2-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
8Causes of the Fr Rev Long Term causes Breakdown of the old order The 3 Estate systemClass conflictIdeals of the EnlightenmentEnlightenmetn ideasSuccess of American Revolutionliberty equality and democracy
13Financial Problems in France, 1789 Urban Commoner’s Budget:Food %Rent %Tithe %Taxes %Clothing 20%TOTAL 170%King’s Budget:Interest %Army %Versailles 25%Coronation 10%Loans %Admin %TOTAL %Economic declineCost of living rose andtaxes made it difficult for m/c to make a profit
18THE FRENCH FINANCIAL CRISIS OF THE 1780’S NECKER’S (D-G ) REPORT OF 1781:If America would pay its war debts, France would have a surplus.41% of the royal budget went to provide money for court favorites and royal pensions.THE NOBILITY HAS NECKER FIRED.
22Popular Cartoon of the Plight of the Third Estate
23Estates General called Cahiers de doleances- list of grievances
24The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates Clergy1st Estate1Aristocracy2nd Estate11Commoners3rd EstateLouis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.
25The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head! Clergy1st Estate300Aristocracy2nd Estate300648Commoners3rd Estate
26Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes 1st What is the Third Estate? Everything!2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!Abbé Sieyès
27Convening the Estates General May, 1789 Last time it was called into session was 1614!
28“The Third Estate Awakens” The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”Sieyes’s idea to become a national assemblyThey proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.
29“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David June 20, 1789
33The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789) Panic spreads to the countrysideDestroyed legal papers- feudal duesRumors that the feudal aristocracy were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.
36March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789 A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.Drag L16 back to Paris--- they never go to Versailles againWe want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!
37The “October Days” (1789)The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.
38Night Session of August 4, 1789 Before the night was over:The feudal regime in France had been abolished.All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.Equality & Meritocracy!
39National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791 Liberté!Egalité!Fraternité!August Decrees August 4-11, 1789(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)
40The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris. The Tricolor (1789)The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.Citizen!
46Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in France Brought terrible stories of revolution- great fear/ womens march etcEmigres fled FranceThe conservative response to the French Revolution
47Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791) Olympe de Gouges ( )Women played a vital role in the Revolution.But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.Yr later declared an enemy and executed.Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)
48How to Finance the New Govt.? Confiscate Church Lands (1790) One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.
49The Civil Constitution of the Clergy July 12, 1790Church officialsand Priests paid bythe StateSignificance?Peasants?Fr peasants truly devout - turned them off to revolution
50New Relations Between Church & State Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.The church was reorganized:Parish priests elected by the district assemblies.Bishops named by the department assemblies.The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!!Pope Pius VI [ ]
51The Royal Family Attempts to Flee June, 1791Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].Headed toward the Luxembourg border.The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border
52Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791
53The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].He could not pass laws.His ministers were responsible for their own actions.A permanent, elected, single chamber Legislative Assembly.Had the power to grant taxation.An independent judiciary.
54The French Constitution of 1791: A Bourgeois Government “Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.Domestic servants were also excluded.Legis assm - create laws and declare warA newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.GOAL Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!
56The Sans-Culottes: The Parisian Working Class Small shopkeepers.Tradesmen.Artisans.They shared many of the ideals of their middle class representatives in government!
57Depicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist. The Sans-CulottesDepicted as Savages by a British Cartoonist.
58This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly. War!Wanted the king restored-Worried that Rev. would spread to their countriesFRANCEAUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONTThis military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.
59French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie! The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.½ of the officer corps had emigrated.Many men disserted.New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained.French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.
60War … more By 1792 Prussia outside of Paris Threatened to destroy Paris if royal familyWas harmed.
61The Storming of the Tuilieres: August 9-10, 1792 This was triggered in part by the publication in Paris of the August 3 Brunswick Manifesto, which confirmed popular suspicions concerning the king’s treason.
62The September Massacres, 1792 Rumors that the anti-revolutionary political prisoners were plotting to break out & attack from the rear the armies defending France, while the Prussians attacked from the front.over 1000 killed!It discredited the Revolution among its remaining sympathizers abroad.
63Constitution put aside King deposedAssembly dissolvedNational Convention takes over
64The National Convention (September, 1792) Get rid of the monarchyThe Year I of the French Republic.The Decree of Fraternityit offered French assistance to any subject peoples who wished to overthrow their governments.When France sneezes, all of Europe catches cold!
65The Political Spectrum The Plain (swing votes) TODAY:1790s:The Plain (swing votes)JacobinsRoyalists
71Louis XVI as a Pig For the Jacobins, the king was a traitor. Some felt that the Revolution had gone far enough and didn’t want to execute the king [maybe exile him].
72Louis XVI’s Head (January 21, 1793) Discovered a secret cupboard in the Tuilieres of a cache of documents.They proved conclusively Louis’ knowledge and encouragement of foreign intervention.The National Convention voted 387 to 334 to execute the monarchs.
73The Death of “Citizen” Louis Capet So impure blood doesn’t soil our land!
76Attempts to Control the Growing Crisis War successful! Defeated the Aust and PrussiaBut Eng, Netherlands and Spain joinCommittee of Public Safety [CPS]Emergency executive committeeto oversee and speed up the work of the government during this crisis.
79Committee for Public Safety Revolutionary Tribunals.300,000 arrested.16,000 – 50,000 executed.
80An Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 Soldiers DraftAn Entire Nation at Arms! – 500,000 SoldiersAn army based on merit, not birth!
81Let terror be the order of the day! The Reign of TerrorTerror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe, inflexible. -- RobespierreLet terror be the order of the day!The Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris alone executed 2,639 victims in 15 months.The total number of victims nationwide was over 20,000!
85The Contrast: “French Liberty / British Slavery”
86Religious Terror: De-Christianization (1793-1794) The Catholic Church was linked with real or potential counter-revolution.Religion was associated with the Ancien Régime and superstitious practices.Very popular among the sans-culottes.Therefore, religion had no place in a rational, secular republic!
91The Festival of Supreme Being A new secular holiday
92The “Thermidorean Reaction,” 1794 July 26 Robespierre gives a speech illustrating new plots & conspiracies.he alienated members of the CPS.many felt threatened by his implications.July 27 the Convention arrests Robespierre.July 28 Robespierre is tried & guillotined!