance the New Govt.? Confiscate Church Lands (1790)
One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

49 The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
July 12, 1790 Church officials and Priests paid by the State Significance? Peasants? Fr peasants truly devout - turned them off to revolution

50 New Relations Between Church & State
Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches. The church was reorganized: Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies. Bishops  named by the department assemblies. The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy. It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!! Pope Pius VI [ ]

51 The Royal Family Attempts to Flee
June, 1791 Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover]. Headed toward the Luxembourg border. The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border

52 Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791

53 The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government
The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years]. He could not pass laws. His ministers were responsible for their own actions. A permanent, elected, single chamber Legislative Assembly. Had the power to grant taxation. An independent judiciary.

54 The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government
“Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen. 1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise. Domestic servants were also excluded. Legis assm - create laws and declare war A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. GOAL  Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!

55 83 Revolutionary Departments
February 26, 1790

56 The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class
Small shopkeepers. Tradesmen. Artisans. They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!

57 Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.
The Sans-Culottes Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.

58 This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.
War! Wanted the king restored- Worried that Rev. would spread to their countries FRANCE AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.

59 French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie!
The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict. ½ of the officer corps had emigrated. Many men disserted. New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained. French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.

60 War … more By 1792 Prussia outside of Paris
Threatened to destroy Paris if royal family Was harmed.

61 The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792
This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the king’s treason.

62 The September Massacres, 1792
Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front. over 1000 killed! It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad.

63 Constitution put aside
King deposed Assembly dissolved National Convention takes over

64 The National Convention (September, 1792)
Get rid of the monarchy The Year I of the French Republic. The Decree of Fraternity it offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments. When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!

65 The Political Spectrum The Plain (swing votes)
TODAY: 1790s: The Plain (swing votes) Jacobins Royalists

66 Jean-Paul Marat (1744 – 1793)

67 “The Death of Marat” by Jacques Louis David, 1793

68 Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19c [A Romantic View]
The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday Paul Jacques Aimee Baudry, 19c [A Romantic View]

69 The Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, 1793

70 Georges Jacques Danton Sans cullottes leader

71 Louis XVI as a Pig For the Jacobins, the king was a traitor.
Some felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].

72 Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793)
Discovered a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents. They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention. The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.

73 The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet
So impure blood doesn’t soil our land!

74 Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine

75 Marie Antoinette Died in October, 1793

76 Attempts to Control the Growing Crisis
War successful! Defeated the Aust and Prussia But Eng, Netherlands and Spain join Committee of Public Safety [CPS] Emergency executive committee to oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis.

77 French Expansion:

78 Maximillian Robespierre (1758 – 1794)

79 Committee for Public Safety
Revolutionary Tribunals. 300,000 arrested. 16,000 – 50,000 executed.

80 An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers
Draft An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers An army based on merit, not birth!

81 Let terror be the order of the day!
The Reign of Terror Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- Robespierre Let terror be the order of the day! The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months. The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!

82 Different Social Classes Executed
7% 8% 28% 25% 31%

83 The “Monster” Guillotine
The last guillotine execution in France was in 1939!

84 Political Propaganda

85 The Contrast: “French Liberty / British Slavery”

86 Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793-1794)
The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution. Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices. Very popular among the sans-culottes. Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!

87 A Republican Calendar

88 The New Republican Calendar
Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September The New Republican Calendar New Name Meaning Time Period Vendemaire Vintage September 22 – October 21 Brumaire Fog October 22 – November 20 Frimaire Frost November 21 – December 20 Nivose Snow December 21 – January 19 Pluviose Rain January 20 – February 18 Ventose Wind February 19 – March 20 Germinal Budding March 21 – April 19 Floreal Flowers April 20 – May 19 Prairial Meadow May 20 – June 18 Messidor Harvest June 19 – July 18 Thermidor Heat July 19 – August 17 Fructidor Fruit August 18 – September 21

89 A New Republican Calendar Year
Vendemaire (Vintage) 22 September-21 October Brumaire (Fog) 22 October-20 November Frimaire (Frost) 21 November-20 December Nivose (Snow) 21 December-19 January Pluviose (Rain) 20 January-18 February Ventose (Wind) 19 February-20 March Germinal (Budding) 21 March-19 April Floreal (Flowers) 20 April-19 May Prairial (Meadows) 20 May-18 June Messidor (Harvest) 19 June-18 July Thermidor (Heat) 19 July-17 August Fructidor (Fruit) 18 August-21 September A New Republican Calendar Year I 1792 – 1793 II 1793 – 1794 III 1794 – 1795 IV 1795 – 1796 V 1796 – 1797 VI 1797 – 1798 VII 1798 – 1799 VIII 1799 – 1800 IX 1800 – 1801 X 1801 – 1802 XI 1802 – 1803 XII 1803 – 1804 XIII 1804 – 1805 XIV 1805 The Gregorian System returned in 1806.

90 The “Temple of Reason”

91 The Festival of Supreme Being
A new secular holiday

92 The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794
July 26  Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies. he alienated members of the CPS. many felt threatened by his implications. July 27  the Convention arrests Robespierre. July 28  Robespierre is tried & guillotined!

93 The Arrest of Robespierre

94 The Revolution Consumes Its Own Children!
Robespierre Lies Wounded Before the Revolutionary Tribunal that will order him to be guillotined, 1794. Danton Awaits Execution, 1793


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